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Professor of Latin in The Phillips Exeter Academy 


BARSS, Hotchkiss School. 90 cents. 

BAIN, South Carolina College. $1.10. 

THE LETTERS TO His WIFE. Edited by R. A. von 
MINCKAVITZ, De Witt Clinton High School, New York 
City. $1.25. 

A. L. HODGES, Wadleigh High School, New York 

Roxbury Latin School, and C. W. GLEASON, Volkmann 
School, Boston. 

Phillips Exeter Academy. 


(From the bust in the British Museum, London) 

Pacmtilatt's Hatin Series 

C A E S A R 











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(From the bust in the British Museum, London) 

ffiacmtllan's Hatitt 

C A E S A R 











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t , t e ' 



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Set up and electrotyped. Published September, 1909. 

J. S. Gushing Co. Berwick & Smith Co. 
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 



IN spite of the attempts which have been made to 
find a substitute, most students of Latin still read Caesar, 
and read him as their first Latin author. In the opinion 
of many teachers there are good reasons why this should 
be so. Caesar's style is direct, even if not particularly 
simple ; his story is interesting in itself, and especially 
interesting when put in its proper setting and made 
a part of the larger story of the development of Rome 
and of Europe ; his vocabulary is pure, concrete, and 
not excessively copious ; last but not least, he furnishes 
an admirable drill-book for training in syntax, that is 
to say in linguistic logic. To help the student avail 
himself as fully as possible of the advantages which the 
study of Caesar offers is the purpose of this book. 

The text is, in the main, Meusel's. It varies from 
his somewhat in the treatment of assimilation in com- 
pounds (Hale and Buck's grammar has been followed 
here) and in the spelling of certain words. Further- 
more, some passages regarded by Meusel as probably 
spurious have been retained, not to do too great violence 
to the traditional text. But aside from these variations 
this text differs from Meusel's in not more than three 
or four places. 

In the marking of hidden quantities Bennett's Latin 
Language has been followed in almost all cases, but 
the vowel before gn in dignus and its derivatives has 


been marked. Vowels standing before /-consonant 
have been marked, because there is no simple way of 
indicating the diphthongal sound which appears to have 
existed there, and because it was believed that a more 
nearly correct pronunciation would be secured by mark- 
ing them than by leaving them unmarked. For the 
quantity of vowels in Celtic names Holder has been 
the authority chiefly used. 

The notes on Book II have been made full and com- 
plete in themselves, that those teachers who so desire 
may begin with that book. The notes contain, of 
necessity, much grammatical explanation and many 
references to the grammars; but both notes and intro- 
duction aim to furnish material which may lead the 
student to appreciate the narrative as a piece of his- 
torical literature, important in itself and in its bearings. 
In the treatment of topography and military operations 
Holmes' s great works have been constantly consulted, 
as well as earlier authorities on the same subjects. A 
portion of the text has been edited for sight-reading, 
with brief foot-notes. 

Walde's Lateinisches Etymologisches Wb'rterbuch has 
been of great assistance in the preparation of the word- 
groups. These are not exhaustive, but are intended 
to assist the student in gaining a knowledge of Latin 
words. To further the same end, the words chosen by 
Professor Gonzalez Lodge as the ones to be learned 
by the time the student finishes the reading of Caesar 
have been marked with an asterisk in the vocabulary. 
I am greatly indebted to Professor Lodge for permission 
to use the list contained in his Vocabulary of High 
School Latin. The meanings of a few Celtic proper 


names have been given, but only the more important 
ones, or those that seemed to invite comparison with 
roots appearing in Latin words. 

The campaign-maps are on the same scale as the 
general map of Gaul, being, in fact, portions of the 
latter, with necessary additions. All modern names 
have been rigorously excluded from maps and battle- 
plans, in the belief that they tend only to confuse the 
young student. To compensate for this omission, a 
modern map has been added. This does not profess 
to be a complete map of the territory included in it, but 
is practically a copy of the ancient map, showing modern 
instead of ancient names, and generally only names 
mentioned in the introduction, notes, and vocabulary. 
It is hoped that it will enable the student to orient him- 
self as he reads, and gain an appreciation of the fact 
that Gaul was the country which is now France. 

So many people have helped me, either by actual 
assistance rendered or by encouragement, that it is 
impossible to mention them all by name. But I must 
acknowledge the kindness of Mr. St. George Stock in 
allowing me to make use of the material contained in 
the introduction to his edition of Caesar; of Professor 
Charles E. Bennett, who provided me with proof-sheets 
of his Latin Language in advance of its publication; 
of the officials of the Astor, Columbia, and Harvard 
libraries; of the late Mr. Richard A. von Minckwitz 
of the De Witt Clinton High School, Miss Anna Pearl 
MacVay of the Wadleigh High School, and Mr. 
William F. Abbot of the Worcester Classical High 
School, in reading and criticising the introduction; 
especially of Miss Caroline P. Townsend of the Worces- 


ter Classical High School, whose counsel and assist- 
ance have been freely placed at my disposal in the prep- 
aration of all parts of the work. Lastly, it is a pleasure 
to acknowledge my deep obligations to the editor-in- 
chief of this series, Professor John C. Kirtland, to whose 
accurate scholarship and cordial cooperation a great 
part of whatever merit the book may possess is due. 


July 20, 1909. 







BOOK I. The Geography of Gaul . . . -55 

The Helvetian War . . . . -55 

The Campaign against Ariovistus . . 72 

BOOK II. The War with the Belgae .... go 

BOOK III. Trouble in the Alps 109 

The Campaign against the Veneti and Other 

Maritime Tribes . . . . .112 
The Campaign in Aquitania . . .119 
A Short Campaign against the Morini and 

Menapii . . . " . . . .122 

BOOK IV. The War against the Usipetes and Tencteri, 

and Caesar 'j Passage of the Rhine . .124 
Caesar's First Expedition to Britain . .134 

BOOK V. Caesar's Second Expedition to Britain . . 145 
Uprisings in Northern Gaul . . .156 

BOOK VI. Operations tn Northern Gaul and the Second 

Passage of the Rhine . . . . . 174 
Gaul and Germany Described and Compared 179 




BOOK VI. The War tipon Ambiorix and the Eburoms 187 

BOOK VII. A General Uprising of Gaul . . . 199 

NOTES 255 







MAP OF GAUL (colored) Before . i 

MODERN MAP (colored) ..... Before 21 




A GALLIC SOLDIER . . . . . . . . 26 


* J. I^fJTi. O O^) 

GLADIUS AND VAGINA . . . . , . . .36 


VEXILLUM : . .39 


TUBA . . . -39 

LITUUS . 39 






PLUTEI. . . 47 



FALX .... Crt 

. ^o 








THE CAMPAIGN OF 58 B.C. (colored} . . . Facing 55 





THE DEFEAT OF THE HELVETII (colored} .... 70 



THE DEFEAT OF ARIOVISTUS (colored} .... 87 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 57 B.C. (colored} . . . Facing 91 

TESTUDO .......... 93 


THE BATTLE ON THE AXONA (colored} .... 95 



THE BATTLE ON THE SABIS (colored} 102 







ROMAN SHIPS , . 136 



THE CAMPAIGN OF 54 B.C. (colored) . . . Facing 145 





VERCINGETORIX . . . . . . . . .198 

A COIN OF VERCINGETORIX . . . .. . . .201 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 52 B.C. (colored} . . . Facing 203 
PLAN OF AVARICUM . . . . . . . 207 


A GALLIC WALL . . . . . . . . .214 


THE EXPEDITION OF LABIENUS (colored} .... 234 


^>- ^ Bratuspantiu 

Vellaunqflunuin \ 

* V \L C A E 

Longitude West 2" from Greenwich 0' 


Vo TBi 



THE history of Rome down to the Christian era is largely the importance, 
record of her struggles with the peoples whom she was bringing 
under her dominion. Of these the Gauls were the most formi- 
dable. At various times the fear of a Gallic war or, worse still, 
the stern reality engaged the skill and courage of the wisest 
statesmen and bravest generals of Rome. The struggle con- 
tinued for hundreds of years, with alternating periods of war 
and peace. The subjugation of the Transalpine Gauls by Cae- 
sar, an account of which is to be read in this book, was but the 
closing scene in a long and bloody drama. 

The story of the struggle resembles in many respects that of A parallel, 
the wars between the settlers of America and the American In- 
dians. The Gauls, like the Indians, were divided into tribes 
more or less independent of one another. In both cases lack 
of proper organization and of unity of purpose put the savage 
or partially civilized tribes at a disadvantage with their more 
civilized opponents. In both contests the attitude of those 
destined to become the conquerors was gradually changed from 
defense to open aggressiveness. In both stories the romantic 
element is very prominent, and it is not always easy to disen- 
tangle the truth from the interwoven, fiction. 

Wars in Cisalpine Gaul. The historian Livy tells us that at 
the time of Tarquinius Priscus, about the beginning of the sixth 
century before Christ, Transalpine Gaul, the country north and 
west of the Alps, was full to overflowing of a seething mass of 
B r 



humanity. By command of the aged king of the Bituriges, who 
Settlement of were then the leading people of the Celtae, 1 the surplus of six 
tribes, among them the Bituriges, the Arverni, and the Haedui, 
set out for other lands. Having crossed the Alps they came 
into northern Italy, where, in the fertile country between the 
mountains and the Eo, they formed settlements, with Mediola- 
num (Milan) for their chief town. Soon other tribes came, 
among them the Boii and Lingones, who crossed the Po and 
made settlements between that river and the Apennines. 

The Senones came later. They pushed farther south and 
attacked the town of Clusium in Etruria. Here three brothers 
named Fabius, who had been sent by the Roman senate to 
treat with the Gauls on behalf of Clusium, forgot their sacred 
character as ambassadors and fought with the Clusines against 
the Gauls. This breach of the law of nations highly exasper- 
ated the barbarians, and only the counsels of the older men 
prevented them from seeking immediate vengeance. Soon, 
however, when all negotiations failed, they marched for Rome. 
The Romans met them at the Allia, a small stream flowing into 
the Tiber a few miles north of the city, and suffered a complete 
defeat. Rome was captured and laid in ashes. The date of 
this event is usually given as 390 B.C. 

The main points of this narrative are very likely true, but 
the account is embellished in the pages of Livy with stories as 
plainly fabulous as those told of the battle of Lake Regillus. 
The legends of Camillus and of Brennus, of the aged nobles 
calmly sitting on their chairs of state awaiting death, of Marcus 
Manlius and the geese which by their cackling saved the Capi- 
tol may be read in most Roman histories and need not be 
given here. 

The capture of Rome was only a temporary reverse, and she 
soon recovered from its effects and continued her career of 
conquest. Gradually her power was extended and confirmed. 
The Senones at times gave trouble, but in 289 B.C. a colony 

B.C. i. I. 

Capture and 
burning of 


was planted in their territory, at Sena Gallica. This was the Roman coio- 
first Roman colony on Gallic soil. A few years later the Sen- es * n C 1 isal " 

plUG vaUi. 

ones were completely subdued and almost annihilated. Thus 
after more than a century the burning of Rome was avenged. 
Soon after this the Boii were defeated with great slaughter, 
and a colony was established fifty miles beyond Sena Gallica, at 

After the war with Pyrrhus, which made Rome mistress of 
southern Italy, and the First Panic War, which gave her com- 
mand of the sea and freed her temporarily from the fear of 
Carthage, the Romans turned their attention again to the Gauls. 
In 223 B.C. for the first time a Roman army crossed the Po. 
The following year the Romans defeated the Insubres and took Conquest of 
their chief city, Mediolanum. The consul Marcus Claudius the Insubres - 
Marcellus slew with his own hand the Insubrian chieftain and 
thus won the spolia opima. Two more colonies were founded, 
and Cisalpine Gaul began to be regarded as a dependency of 

In 218 B.C. Hannibal, with his Carthaginian army, started Second Punic 
from Spain to invade Italy. The Romans hoped that the Gauls War - 
might be induced to offer opposition to his progress, but in this 
they were disappointed. Some of the Transalpine Gauls did, 
it is true, come out in defense of their own homes ; but when 
Hannibal reached Cisalpine Gaul, he found many of the inhab- 
itants ready to rally around his standard. The defeat of Scipio 
on the Ticinus gave courage to those who wavered, and 
throughout the Hannibalian war Gauls were generally to be 
found fighting on the side of the Carthaginians. The conclusion 
of peace after the defeat, of Hannibal at Zama left the Romans 
free to chastise his allies in the north. This they did with com- 
pleteness, though the operation was protracted. By 191 B.C., 
however, the consul was able to boast that of the Boii he had 
left only old men and children alive. Thenceforth, beyond 
an occasional minor insurrection, there was quiet submission 
from the Gauls dwelling south of the Alps. 


Operations in Transalpine Gaul. Not until considerably 
later did the Romans carry war across the Alps. In the inter- 
val the Gallic name did not drop out of sight entirely, for even 
in Asia Minor Roman armies had to contend with Gauls. Up 
to the middle of the second century before Christ the relations 
between Rome and Transalpine Gaul seem to have been not 

Massiiia. Massilia (the modern Marseilles), in southern Gaul, was 

founded about six hundred years before the Christian era by 
Greeks from the Ionian city of Phocaea. They brought with 
them to their Gallic home Greek customs and letters. Other 
Greeks, too, settled along the coast of the Mediterranean, and 
hence a flavor -of Greek culture pervaded the life of this 
region and gradually spread into the interior. In 154 B.C. 
Massilia and two of her dependent cities found themselves 
threatened by neighboring Ligurian tribes. Massilia had been 
a steadfast friend of Rome, and in her distress she asked aid of 
the Romans. This was promptly granted, and an army was 
sent, which defeated the Ligurians and relieved the depend- 
encies of Massilia. It is rather surprising that a pretext had 
not been found before this for the invasion of Transalpine 
Gaul, for Spain had been subject to Rome for half a century, 
and the direct road to Spain led through southern Gaul. But 
in spite of this, Rome does not seem to have profited very 
much from this first victory. 

In 125 B.C. Massilia again asked help, which was again 

Roman coio- granted. In 122 B.C. the first Roman settlement in Transalpine 

nies m Trans- Q au \ was m ade at Aquae Sextiae (Aix). Roman armies defeated 
alpine Gaul. ^ 

the powerful Arverni and Allobroges, and in 118 B.C. the consul 

Quintus Marcius Rex extended the conquests of Rome so that 
the road through southern Gaul to the Pyrenees was completely 
opened. In the same year the important colony of Narbo 
Martius (Narbonne) was established. 

The Cimbri A strange, fierce enemy soon brought terror to Gauls and 
and Teuton!. R omans a iik e< Vast hordes of barbarians, the Cimbri and 


Teutoni, suddenly appeared on the very borders of civilization. 
The Cimbri are thought to have dwelt in Jutland, and it was 
said they had been driven from their home by an inundation. 
The Teutoni perhaps lived somewhat farther south. The 
Roman _consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo first met the barbarians 
in Noricum, in 113 B.C. He was defeated, and his army barely 
escaped annihilation. Later the Cimbri and Teutoni overran 
Gaul. 1 The people were shut up in their towns and compelled 
to sustain life by the most direful means. 2 The Belgae alone TheAtuatucL 
succeeded in protecting their own domains, though the barba- 
rians left among them their heavy belongings with a guard of 
six thousand men. These, Caesar tells us, 3 held their own 
against the surrounding peoples for many years ; but when the 
main forces of the Cimbri and Teutoni had been destroyed, 
they finally consented to lay down their arms and to join them- 
selves with the Belgae under the name Atuatuci. 

The . Romans were long unable to make headway against the 
Cimbri and Teutoni. Some of the tribes of Gaul joined 
forces with the invaders. The Helvetii were a rich, powerful, 
and peaceful tribe. Excited, however, by cupidity, two of 
their four cantons, the Tigurini and the Tougeni, took up arms 
in the hope of plunder. In 107 B.C. they defeated and killed Roman 
the Roman consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, slaughtered a con- 
siderable part of his army, and sent the rest under the yoke. In 
this battle was slain the legatits Lucius Piso, great-grandfather 
of Calpurnia, whom Caesar married just before entering upon 
the governorship of Gaul. 4 But a more fearful disaster was to 
come. In 105 B.C. the Cimbri and their allies defeated two 
Roman armies, killing, it is said, eighty thousand soldiers and 
half as many camp-followers. Great was the alarm at Rome. 

Gaius Marius was now the idol of the Roman people. He GaiusMarius. 
was rough and uncouth, but had displayed great qualities as a 
strategist and a fighter. He had just vanquished Jugurtha, and 
the people insisted on making him consul for 104 B.C., to end 

a Cf.AC.i. 33. 2 Cf. B. G. 7. 77. 8^.6.2.29. 4 Cf. B.C. i. 7 and 12. 


the war against the Cimbri and Teutoni. These, however, in- 
stead of invading Italy, turned aside to Spain, where they re- 
mained two years. Marius was reflected for 103 B.C., and 
again for 102. In the latter year the barbarians returned from 
Spain. Marius was on the watch for them, and at Aquae 
Sextiae met the Teutoni as they passed through southern Gaul, 
inflicting a crushing defeat upon them. But the Cimbri 
reached Cisalpine Gaul by another route. In 101 B.C. Marius, 
consul for the fifth time, and Quintus Lutatius Catulus gained a 
complete victory over them at Vercellae. 1 

From this time on there was comparative peace in Gaul for 

many years. The war with Sertorius in Spain affected Gaul 

somewhat, but Pompey allayed all disaffection. In 63 B.C., at 

Envoys of the the time of the conspiracy of Catiline, envoys of the Allobroges 

Allobroges in were at R ome seeking redress for official abuses in their own 

land. The conspirators tried to involve them in the conspiracy, 

but without success. It was through them that Cicero obtained 
the final proofs convicting Lentulus and other associates of 
Catiline. A grateful senate thanked the envoys but did not 
correct the abuses. The Allobroges rose in revolt. Though 

they were subdued, they long remained restive. 2 


Extent of RO- Gaul just before Caesar's Governorship. Roman power about 

man power in 6o B>c> exten ded to Lake Geneva, and from the Rhone to the 


Gaul. Alps. Farther west it covered the southern coast of Gaul and the 

country for a considerable distance inland. The simple name 

provincia (modern Provence) is used by Caesar to designate this 

province. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul seems sometimes 

to have had jurisdiction over the Transalpine province also. 

TWO factions Outside the province there had long been two factions in 

in aui. Gaul. 3 The leading place in oqe was held by the Haedui, and 

the Sequani and Arverni led the other. The Haedui and Sequani 

dwelt on opposite sides of the Arar (Saone) and quarreled with 

each other for the control of the river and the tolls of the traffic 

1 Cf. B. G. I. 40. 2 Cf. B.C. i. 6 and 44. 3 Cf. B.G. I. 31 and 6. 12. 


upon it. The Haedui were allies of the Roman people, and 
were strong from their military valor and numerous depend- 
encies. When the Arverni and Sequani were unable to hold 
their own against the Haedui, they invited the Suebi to come 
across the Rhine from Germany to assist them. 1 At first only 
a few came, but soon others followed, until there were in Gaul 
a hundred and twenty thousand Germans. Ariovistus, king 
and general- in-chief of the allies, defeated the Haedui at Mage- The Haedui 

tobriga, probably in the year 60 B.C. He compelled the aefeated/>y 
' r J J r Ariovistus. 

Haedui to swear never to ask aid of the Roman people. The 

druid Diviciacus, who alone did not suffer himself to be bound 
by this oath, went to Rome to ask aid, but without success. 
Ariovistus proved a hard master to the Sequani, whom he had 
come to assist. They were first deprived of a third of their lands, 
and afterwards another third was demanded. If the Romans 
had not finally interfered, all Gaul might have become Ger- 
manized, with results impossible to calculate. 

In the year 61 B.C. the Helvetii, a large tribe inhabiting a The Helvetia 

district having nearly the boundaries of modern Switzerland, prepare to 

. migrate, 

determined to migrate from home and settle in the southwestern 

part of Gaul. 2 The smallness of their country was the reason 
assigned, and the coming of so many Germans into Gaul no 
doubt was another reason for their determination. The de- 
parture was set for the spring of 58 B.C., and the intervening 
time was to be spent in preparation. Alarming reports of the 
threatening danger reached Rome. A new Gallic war was 
feared, but the successes of Ariovistus calmed this fear to some 
extent. As yet, the peril from the presence of the German 
hordes in Gaul was thought to be distinctly less than that from 
some great movement of the Gauls themselves. In spite of 
the alliance between the Haedui and Rome, Caesar during his 
consulship, in 59 B.C., caused the senate to address Ariovistus 
as "king and friend." 3 In this year by the Lex Vatinia the p^ t " d a ^ v . 
Roman people gave Caesar, as proconsul, the provinces of emorofGaui 
1 Cf. B.C. i. 31. 2 Cf . BmGm I 2> 3 C f. B.C. i. 35. ' - 


Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricura and granted him an army of 
three legions. To this the senate added Transalpine Gaul and 
a fourth legion. 


Birth, The First Period. Julius Caesar (Gains lulius Caesar) was 

loo [102 j . . k onlj accorc ii n g to the common account, July 12, 100 B.C., 
though some put the date two years earlier. He was of a noble 
family, several members of which, but not his father or grand- 
father, had held the consulship. The name lulius was sup- 
posed to be derived from that of the son of Aeneas, lulus, who 
was the reputed founder of the Julian house. Thus the lineage 

Family. of the family was traced back to the gods ; for Aeneas was the 

son of Venus, /and grandson of Jove. Through his father's 
mother Caesar claimed descent from King Ancus. 

The family, though noble, was allied with the democracy. 
Marius, who conquered Jugurtha and the Cimbri and Teutoni, 
and who, though he became seven times consul, was yet a man 
of the people, had married the sister of Caesar's father. Thus 
connected with the populares, the party of the people, as well 
as with the optimates, the party of the aristocracy or senatorial 
nobility, Caesar favored the former. His uncle Marius became 
his model, though he tried to avoid the coarseness and brutality 
which disfigured the life of the other. By his words in the 
fortieth chapter of the first book of the Gallic War he seems 
to suggest a comparison between himself and his uncle. 

Youth and Caesar's youth was passed in troublous times. The Social 

early \y ar an ^ tne first Civil War early inured him to the sight and 


thought of bloodshed. Little is known of his boyhood. He 
lost his father at an early age, and much of his training was in 
the hands of his mother. He probably studied with the best 
teachers to be had at Rome. The name of one is given, 
Gnipho, a native of Cisalpine Gaul, who was a grammarian and 
rhetorician of repute. 


In 87 B.C., when Caesar was only thirteen (or fifteen, if we namen Diaiis, 
accept the earlier date for his birth), Marius caused him to be 87 ' c ' 
appointed flamen Diaiis, or priest of Jupiter. This position 
gave dignity, but little else. The next year Marius died. Sulla 
was now the leader of the optimates. After the death of Marius 
this party gained the ascendancy, and Sulla made Caesar an 
object of persecution. In 83 B.C. the latter married Cornelia, 
the daughter of Cinna, who had been a friend of Marius and 
his colleague in the consulship. Sulla ordered him to divorce his Persecuted 
wife. Pompey obeyed a similar order, but Caesar refused to b y Sulla - 
obey, and preferred to be outlawed and to lose priesthood and 
possessions. For some time he wandered a fugitive among the 
Sabine mountains. Sulla finally yielded to entreaty and par- 
doned him, remarking at the same time that the youth would 
one day be the ruin of the optimates, for there was many a 
Marius in him. 

Caesar saw some military service in Asia, and in 80 B.C. First miii- 
won a 'civic crown' of oak leaves by saving the life of a tary service - 
Roman citizen. Two years later he returned to Rome. Sulla 
was dead, and no doubt Caesar expected, in the party strife 
likely to follow, a favorable opportunity to enter public life. 
None appearing, he adopted a common device for attracting 
public notice. He brought against Gnaeus JDolabella, who 
had governed Macedonia as proconsul, a charge of extortion 
in his province, in a speech which was greatly admired, though 
the influence of the optimates was sufficient to secure the 
acquittal of the accused. A hint from the optimates that his 
absence from Rome for a time would be desirable perhaps 
strengthened in Caesar's mind, if it did not actually awaken, a 
desire to study oratory abroad under a great teacher, Molo of Foreign 
Rhodes. On the way to Rhodes, so the story goes, he was 
captured by pirates and held until a ransom should be paid. 
He was very friendly with the pirates, informing them, how- 
ever, that when liberated he should return and crucify them 
all. The pirates enjoyed the joke hugely, but Caesar kept his 



Beginning of 
career, 68 B.C. 

65 B.C. 

of Catiline, 
63 B.C. 


word. During his absence from Rome he raised troops, though 
he held no military commission, and succeeded in maintaining 
the authority of Rome in certain cities of Asia Minor which 
Mithridates was trying to win over. 

Having returned to Rome, Caesar was military tribune in 
74 B.C. In 68 B.C. he was one of the quaestors, or state 
treasurers. During this year his wife, Cornelia, and his aunt 
Julia, widow of Marius, died, and he pronounced funeral 
orations over both. Afterwards his duties as quaestor took 
him to Farther Spain. In 65 B.C. he was aedile. The aediles 
had charge of the public buildings and superintendence of 
public games and festivals. The state granted to them for 
expenses a certain sum of money, to -which they themselves 
usually added large amounts. By his unprecedented lavish- 
ness of expenditure Caesar completely won the favor of the 
masses. He exhibited so many gladiators in the games that 
the senate through fear set a limit to the number of slaves 
which .might be thus employed. Caesar left the aedileship 
owing enormous sums of money. 

In 63 B.C. occurred the conspiracy of Catiline. Lucius 
Sergius Catilina, represented by Roman writers as a brave but 


totally unprincipled man, had planned with others to massacre 
the leaders of the optimates, pillage Rome, and seize the 
government. The plot was thwarted by Cicero, who had the 
previous year defeated Catiline in his candidacy for the consul- 
ship. Caesar was thought by many to have been implicated 
in this conspiracy, and some modern scholars have even be- 
lieved that Catiline was a mere tool in his hands. The truth 
cannot now be known, but Cicero, in his fourth oration against 
Catiline, manifests considerable anxiety to gain the good will of 
Caesar, evidently feeling that he is a man to be reckoned with. 
In this year Caesar was elected pontifex maximus, official 
head of the state religion, in spite of the utmost efforts of the 
optimates to elect their candidate. This election quieted for a 
time his creditors. He held the priesthood as long as he lived. 


In 62 B.C. Caesar was praetor. The next year he was Praetor, 
governor of Farther Spain, where he gained some military 62BiC - 
successes and accumulated a large amount of money, which 
enabled him to pay his debts. In the following year he be- 
came a candidate for the consulship. The most prominent 
man in Rome at this time was Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey). 
Recent successful military operations in Asia had given him 
unbounded popularity, and although he had adhered to the 
aristocratic party during the struggle between Marius and Sulla, 
he had for some time been coquetting with the populares. 
Crassus was the wealthiest man in Rome. He had political 
ambitions, and was in close relations with Caesar, to whom he 
had lent money. These three men formed a political league, 
generally known in history as the First Triumvirate. Each The First 
of the three no doubt expected to use the others for his own ad- Trium -viratt 

60 B.C. 

vantage, but the sequel showed the prestige of Pompey and 
the wealth of Crassus unequally matched against the brains of 

Caesar was consul in 59 B.C. Supported by the influence consul, 
of Pompey and Crassus, he conducted affairs with vigor and 59B - C - 
ability, securing the passage of some really excellent laws. He 
received, as proconsul, according to custom, a provincial gov- Appointed 
ernorship. His province included Cisalpine Gaul, Transalpine sovernor 

01 (jcLlU. 

Gaul, and Illyricum, and the appointment was for five years. 
The friendship between Pompey and Caesar was strengthened 
by the marriage of Caesar's daughter Julia to Pompey. Caesar, 
whose second wife had been divorced by him, married Cal- 
purnia, daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso, one of the consuls 
of the year 58 B.C. 

The governorship of Gaul afforded Caesar the opportunity Anadvan- 
which he wished. The province was near enough to Rome to 
allow him to keep in close touch with the political life of the 
capital, especially since he usually spent his winters in Cisalpine 
Gaul and Illyricum. Transalpine Gaul gave him a field for 
military action, allowed him to train an army, and furnished 


him the money which he needed to further his ambitions. 
It is altogether probable that Caesar conceived at the outset 
the intention of conquering that portion of Gaul which still 
remained free, and that he hoped and expected to become 
the first power in the Roman world ; but it is by no means 
certain, perhaps is improbable, that he then aimed at the 
subversion of the republican constitution and the overthrow 
of the power of the senate which he afterwards accomplished. 

The Period of the Gallic War. Caesar spent the first three 
58 B.C. months of the year 58 B.C. near Rome. There were prepara- 

tions to be made. Besides, he had to defend himself against 
charges of maladministration in his consulship, the usual lot of 
an ex-consul. Meanwhile disquieting rumors came to Rome. 
It was reported that the Helvetii were to assemble March 28 
at the bank of the Rhone, to begin the migration for which 
they had been preparing. Caesar recognized that" this move- 
ment must be stopped, and accordingly he started for his 
province, arriving on the farther side of the Alps in April. 
Soon after he was in Geneva and saw how matters stood. 
By midsummer he had checked the migration, killing, accord- 
ing to his own story, more than two thirds of the Helvetii and 
their allies, and compelling the rest to return to the lands 
from which they had come. He then turned his attention to 
Ariovistus and the Germans, who were in Gaul ostensibly for 
the purpose of protecting certain Gallic states against others. 
By the end of the campaign of this year he had freed Gaul 
from the German invaders. 

In 57 B.C. an uprising took place among the Belgae, who 
dwelt in the northern part of Gaul. They felt sure that Cae- 
sar's coming boded no good to themselves, or to Gaul in gen- 
eral. Caesar defeated them in two pitched battles and several 
smaller engagements and broke their military prestige. During 
B. G. HI, 1-6. the winter of 57-56 B.C. Servius Galba, who was quartered with 
a part of the army among the tribes near the Alps, was at- 


tacked by the natives, and, though he extricated himself, yet 
thought it better to move his winter quarters into a more . 
friendly region. 

In the spring of 56 B.C. Caesar met Pompey and Crassus 56 B.C. 
at Luca in Etruria. It was agreed that at the expiration of 
Caesar's term as governor his command should be extended for 
five years more. He would then again be eligible to the con- 
sulship. Pompey and Crassus were to hold the consulship in 
55 B.C., and then to receive five-year terms as governors of 
provinces, Crassus in Syria and Pompey in Spain. After this 
conference Caesar went back to his province and conducted a 
successful naval campaign against some of the tribes of the 5.6.111,7-29 
western coast. Labienus, Caesar's legatus, held in check the 
Belgae ; Sabinus, another legatus, defeated the Venelli and 
allied tribes ; while Publius Crassus, son of *the triumvir, who 
was serving with Caesar, received the submission of the greater 
part of Aquitania. 

In the year 55 B.C. the Usipetes and Tencteri, German 55 B.C., 
tribes, crossed the Rhine and established themselves on the B - G - IV - 
Gallic side of the river. It was contrary to Caesar's policy 
to allow them to remain there, and so he marched against 
them. He had no great difficulty in defeating them, and 
determined to follow up his advantage by crossing the Rhine. 
Accordingly he built a bridge over the river and led his army 
across. He did not remain long, however, but returned after 
ravaging the country. Though summer was well advanced, he 
then crossed over into Britain. His purpose in so doing was 
to reconnoiter the country and, if time permitted, to punish 
the Britons, who had repeatedly aided the Gauls in their con- 
flicts with the Romans. Only the first part of his purpose was 
accomplished, but the knowledge gained proved useful in the 
following year. 

The earlier part of the year 154 B.C. was devoted to a second 54 BC 

B P V 

expedition to Britain. Caesar crossed the channel with five 
legions and half of his cavalry. A storm destroyed a part of 


I his ships, which were lying at anchor, so that he thought it 

I . best to beach those which were left. He then proceeded 

'I towards the interior of the island and crossed the River 


Thames. After some fighting, and partial submission on the 
part of the Britons, the Romans returned to Gaul. The legions 
were placed in several camps for the winter. The division 
under command of Sabinus and Cotta was attacked by the 
Eburones under Ambiorix and practically annihilated. An- 
other division, commanded by Quintus Cicero, brother of the 
orator, was also attacked, but defended itself heroically until 
it was relieved by Caesar's arrival. 

53 B.C., At the opening of 53 B.C. the situation in Gaul was threaten- 

B. G. vi. - n g^ -pj^ B e ig ae were disaffected and were intriguing with the 

Germans. Caesar ravaged the country of the Nervii. His 
great purpose this year was to take vengeance on the Eburones 
and Ambiorix for their acts of the previous year. Ambiorix 
contrived to elude him, but the Eburones were destroyed. 
Labienus defeated the Treveri, and Caesar, to frighten the 
Germans who had assisted the Treveri, crossed the Rhine a 
second time. 

52 B.C., The next year, 5 2 B.C., saw the culmination of the war. The 

B. G. vii. Roman government was thrown into confusion early in the year 
by the murder of Clodius, a disreputable leader of the popular 
party and the bitter enemy of Cicero. The Gauls thought this 
a favorable opportunity to strike a supreme blow for liberty. 
A leader arose in Vercingetorix, who, had he appeared at an 
earlier period in the war, might have rendered more difficult, 
if not impossible, the task of subjugation which Caesar carried 
through. "The seventh book is a tragedy, with the revolt of 
Gaul for its subject and for its hero Vercingetorix." The Gauls 
planned to prevent Caesar from joining his army, which could 
thus be more easily dealt with ; but Caesar, as usual, was too 
quick for them. He traveled secretly from Cisalpine Gaul and 
arrived before his enemies were aware of his approach. Now 
began the great final struggle. With the exception of the 


peoples of Aquitania, barely three or four tribes in all Gaul held 
aloof from the movement. The struggle ended at Alesia ; the 
gallant leader surrendered, and Gaul was Caesar's. 

The next two years, 51 and 50 B.C., were spent in calming 
minor disturbances and conquering the few tribes which still fi - G - vm - 
held out. By the capture of Uxellodunum the conquest of the 
country was completed. 

The Period of the Civil War. The compact of Luca had 
been all but carried out. Crassus had gone to his province in 
54 B.C. and had been killed there. Pompey governed Spain 
through a deputy, remaining himself near Rome. The con- Relations of 

trol of the Roman world lay in the hands of Caesar and Pom- Caesa * and 

J Pompey. 

pey. Between these two, of whom a writer has said that Caesar 
could not brook a superior, Pompey an equal, a breach was 
sure to come. Pompey was becoming jealous of Caesar's 
great popularity and influence, and was being led to identify 
himself more and more with the senatorial, or aristocratic, 
party. The death, in 54 B.C., of Caesar's daughter Julia, wife 
of Pompey, to whom both her husband and her father were 
devotedly attached, severed a strong bond of union between 
the two men. 

An event which served to hasten the rupture occurred in 
52 B.C. This was the murder of Clodius, mentioned above. 
Owing to the bitterness of feeling which led to this murder, 
and which was raised to a high pitch after it, the capital was 
rilled for a time with anarchy and tumult. Order was not 
restored until the appointment of Pompey as consul without 
colleague. This appointment marked the end of Pompey's 
nominal alliance with the popular party and the beginning of 
his real alliance with the senatorial party. The senate, though 
corrupt, was yet the guardian of the constitution, and was 
determined to curb the growing power of Caesar and prevent, 
if possible, the fulfilment of his further ambitions. Pompey 
had a supreme confidence that his military renown and present 



The imme- 
diate causes 
of the war. 

The senate's 

The begin- 
ning of the 
49 B.C. 

power would prove an overmatch for Caesar's strength and 
reputation resulting from the Gallic War. 

Caesar knew that if he were to become a private citizen, 
he would quickly be put at the mercy of his enemies. While 
in office, he could not be impeached, but many were lying in 
wait to attack him the moment the shield of official position 
should be removed. Accordingly he wished to become a 
candidate for the consulship of 48 B.C., since his term of office 
as governor of Gaul would expire in 49 B.C. This had, indeed, 
been a part of the program arranged at Luca. But he could 
not legally become a candidate unless actually in Rome, nor 
could he legally come to Rome so long as he retained the gov- 
ernorship. Caesar's enemies insisted on the strict application 
of the laws to his case, while he wished to be elected to the 
consulship in his absence. The senate tried by various ex- 
pedients to shorten his term of office and weaken his army. 
Caesar proposed concessions, even offering to resign his com- 
mand if Pompey would do the same. This Pompey refused 
to do. Finally the senate voted that Caesar should disband 
his army before a certain day, 1 or be regarded a public enemy. 
The consuls were invested with dictatorial power, and Pompey 
was placed in command of the senatorial army. 

War thus became inevitable. Caesar crossed the Rubicon, 
which formed the boundary line between his province and 
Italy, and marched southward. City after city surrendered 
to him as he advanced. Pompey fell back to Brundisium, 
whither Caesar followed him. Pompey then abandoned 
Italy and crossed over to Greece. This left Caesar master of 
Rome and Italy less than three months after the beginning of 
the war. But though he commanded Italy, Pompey was 
in Greece and a powerful army under Pompey's generals 
held Spain. Sicily, Sardinia, and Africa were also occupied 

1 Whether Caesar's term was legally to expire March i, 49 B.C., or was 
to continue to the end of the year, he had counted on remaining in office 
until the beginning of 48. 


by adherents of the senatorial party. Sending some of his 
generals against these, Caesar himself set out for Spain. On 
the way, as Massilia refused to submit to him, he laid siege 
to the town. Not being immediately successful, he left a force 
to continue the siege and proceeded to Spain. In a little 
more than a month he defeated the Pompeians there, and 
returning through Gaul found Massilia just on the point of sur- 
rendering. After its surrender he returned to Rome and 
assumed the office of dictator, to which he had been appointed Dictator, 
in his absence. He laid down this office after eleven days, 
but not before he had caused some important laws to be 
passed, and had held an election in which he was chosen for 
the consulship of the next year. 

He now turned his attention to Pompey, who was still in 
Greece and had greatly enlarged his army by recruits from 
Greece and the East. After a vigorous campaign of more 
than six months he defeated this army in the decisive battle 
of Pharsaius, in August, 48 B.C. Pompey in despair crossed Pharsaius, 
over into Egypt, where he asked the protection of Ptolemy, 48 B.C. 
the king ; but he was treacherously murdered by order of the Murder of 
king's advisers. Caesar is said to have shed tears on learning pom P e 7- 
of the death of his rival. 

After Pompey's death Caesar became involved in wars in 
Egypt and Asia Minor. When these had been successfully 
finished, he returned to Rome, but soon set out for Africa, 
where there was still a senatorial army. In April, 46 B.C., he 
defeated this army in the battle of Thapsus, and all northern Thapsus, 
Africa submitted to his authority. He returned to Rome again 46B - C - 
and celebrated magnificent triumphs, though not for his victo- 
ries over Roman citizens. The half- forgotten Gallic hero Ver- 
cingetorix was dragged from the Roman dungeon where he had 
lain for six years, led in Caesar's triumphal procession, and then 
solemnly beheaded at the foot of the Capitol as a warning to Execution 
'traitors.' Public thanksgivings of unprecedented length were 
decreed, and honors of all sorts were showered upon the con- 




Dictator for 
ten years. 

45 B.C. 


queror. He seemed to win all hearts by his clemency. He 
was created dictator for ten years (afterwards for life) and 
made guardian of the public morals. He was already pontifex 
maxim us, and in these several capacities he made many whole- 
some laws and reforms, one of the most important being the 
reform of the calendar, which had come to vary greatly from 
the solar year. In commemoration of this reform the name 
July (inensis Julius) was given to the month Quinctilis, in which 
he was born, and the calendar established by him, slightly 
changed, is the one we still use. 

In 45 B.C. fighting was resumed, this time in Spain, but after 
a vigorous campaign the final victory was won at Munda, and 
Caesar was master of the Roman world. .He was now hardly 
past the prime of life, and could apparently look forward to 
many years of power. The senate conferred upon him the title 
imperator (military head of the state), which was to be held 
for life and was probably intended to be hereditary. This made 
him practically the first of a line of monarchs, though lacking 
the title of king. Probably this title too would have been given 
him but for the deep hatred which the Romans had for the 
kingly name. But he was hailed as pater patriae, and his por- 
trait was placed on Roman coins. As head of the state he 
took to himself the prerogatives, if not the name, of royalty. 
He maintained a splendid court, and undertook to reward his 
friends and adherents in right princely fashion. He planned 
great public works, such as the establishment of a library and 
the digging of a canal through the isthmus of Corinth. More 
and greater than this, he began to make extensive and far- 
reaching changes in the Roman constitution, looking toward 
the reorganization of the government of the whole empire. 

Not all Romans were content with things as they were and 
with the prospects for the future. There were men who looked 
with disfavor on the honors and power conferred upon Caesar. 
As early as the beginning of 44 B.C. a conspiracy was begun, 
which had for its object the killing of the 'tyrant' and the res- 


toration of the republic. Some of the conspirators were actu- 
ated by patriotic motives, while others were Caesar's personal 
enemies. The assassination took place on the Ides of March, Death, 
as planned, but the reestablishment of the republic was impos- . March J 5 

44 " , \j j. 

sible. Caesar's death plunged the state into anarchy and 
confusion, from which it was not rescued until his successor 
Augustus was firmly established upon the imperial throne. 

Caesar, the Man. For details regarding Caesar's personal Physical 

appearance we have to depend on the gossip of later writers, 
since none of the many existing statues and busts is known to 
have been taken from life, or to represent the man as he actu- 
ally was. Suetonius says that he was tall and slender, with a 
fair complexion and bright, black eyes. His health was gener- 
ally good, and he was capable of great endurance. He seemed 
never to feel fatigue, and could travel night and day, sleeping 
in his carriage. Late in life, however, he became subject to 
epilepsy. He was very fastidious in dress, and received with 
delight the honor bestowed by the senate in authorizing him to 
wear in public a crown of bay, because thereby he could hide 
his growing baldness. 

Caesar was a man of remarkable mental strength and Moral 
unbounded confidence in himself and in his destiny. Ambition Qualities. 
was his ruling passion, and to that everything else was subordi- 
nate. He seems to have been by nature kind-hearted and 
generous, and he boasts of his clemency ; yet his cruelties in his 
Gallic campaigns are appalling. He tells of them himself, how- 
ever, apparently with perfect frankness. In the Civil War and 
afterward his forbearance toward the vanquished was politic 
and most admirable. In the use of money he was lavish and 
altogether unscrupulous. Bribery, direct and indirect, was one 
of his chief methods of attracting support, at least in his earlier 
career. But no one was more faithful to a friend than he, and 
he had warm friends in all ranks of life. The soldiers of his 
army were devoted to him. So were many of his personal 




De Bella 

friends ; yet some of his greatest troubles, and at last his death, 
came from the treachery of men in whose friendship he had 

Caesar's ability manifested itself in everything which he under- 
took, and in many different ways. Though in early life he had 
comparatively little military experience, yet after the age of 
forty he became one of the world's greatest generals. His en- 
gineering works were worthy of one bred to the life of an engi- 
neer. As an orator the Romans ranked him second to Cicero 
only. As a writer he cultivated the fields of poetry, history, sci- 
ence, philosophy, and all of them with success. His work as a 
statesman gave definite shape to the subsequent history of Rome, 
and through her strongly influenced the destinies of mankind. 

Caesar's Commentaries. Besides some fragments, the only 
writings of Caesar which have been preserved, to us are the 
Commentaries on the Gallic War and the Commentaries on the 
Civil War. The style of these is direct and, for the most part, 
clear. The work on the Civil War is in three books, with con- 
tinuations in three books by other hands. 

Caesar's account of the Gallic War is in seven books, to 
which an eighth was added by another writer, probably Hirtius, 
one of Caesar's officers. The events are narrated by years, each 
year usually occupying a book. Caesar speaks of himself in 
the third person. The general trustworthiness of the account 
seems fairly well established, though Caesar represents his own 
motives in the most favorable light, and very likely sometimes 
suppresses troublesome facts. Minor discrepancies between 
different parts of the work are no doubt due to haste of compo- 
sition, or to the fact that the different parts were composed at 
different times. Some mistakes may be due to corruptions 
which crept in while the text was transmitted in handwritten 
copies during the centuries before the invention of printing. 

The Commentaries on the Gallic War give us many curious 
facts about the world outside of Rome. Almost our earliest 

oa . 

/ Mont Bquvray / 

Longitude "West 2 from Greenwich 



T E R 


ie East from Greenwich 8 

* MAP 

Rouen Beauvais Berif-au-Bac 

Longitude "West 2 from Greenwich 

4 Longitude East 



jittide East G from Greenwich 8 





trustworthy information regarding Britain, Germany, and Gaul Interest and 
comes from them. Caesar was a close observer; though he 
was sometimes imposed upon by false information, yet modern 
investigation verifies many of his seemingly improbable state- 
ments. These lands were to the Romans the home of the wild, 
the strange, and the impossible, and far more extravagant stories 

than Caesar tells would readily 
have been believed of them. 
Caesar himself was the ex- 
plorer, conqueror, and histo- 
rian of this strange world. A 
halo of romance crowns the 
hero who carries his country's 
arms into an unknown land, 

far more than him whose deeds are done in the plain sight of his 
countrymen. Moreover, Caesar's deeds in Gaul were by no 
means insignificant in themselves. In ten years, according to 
Plutarch, he took more than eight hundred towns, conquered 
three hundred tribes, and fought with three millions of men, 
killing one million and capturing another. Besides, he freed 
Rome from a fear which had haunted her for centuries, and 
opened a new world to the Romans for colonization and 



Gaul. Gaul in Caesar's time included Gallia Cisalpina Divisions 
('Gaul this side the Alps,' i.e. northern Italy) and Gallia ofGaul - 
Transalpine!, ('Gaul across the Alps'). Gallia Cisalpina was 
also called Gallia Citerior ('Hither Gaul'). It came to be 
regarded as an integral part of Italy, and Caesar sometimes 
says Italia when he refers to Cisalpine Gaul. 1 Gallia Transal- 

1 E.g. B. G. i. 10. 




pina, or Gallia Ulterior ('Farther Gaul'), included modern 
France, the most of Switzerland, Germany west of the Rhine, 
Belgium, and a part of Holland. The Roman province (Gallia 
provincia, sometimes called simply provincia) occupied the 
southeastern part of this region. The rest of Transalpine 
Gaul was divided, Caesar tells us, 1 into three parts, inhabited 
respectively by the Belgae, the Aquitani, and the Celtae, or 
Galli proper. Caesar sometimes uses' the name Gallia to 
designate the division inhabited by the Celtae ; elsewhere by 
Gallia he generally means Transalpine Gaul exclusive of the 

The soil of Gaul was fertile, producing cereals and timber, Soil, climate 
and supporting large numbers of cattle and swine. The climate P roductlons - 
seems to have been somewhat colder than that of the same 
regions to-day, though the valley of the Rhone closely resem- 
bled Italy in climate and products. Minerals gold, silver, 
iron, and copper were found in different parts of the coun- 
try, and the Aquitani especially were skilled in mining and 

Caesar's division of the inhabitants of Gaul into Belgae, inhabitants. 
Aquitani, and Celtae, though not strictly scientific, is con- 
venient for understanding his narrative of the Gallic War. In 
reality no one of these peoples was homogeneous. Modern 
researches show that each included more than one race, or 
type. A part of the Aquitani seem to have been akin to the Aquitani. 
Iberians of Spain; but along with them dwelt another race, 
very likely belonging to the Ligurian stock, which we know 
inhabited other parts of southern Gaul. The relation between 
these two races and the modern Basques, who dwell among the 
Pyrenees, has not been determined with certainty. 

In sharp contrast to the Aquitani stood the Belgae and Belgae and 
Celtae. The Aquitani were a small, dark people. The Gauls, Celtae> 
or Celts, are represented by ancient writers as tall and large, 
with fair complexion, red or yellowish hair, and fierce blue 

1 E.G. i. i. 



and mode 
of life. 

eyes. Long before Caesar's time a people having these char- 
acteristics had invaded and conquered Gaul with the exception 
of Aquitania. The mixture, or partial amalgamation, of these 
invaders with the aboriginal race or races of central Gaul con- 
stituted Caesar's Celtae. The invaders of the north may have 
differed slightly from those farther south, though essentially the 
same race. These northern invaders were the Belgae, who 
were perhaps more or less mixed with Germans. According 
to a statement reported by Caesar as made to him by Belgian 
chiefs, the most of the Belgae were of German origin. 1 

Caesar speaks of a difference in language between the Belgae 
and the Celtae, but this difference was probably only slight. 
The languages of both belonged, of course, to the Celtic family, 
living members of which are still found in Ireland, Scotland, 
Wales, and elsewhere. The languages of the Celtic group 
closely resemble those of the Italic group, of which Latin is one. 
Of the Celtic of Caesar's time no texts are preserved, but there 
are numerous proper names and a few other words. The lan- 
guage of the Belgae may have had some German admixture. 

The Gauls were a lively race, fond of boasting, curious, quick 
to learn, quarrelsome among themselves, but generous and 
sympathetic. Caesar often speaks of their changeableness. 
They were prone to excess in eating and drinking. They loved 
to deck themselves out with golden ornaments. Their ordi- 
nary clothing consisted of a woolen shirt or tunic, trousers, 
and a colored cloak, probably somewhat like a Scottish plaid. 
Their houses were generally of timber or wattlework, round, and 
covered with thatch. They had some skill in mechanic arts, 
such as bridge-building and other kinds of engineering. They 
had passed so far from the barbarian stage that they even had 
a crude literature, art, and philosophy of their own. The Celtae 
were more civilized than the Belgae. The Aquitani were com- 
paratively unimportant, and less is known of them than of the 
other Gauls. 

* B.G. 2. 4. 


The Gauls were brave in battle. The Belgae especially had Military 
great repute among the other Gauls for military prowess, be- , spirit - 
cause they alone had successfully resisted the invasion of the 
Cimbri and Teutoni. 1 The Gauls were full of fiery impetuosity, 
but lacked endurance, and hence were at a disadvantage with 
the smaller and more wiry Romans. Their weapons were huge 


swords and lances, and they made comparatively little use of 
defensive armor. Cavalry formed a large part of their fighting 
strength. The time had been when they carried their arms 
across the Rhine into Germany, but in the first century before 
Christ the tide of invasion was running the other way. There 
had been a marked decline of martial spirit, due partly to the 
corrupting influences coming from the Roman province. The 

1 Cf. B. G. 2. 4. 



Greek culture which at an early period pervaded southern Gaul 
from Massilia and the other Greek settlements had been par- 
tially replaced by a vicious sort of Roman culture. 

The population of Gaul was very numerous. Napoleon III Population, 
estimated that in Caesar's time the country had more than seven 
million inhabitants. They were divided into many tribes, 
sixty, according to one authority, over three hundred, accord- 
ing to another. The apparent discrepancy is due to the fact 
that some tribes were subdivided, and the name of a large tribe 
often covered smaller dependent tribes. 

There was no national unity, though some of the larger Political 
tribes exercised a virtual sovereignty over others. Each tribe C(mditl<m - 
seems earlier to have had its king and its council of elders, 
which Caesar calls a senate ; but at the time of which Caesar 
writes most tribes had deposed their kings and were governed 
by elective magistrates. The government was, however, oligar- 
chical rather than democratic, and the deposed kings or their 
descendants always stood ready to seize any opportunity of re- 
covering the throne. Hence the states were rent continually 
by party spirit. Caesar often found this circumstance favorable 
to his own purposes, since by espousing the cause of one party 
he could use it in gaining control of the state. 

Caesar speaks of three classes among the Gauls, the druids, Classes, 
the knights, and the common people. 1 The last were of small 
account politically, being in general little better than serfs. 
The knights, equites, formed a military class, a kind of order of 
nobility. The druids had charge of religious matters. 

Of the religion, druidism, not much is known in detail.' A Druidism. 
long and severe course of training, sometimes lasting twenty 
years, was required of those who would become druids. 2 A 
great part of the training consisted in committing to memory 
verses containing the ethical and theological precepts of the 
religion. The druids taught the doctrine of the immortality of 
the soul and its passage from one body to another. Magic 
1 B.C. 6. 13. 2 Cf. B.C. 6. 13 and 14. 


and human sacrifices formed a part of their ritual. The power 
of the druids, even in temporal matters, was very great. They 
acted as judges, and their decisions, enforced by the prestige 
of religion, were almost universally obeyed. In the determin- 
ing of political movements, too, it was natural that their influ- 
ence should be strong. Caesar found the help of the druid 
Diviciacus of great value to him, but more often, no doubt, 
druidical influences worked against the Romans. In fact, in 
this state religion rested the germ which under more favorable 
conditions might have developed into a form of national unity. 

We learn from other writers that there were three orders of 
druids : the minstrels, who celebrated in verse the heroes of 
the race ; the diviners, whose function it was to penetrate into 
the future and to interpret the mysteries of nature ; the druids 
proper, who busied themselves with the higher philosophy and 
ethics of their religion. The strong arm of the Roman gov- 
ernment diminished the power of the druids, changed many 
features of druidism, and put an end to human sacrifice. Yet 
traces and reminders of old forms and ceremonies long re- 
mained, and perhaps have never wholly disappeared. 

The story of Caesar's conquest of Gaul must have had for his 

countrymen an interest very similar to that the Spaniards felt, 

and we still feel, in reading of the conquest of Mexico by Cortez 

Effects of or that of Peru by Pizarro. The effects of the conquest of 

Caesar's Gaul were far greater than those of these latter-day con- 
!{; conquest. 
i; quests. It formed a step in the Romanization of southern and 

I western Europe, which had already begun. After Caesar's time 

j Transalpine Gaul remained generally peaceful. From 27 B.C. 

I it embraced four provinces: the southern part, Gallia Narbo- 

I nensis ; the central part, Gallia Ltigdunensis ; the northern and 

i northeastern part, Belgica ; the southwestern part, as far north 

\ as the Loire, Aquitania. Gradually Latin became the language 

I of the country. As the power of Rome became firmly fixed 


i and Roman settlers arrived in great numbers, Roman forms of 

i local government, Roman art, science, and literature became 


established. New cities were founded, and those already exist- 
ing were more or less completely transformed. Military roads 
traversed the country, and bridges spanned the streams. Aque- 
ducts, arches, and temples were built on Roman models. 
Later, when Christianity became the religion of Rome, it ex- 
tended itself to Gaul as well as to other parts of the Roman 
world. As time passed on, the Latin language developed 
into French, and mingled Gauls and Romans became the 
French people. Though France is still Gallic in many of its 
habits and ways of thinking, it is essentially a ' Latin nation.' 

Britain. To the early Greeks and Romans the existence 
of Britain was unknown. Even down to Caesar's time little 
was known of it except its name and, rather vaguely, its situa- 
tion. Caesar is the first ancient writer who gives us any defi- 
nite information regarding the land and its people. 

Some of the inhabitants of Britain were Celts, but there were The people 
also non-Celtic inhabitants. The Britons were rather less civi- of 
lized than the Gauls, and the tribes of the interior and the 
north were nearer a savage state than those of the southern 
coast. They practised a rude kind of agriculture, and knew 
something of boat-building and navigation. Mining was car- 
ried on, and tin was one of the principal articles of export. 
The chief fighting strength of the country lay in men trained 
to use war-chariots. The Britons dyed their bodies with woad, 
which produced a blue color, making them more fear-inspiring 
in battle and taking to some extent the place of clothing. The 
country was thickly populated, and the houses were similar to 
those of Gaul. Caesar tells us that the ' towns ' of the Britons 
were mere walled spaces in the forest, into which they were 
accustomed to betake themselves to escape the invading en- 
emy. 1 The morals of the people were in a rather primitive 
state, and cannibalism is said to have been not unknown. 
The religion of the country was druidism, and here, as in 

1 B.C. 5. 21. 


Gaul, druids played a prominent part in the life of the people. 
The Gauls believed that druidism had been brought to their 
country from Britain. 1 

Caesar's expeditions to Britain were barren of immediate 
results. Not until a century later did the Romans again in- 
vade the island. They finally succeeded in conquering the 
greater part of it, and the country remained a Roman province 
for about four hundred years ; but Roman influence was never 
so strong in Britain as in Gaul, and when it was removed, its 
effects in large measure disappeared from the life of the people. 

Germany. Germany lay just across the Rhine from Gaul. 

Its boundaries towards the east were to the Romans altogether 

The indefinite. In earlier times no distinction had been made by 

Germanic Greek and Roman writers between the Gauls and the Germans. 


In Caesar's time the German was regarded as a kind of exag- 
gerated Gaul, being bigger, fiercer, and more warlike than the 
latter. In reality the Germanic race and language differed much 
from the Celtic, though they had a certain kinship with each other. 

German Some of the Germans had advanced beyond barbarism, and 

civilization p rac ti s ed agriculture and the raising of cattle. Private owner- 
and customs. c 

ship of land was, however, unknown, and Caesar tells us that 

none were allowed to dwell longer than one year in the same 
place. 2 The Germans lived largely on milk and the flesh of 
cattle, and were clothed chiefly in garments made of skins. 
They were a virtuous and a hospitable people, but given to 
excess in eating and drinking. They were brave in battle and, 
like the Gauls, relied on the effect of a fierce attack. A dis- 
tinctive feature of their military organization was their system 
of mingling cavalry and infantry. Caesar speaks with admira- 
tion of this system, 3 and made some use of it in his own army. 4 
Political The Germans were divided into tribes, some of them having 

condition. kj n g s or princes. Local authority was administered in districts 

iCf. B.C. 6. 13. * E.G. 1.48. 

2 B. G. 4. i and 6. 22. 4 Cf. B. G.-J.IT, and 65. 


(pagt) by local magistrates. The germs of democratic govern- 
ment may be traced in a council of chiefs and. a council of the 

According to Caesar, the religion of the Germans was not Religion, 
druidism. He says that they worshiped only such divinities 
as could be apprehended by the senses, or those from which 
they received aid, as the Sun, Fire, the Moon. 1 According to 
Tacitus and other writers, the Germans were a very religious 
people and their priests were very powerful. 


The Army. The original Roman army was the legion Theiegiw 
(legio), consisting, according to tradition, of three thousand 
men. As the power of Rome increased, the number of her 
soldiers increased, and the army came to be made up of sev- 
eral legions. 

The constitution of the legion in Caesar's time appears in 
the following table : 

2 centuries = i maniple (jnanipulits). 

3 maniples = i cohort (cohors). 
10 cohorts = i legion. 

The century (centuria., ordo) ought by the derivation of the The centi 
word (centum, 'hundred') to have contained 100 men. That 
was the original number, and may have been looked upon as 
the normal number. Thus the legion would contain 6000 men. 
But Caesar's legions were smaller than this. They appear 
seldom to have numbered more than 4000 men, often less. 
Perhaps we may estimate the average century at 60 men. 

The regular commander of an army in Italy was one of the 
consuls. The governor of a province naturally would command 

1 E.G. 6. 21. 


the army in that province. As possessor of the imperium, the 
imperator. specially conferred authority to command, the commander of 
an army was imperator ; but it was not customary, perhaps not 
strictly legal, for him to assume that title as a mark of honor 
until after an important victory. After his defeat of the 
Helvetii Caesar was regularly styled imperator. Only the 
commander-in-chief could be imperator. He wore a purple 
cloak called paludamentum. 

Next in rank to the governor, though a civil, not a military 
Quaestor. officer, was the quaestor. Several quaestores were elected each 
year at Rome, and each governor of a province was accompanied 
by one of them. The quaestor had charge of the finances of 
the province and army, discharging the duties of a treasurer 
and a quarter master- general. Caesar occasionally assigned his 
quaestor to a military command. 

Legati. The military officers next to the general were called legati. 

Legatits is commonly translated ' lieutenant,' but the legates were 
very different from lieutenants in modern armies. They were 
assistants to the general, a sort of staff, and might be assigned 
to specific duties, to the command of a legion or of a number 
of legions, but had no independent authority. The legates were 
often men ^considerable military ability and experience. The 
number which a general might have was fixed by the senate, 
which also had the appointment of -them, though usually the 
wishes of the general himself were respected in the appoint- 
ment. In the latter part of the Gallic War Caesar had. ten 
legates. Several of these gained distinction in the field. 
Labienus was the most able and trusted of all, though he 
abandoned Caesar when the latter declared war against 
the senate. Quintus Cicero, brother of the orator, Lucius 
Aurunculeius Cotta, and others are mentioned by Caesar w^h 
commendation. Caesar apparently originated the custom of 
assigning a legate to each legion, at first merely as his personal 
representative, but later as commander of the legion. The 
legates were regularly of senatorial rank. 

(From the statue in the Palazzo dei Conservator!, Rome) 

3 2 


the army in that province. As possessor of the imperium, the 
tmperator. specially conferred authority to command, the commander of 
an army was impcrator ; but it was not customary, perhaps not 
strictly legal, for him to assume that title as a mark of honor 
until after an important victory. After his defeat of the 
Helvetii Caesar was regularly styled imperator. Only the 
commander-in-chief could be impcrator. He wore a purple 
cloak called paliidamcntum. 

Next in rank to the governor, though a civil, not a military 
Quaestor. officer, was the quaestor. Several quacstorcs were elected each 
year at Rome, and each governor of a province was accompanied 
by one of them. The quaestor had charge of the finances of 
the province and army, discharging the duties of a treasurer 
and a quartermaster-general. Caesar occasionally assigned his 
quaestor to a military command. 

Legati. The military officers next to the general were called legati. 

Lcgatus is commonly translated ' lieutenant,' but the legates were 
very different from lieutenants in modern armies. They were 
assistants to the general, a sort of staff, and might be assigned 
to specific duties, to the command of a legion or of a number 
of legions, but had no independent authority. The legates were 
often men oPconsiderable military ability and experience. The 
number which a general might have was fixed by the senate, 
which also had the appointment of them, though usually the 
wishes of the general himself were respected in the appoint- 
ment. In the latter part of the Gallic War Caesar had ten 
legates. Several of these gained distinction in the field. 
Labienus was the most able and trusted of all, though he 
abandoned Caesar when the latter declared war against 
the senate. Quintus Cicero, brother of the orator, Lucius 
Aurunculeius Cotta. and others are mentioned by Caesar wjjth 
commendation. Caesar apparently originated the custom of 
assigning a legate to each legion, at first merely as his personal 
representative, but later as commander of the legion. The 
legates were regularly of senatorial rank. 

(From the statue in the Palazzo dei Conservator!, Rome) 


The tribunes of the soldiers (tribuni milituni) seem usually 
to have been of equestrian rank. They were appointed in part m ' litum - 
by the general, in part by the people. Appointments were 
often made for political reasons, reasons of friendship, and the 
like. A general might pay a delicate compliment to his cred- 
itor, and incidentally perhaps secure an extension of credit, by 
giving a tribuneship to the creditor's son. Hence many trib- 
unes proved, of no great service in war, and in times of actual 
danger some were worse than useless. 1 Each legion had six 
tribunes. They looked after arms and equipments ; they pre- 
sided over trials for military offenses ; they saw to the selection 
of suitable places for camps and. to the building of these ; they 
formed a medium of communication between the general and 
his soldiers ; sometimes they commanded cohorts or groups of 
cohorts. In earlier times the tribunes had more power, but as 
appointments came to depend on politics or favoritism, their 
more important duties were transferred to the legates. 

Of great importance from a military point of view were the The 
centurions (centuriones). These were soldiers who had especially centtiri011 ' 
distinguished themselves and therefore had been selected for 
command. Strength and stature were required in a centurion, 
bravery and sobriety, as well as skill in fighting and ability to 
enforce discipline. Each maniple, containing two centuries, 
had two centurions. Of these, one ranked higher than the 
other and in effect commanded the entire maniple. In case 
of his death or disability the maniple still had a commander in 
the person of the other centurion. 

Appointment to a centurionship was a reward of merit, and Promotion of 
centurions were advanced according to a regular system of centurions - 
promotion. What the system was is uncertain ; but just as 
soldiers passed from lower to higher cohorts until they reached 
the first cohort, which thus contained the best troops in the 
legion, so centurions passed in some order from lower to higher 
cohorts, and from lower to higher maniples within the cohort. 

iCf. E.G. i. 39. 




Primi ordines. 



The legion- 
ary soldier. 



Clothing- and 

The six centurions of the first cohort probably constituted the 
primi ordines, or centuriones primorum ordinum, frequently 
mentioned. The first centurion of the first maniple of this 
cohort was called primipilus, and he sometimes virtually com- 
manded the legion in action. With the position of primipilus 
the promotion of the centurion regularly ended. He was not 
fitted by birth or education for the positions of tribune and 

The praefecti did not belong to any of the foregoing classes 
of officers. The term is sometimes loosely used to denote sub- 
ordinate officers appointed to special commands. By Caesar it 
is generally applied to the officers of the auxiliary troops or of 
the cavalry. 

The regular soldier (miles legionarius) was always a Roman 
citizen, though Caesar enrolled in his armies some who did not 
become citizens until after enlistment. In early times soldiers 
were enrolled for short periods or for special emergencies. 
Later, military service came to be regarded as a special trade 
or occupation. Twenty years was set as the limit of service, 
though this term was often exceeded under the empire. After 
the expiration of his term a soldier sometimes reentered the 
service as an evocatus on the invitation of the general. Evo- 
cati had many privileges and immunities, being generally ex- 
empt from all duties except actual fighting. 

The training of the Roman soldier was severe. .He was 
obliged to become as proficient in the use of his ax and shovel 
as in that of his sword and javelin. The simpler building and 
engineering tools were familiar to him. Though serving on 
foot, he could at a pinch acquit himself creditably on horse- 
back. This versatility, controlled by a considerable rigidity of 
discipline, made Roman legions a match for armies much supe- 
rior to them in numbers and composed of soldiers surpassing 
in both size and strength their Roman opponents. 

The soldier wore a coarse, sleeveless tunic, and had a 
woolen cloak (sagum} to protect him from cold and wet. On 



his feet were heavy sandals (caligae) . Breeches were worn in 

{the first century after Christ, but 
probably not in Caesar's time. The 
lorica, a jacket made in early times 
of leather, afterwards of iron rings 
like a coat of mail, protected the 
soldier's body. He probably wore a 
metal greave (pcred) on his right shin. 
His head was protected in battle by a 
helmet (ga/ea) of leather strengthened 
with metal, and provided with a device 
(insigne) which could easily be put on 
when battle was about to begin. The 
shield (scutum) was made of wood, 
and was generally rectangular, but with 
a slightly cylindrical curvature. It 
was covered with leather or with iron 
plates and strengthened with iron at 
top and bottom. At the middle of 
the outside surface was an iron boss 
(iimbo) which made the shield stronger 
and served to turn aside blows fall- 
ing upon it. The soldier's offensive 
weapons were javelin and sword. The 
javelin {pilum) had a round or square 
wooden shaft four to four and one 
half feet long, with an iron head and 
neck projecting two feet or more 
beyond the shaft. The neck was of 
soft iron, so that it bent easily, render- 
ing the weapon useless for a return 
throw. The weight of this weapon 
PILA was considerable. The sword (gladius) 

was short and pointed, and was used chiefly for stabbing, 
though it had two cutting edges. It hung usually at the right 



Fay and 

side, suspended by a leather strap (balteus) passing over the 
left shoulder. 

Shortly before the Civil War Caesar raised the pay of his 
soldiers to 225 denarii (about $40) per year. Previously 
it had been about half this sum. From the soldier's pay 
was deducted the cost of rations, clothing, and equipments. 
The ration was four modii (about a bushel) of grain (frumen- 
tuni) per month. The grain was usually wheat, sometimes bar- 
ley. It was ground in a hand-mill and either baked into bread 
or boiled into a sort of paste by the soldier himself. Other ar- 
ticles could be obtained by foraging, and luxuries could be 


N..'.x_^s-./ fvX 


purchased of traders following the army. Prices were low, and 
the soldier, if he chose, could no doubt save a considerable 
part of his pay. Gifts and plunder increased his remuneration, 
and when his term of service expired, a soldier usually received 
a grant of land or money, or both. The pay of a centurion 
was double that of a common soldier. 

On his arrival in Transalpine Gaul Caesar found there one 
legion. Three others were wintering at Aquileia in the nearer 
province. These four were numbered VII, VIII, IX, and X. 
He brought the three from Aquileia and levied two more, XI 
and XII, in Cisalpine Gaul. After the campaigns of the first 
year he levied two more legions, XIII and XIV. These eight 
legions made up his army until 54 B.C., when probably x another 
legion, XV, was enrolled. In the winter of this year one legion 

1 See notes on E.G. 5. 24. 


and five cohorts were annihilated, and five cohorts were prob- 
ably used to fill gaps in the remaining legions. The legion 
entirely destroyed appears to have been XV, and the ten co- 
horts to have formed XIV. After this disaster Caesar borrowed 
a legion from Pompey and raised two others. The new ofres 
were no doubt numbered XIV and XV; the borrowed legion 
was numbered I in Pompey's army, but was very likely iden- 
tical with Caesar's VI, mentioned by the author of the eighth 
book. Thus in the last years of the war Caesar had ten legions 
(eleven, if I and VI were not the same). 


Besides the legions, the army contained auxiliary troops and Auxiliary 
cavalry. The auxiliaries (auxilia, alarii) were mostly Gauls, tro< 
some furnished by allied Gallic states, others raised by the gen- 
eral himself in the province. They were light-armed troops carry- 
ing a small, round shield (parma) instead of the scutum. Caesar 
had also mercenary troops skilled in the use of special weapons, 
as bowmen from Crete and slingers from the Balearic Isles. 
The cavalry (equitatus, equites] was composed mostly of Gauls, 
with some Spanish and German mercenaries. Caesar had 
sometimes as many as 5000 horsemen. They appear to have 
worn on their heads regularly a metal helmet (cassis), instead 


of the ga/ea, and they carried one or more light spears (hastae). 
Like the light-armed infantry, they carried parmae. They 
were organized in turmae, each turma containing about thirty 
men. Smaller divisions were decuriae, of ten men each, com- 
manded by decuriones. The senior decurion commanded the 
whole turma. In the eighth book Gaius Volusenus Quadratus 
is called praefectus equitum, meaning perhaps ' commander-in- 
chief of the cavalry.' But the term praefectus equitum was 
usually applied to the commander of an ala, which consisted 
of ten or twelve turmae. The commander-in-chief of the cav- 
alry was usually a Roman, 1 but many of the subordinate officers 
were natives. Caesar regularly dismissed a part of his cavalry 
in the fall, to reassemble in the spring. 

There were numerous non-combatants in the army, servants 

combatants. (c a i ones ^^ drivers, etc. Traders (inercatores) followed the 
army to buy the booty and to sell to the soldiers articles not 
provided by the military authorities. A corps of smiths, car- 
penters, and engineers distinct from the legions seems not to 
have existed in Caesar's army. 

Signa. The standard (signuni) of the legion was an eagle, usually of 

silver, mounted on a staff. It was in charge of the primipilus, 
but was usually carried by a soldier specially appointed for the 
purpose (aquilifer). Other sigria were of various shapes. A 
favorite device was the representation of a human hand. 
Often streamers, metallic decorations, or small 1 banners were 
added. The bearers of these signa were called signiferi. The 
maniple had a signum, but there seems, at least in Caesar's 
army, to have been no separate standard for the cohort. The 
standard of the first maniple of the cohort probably served as 
a standard for the whole cohort. When the army was en- 
camped, the signa were kept in a special place, and were 
objects of veneration, almost of worship, to the soldiers. The 
loss of a signum in battle was a great disgrace as well as a 
misfortune. The importance of the standard is indicated by 

J Cf. B.C. i. 52. 



the numerous phrases in which signum occurs : for example, 

signa inferre (' advance to the attack '), signa constiticere 
(' halt '), signa convertere (' wheel '), a signis 
discedere ('leave the ranks'). 

The vexillum was a flag, or banner. The rais- Vexiiia. 
ing of a red vexillum at the general's tent was the 
signal to arm for battle. Small bodies of troops 
sent on an expedition followed a vexillum, and 
vexilla were used by auxiliaries and cavalry. 
Sometimes a vexillum was used which had 
the general's name inscribed on it in purple 

As in modern times, signals were given by Music, 
wind-instruments of brass. There were several 
kinds of these instruments. The horn (cormi) 
was curved, the trumpet (tuba) straight. They 
signaled the advance or the retreat. The bucina 
was curved, and was' used especially to signal 
the change of watches (pigiliae). The litieus, 

straight, but with a crook at the end, gave shrill notes for 

cavalry signals. 





4 o 


Length of 

Order of 



The crossing 
of rivers. 

The Army on the March. The march ordinarily began early 
in the morning and ended shortly after noon. A regular day's 
march was about fifteen miles, but in an emergency an army could 
accomplish double that distance. Forced marches (inagna iti- 
nerd) are often mentioned by Caesar. He tells us 1 that his usual 
marching column was formed with legions and baggage alter- 
nating. In the vicinity of an enemy this order was changed ; 2 
several legions marched in front, then the baggage of the whole 
army followed, and a strong guard brought up the rear. Over 
short distances, when approaching the enemy, the army was 
sometimes led in battle array. The army on the march was 
technically called agmen, when drawn up in battle array acies. 
The rear of the marching column was called novissimum agmen, 
the van primum agmen. Cavalry or light-armed infantry were 
often sent On in advance to reconnoiter. 

The heavy baggage (impedimenta) was carried on wagons or 
by pack-animals. It consisted of tents, artillery (tormenta), 
and articles not belonging to the soldier's personal baggage. 
The term impedimenta also included the means of transporta- 
tion, animals and wagons, and is occasionally used as equivalent 
to 'beasts of burden.' 3 The soldiers' packs (sarcinae) were 
usually carried suspended from forked sticks. A pack some- 
times weighed fifty or sixty pounds. Besides armor, arms, and 
clothing, the soldier carried his own rations, his hatchet and 
spade, his cooking-utensils, one or more stakes (valli) for the 
fortification of the camp, and numerous smaller articles. The 
soldier with his pack was said to be impeditus. When he laid it 
down for the battle, or when he was marching without it, as 
sometimes happened in the immediate vicinity of the enemy, 
he was said to be expedites. 

Rivers not more than four or five feet deep could be forded. 
Deeper rivers were usually bridged. Caesar twice bridged the 
Rhine, and his bridges, if not perfect models, seem to have 
served admirably the purpose for which they were built. 
1 B.C. 2. 17. 2 Cf. B.C. 2. 19. 3 E.g. B.C. 7. 45. 


The Camp. When the march of the army began in the 
morning, a detachment was sent in advance to select a suitable 
place (locum idoneum castris deligere] and lay out a camp 
(castra metari). When the army arrived at the spot selected, 
usually about noon or somewhat later, the soldiers proceeded 


at once to the work of fortification (castra munire). The place 
desired was a gently rising slope in the vicinity of water, fuel, 
and fodder. The camp faced down the slope, and its rear was 
usually on the summit or near it. 

The shape of the camp was necessarily somewhat dependent Form of the 
on the nature of the ground, but the usual form was oblong or cam P- 
square. Two lines extending through the camp and intersect- 
ing each other at right angles gave, where they crossed the 


walls, the four principal gates of the camp. The front gate, 
in the middle of the wall facing the enemy, was the porta 
praetoria; the one opposite, the porta decumana. On the 
right and left as one faced the porta praetoria were the porta 
prindpalis dextra and the porta principalis sinistra. These 



were connected by a street 100 feet wide, via prindpalis. 
There were other streets, broad and narrow. A street started 
from the porta praetoria in the direction of \heporta decumana, 
but it was interrupted by the praetorium. 

ri^rior ar- The praetorium, the general's headquarters, was near the 
rear of the camp, and close by were an altar and the sug-> 
gestus, a platform or mound from which the general addressed 
his soldiers assembled in the forum. Around the wall, on the 
inside, a space of two hundred feet was left clear, that there 

of the camp. 



might be room for necessary movements of troops within the 
camp, and that missiles from without might not reach the 
soldiers in their tents. The tents (tabernacula) were usually 
of leather or skins (pelles}. Ten soldiers occupied a tent to- 
gether, constituting a mess (contuberniuni) . The details of 
arrangement of Caesar's camps are unknown, but the accom- 
panying illustration probably represents them approximately. 

The fortifications of the camp consisted of a rampart Fortifica- 
(vallum, agger) and a trench (fossa} outside the wall. Accord- tion of the 
ing to a late Roman writer the normal width of the trench was 
twelve feet, and the depth nine feet. This, if correct in the 
main, was of course constantly varied. Caesar often gives one 
dimension of his trenches, without specifying which one. In 
these cases width at the top is meant. The depth was less im- 
portant, and probably bore a fixed ratio to the width. These 
trenches were not ordinarily filled with water. The earth re- 
moved in excavation was used in building the rampart. This 
was often strengthened by sods on the outside, and by logs or 
brushwood imbedded in the rampart itself. Obviously the size 
of the rampart would vary with the depth and width of the 
trench. No doubt it was usually at least six feet in height. 
The top was made flat, and wide enough to give firm footing 
for a row of soldiers. Often a parapet (lorica) of stakes (valli) 
was placed along the outer edge, to serve as a protection for 
the soldiers in case of an attack upon the camp. Wooden 
towers were sometimes built at intervals along the wall and 
connected by gangways or bridges (pontes). The gates were 
protected by earthworks so built that those entering must 
expose their right sides, which were unprotected by shields, to 
the defenders. Winter camps (Jiiberna) differed from summer Winter 
camps chiefly in being more strongly fortified and in having uarters - 
wooden barracks in place of tents. 1 

Pickets (stationes) were thrown forward outside the gates in Guards, 
sufficient numbers to provide against surprise. Sometimes 

1 Cf. B. G. 3. 29. 



the picket consisted of a single cohort and some cavalry. In 
times of great danger this force was largely increased. At 
Avaricum 1 two- legions were quartered before the camp. Senti- 
nels (vigiliae), who were relieved at regular intervals of three 
hours (hence the use of vigilia as a measure of time), kept 
guard during the night. 






The Army in Action. The usual formation for battle was 
Triplex acies. a triple line (triplex acies]. When a legion was arranged in 
triple line, four cohorts stood in the front row, three in the sec- 
ond, and three in the third. The three maniples of a cohort 
were probably stationed side by side, the first centuries ahead of 
the second. If the century contained sixty men, the arrange- 
ment was very likely fifteen front and four deep. Thus each co- 

Manip. Ill 

Manip. II 

Manip. I 


hort would have a depth of eight men and a front of forty-five. 
According to a late writer each soldier had a right-and-left space 
of three feet in the rank, and the ranks were six feet apart. 
So, if we allow seven or eight feet between the maniples and 
a few feet between the centuries of a maniple, a cohort would 
occupy a rectangle about one hundred and fifty feet by forty-five 
feet. The space between cohorts may have been equal -to the 

1 Cf. B. G. 7. 24. 


width of a cohort. If so, the legion would occupy a space of 
more than one thousand feet from right to left. In action the 
soldiers doubtless moved farther apart, filling the space between 
the cohorts and presenting an unbroken front to the enemy. 

When the army joined battle with the enemy, the soldiers in The battle, 
the first line discharged their pila. Then they rushed for- 
ward and with swords drawn continued the battle. The char- 
acter of the weapons used rendered it necessary that fight- 
ing should be at close range ; in fact, a battle consisted 
largely of single combats. When the soldiers of the first line 
became weary, they fell back, and the soldiers of the second 
line came forward through the intervals. Thus the two lines 
alternated, while the third line in the rear acted as a reserve 
ready to come up at the critical moment. The new recruits 
usually made up the third line, and thus had an opportunity to 
become accustomed to battle gradually without being put at 
first in positions of great danger or responsibility. The stand- 
ards (signa) served as rallying-places for the soldiers. Their 
position during battle is not known, but probably it was a little 
behind the first line of cohorts. 

The battle was won not so much by brute force as by well or- 
ganized, persistent attack. When an army was once defeated, 
especially an army of barbarians, it was seldom necessary to 
defeat the same soldiers again. When the enemy fled, the 
light-armed infantry and the cavalry, who formed the wings of 
the army, started in pursuit. Usually most of the defeated 
were cut down or captured. Those captured were sometimes 
paroled, but more often they were either killed or sold as slaves. 

Different formations were adopted to meet various emergen- other 
cies. The wedge (cunens) was used to make an irresistible attack ormatlons - 
on a particular spot, or to divide the enemy's line. The orbis 
was formed when an army, or a part of one, was attacked on 
the march. It was easy to change from the order of march usual 
in the vicinity of an enemy 1 to a condensed mass, circle or square, 

1 See p. 40. 


offering equal resistance on all sides. The testudo, an arrange- 
ment in which the soldiers held their shields overlapped above 
their heads, was of use chiefly in advancing to attack fortified 
places, where missiles were likely to be received from overhead. 
The favorite battle-ground of the Romans was the slope of a 
hill, where they could rush down upon the enemy and throw 
their pila downward, thus increasing their force. As already 
stated, camps were usually located in places which gave this 
advantage of position in case of attack. 

Operations against Fortified Towns. Many of Caesar's 
military movements were directed against fortified towns. 
There were several ways of proceeding against such towns. 
If the attempt seemed likely to be successful, a sudden attack 

The assault, (oppugnatio repentina) was made. While the wall was kept clear 
of defenders by light-armed troops, archers and slingers, and 
by the use of tormenta, other parts of the attacking army tried 
to force an entrance into the town by filling up the moats, 
breaking through the gates, undermining or pulling down the 
wall, or even sometimes by climbing over it. The attempt was 
often made before a camp was constructed by the attacking 
army (ex itinere oppugnare)} 

The siege. If the place was of considerable strength, a siege (pbsidio, 

obsessio] might be begun. This often meant starving out the 
besieged, unless they surrendered before they were reduced to 
extremities. The town was first surrounded with a series of 
redoubts (castella) connected by lines of intrenchments (inuni- 
tiones). Such a series of works is called in modern times a 
contravallation. Outside of these works were the forces of the 
besiegers, sometimes divided up among several camps, to ward 
off sallies against different points in the line. Sometimes an- 
other line of intrenchments was drawn around the outside, to 
keep off assistance coming to the besieged from without. Thus 
it was at Alesia. 2 

1 Cf. B. G. 2.12. 2 Cf. B. G. 7. 74. 



A third method of procedure was by special siege-works of The attack 

attack. This was used against places strongly fortified or diffi- by s ^ e " 
cult of access, and was often combined with the siege proper. 
The important feature of this method was the building of the 


agger. In its usual form this. was an elevated -roadway, built Agger. 
chiefly of logs. It was begun out of reach of missiles from 
the wall of the town, and then carried toward the wall, usually 
at a right angle to it, though sometimes it turned as it ap- 


preached the wall and ran for some distance parallel to the lat- 
ter. As the building of the agger progressed, rows of sheds 
(vineae) open at the ends were placed end to end on the com- vineae. 
pleted portion, forming a covered passage along which material 
could be brought. In front of those engaged in the work were 





plutei, shield-like protections or screens, made of planks or of 
woven branches and mounted on wheels or rollers. These, as 
well as the vineae, were often covered with skins, to protect 
them from fire. As the agger was constructed chiefly of wood, 
it also might be set on fire ; accordingly the exposed portions 
were faced with stone or earth, or covered with skins or wet 



The height and general 
shape of the agger varied 
of course with the condi- 
tions. Usually its upper 
surface formed a plane 
leading directly toward 
the base of the wall. If 
the town was much ele- 
vated above the surround- 
ing country, this plane 
must have had a consider- 
able upward slope. Some- 
times, however, it appears 
that the upper surface 

of the agger was horizon- TURRIS 

tal, or nearly so. On it 

was built a tower (turris), which might be thirty or forty feet 
square or even larger. This was very solidly made of timber, 
and was pushed forward on rollers as the agger was completed. 
The tower was built up in stories until it was as high as the wall. 
In the top of it were soldiers, whose duty it was to clear the 
wall of defenders, while their companions below filled up the 
moat and tried to breach the wall. Men working near the wall 
were protected by strongly timbered sheds (testudines, musculi}. 
If the town was on level ground and not difficult of access, 
sometimes no agger was built, but two towers were moved 
toward the wall on the surface of the ground itself, while be- 
tween them the soldiers worked to make a breach. On the 



agger, or between these towers if no agger was built, the soldiers 
massed, after the breach was made, to deliver the assault. 

Some think that the agger was made as high as the top of Different 
the wall of the town, its purpose being to give a passage for an 
assaulting column, which might pass from it upon the wall by 
drawbridges or similar means. Undoubtedly the agger was 
sometimes as high as the wall. It might even carry more than 
one tower, and have soldiers stationed on it. There may have 
been a form of agger which was built parallel to the wall and 
carried several towers. But it is not certain that the purpose 
of these forms was different from that of the form first described. 
The whole subject is one about which greats uncertainty and 
difference of opinion exist. 


In breaching the wall various instruments and devices might 
be used. The battering-ram (aries) consisted of a heavy log Aries. 
provided with a metallic head, often shaped like a ram's head. 
It was suspended horizontally by the middle in the interior of 
a tower or inside a testudo or musculus. The ram was swung 
backward and forward to strike the wall with its head. Its 
length was sometimes more than one hundred feet, and a large 
number of men were required to work it. Thejfo/# was some- Faix. 
what similar, except that instead of a solid head it had a hook 
to pull off stones from the wall. Walls were often undermined, 
and sometimes, where the situation permitted, gates were set 
on fire by the besiegers. 



Means and Various means were used by the besieged to counteract the 
resistance e ff rts of the attacking army. Bags of straw or wool were low- 
ered from the wall to deaden the blows of the ram. Great 


rocks were rolled down upon the soldiers and their implements. 
Nooses or huge tongs were let down to catch the aries and the 
falx, and either turn them aside or draw them up. Fire-balls, 




burning pitch and suet, and blazing arrows were discharged at 
the agger and turris. Above all, a continuous shower of mis- 
siles was rained upon the attackers. 

Both besieged and besiegers were often provided with instru- 
ments (tormcnta) for hurling heavy missiles. These consisted 
of heavy crossbows with highly elastic strings of sinew or hair. 


5 1 

The catapulta discharged huge arrows, either horizontally or 
with a slight elevation. The scorpio was a smaller weapon of a 
similar kind. The ballista threw large stones or beams at a 
considerable angle. Caesar had tormenta, but the Gauls with 
whom he fought probably did not have them. 



The Navy. Ships of war (naves longae) were long and nar- 
row. They were propelled chiefly by oars, though sails also 
were used. The trireme was the usual type of war-vessel. It 
had three banks, or rows, of oars, one above another. The 
ships were steered by rudders (gubernacula), huge paddles on 
either side of the stern. At the prow was the beak (rostrum), 
a piece of timber tipped with bronze or iron, projecting forward 
near the water-line or sometimes below it. The object of this 
was to ram the enemy's ship and sink it. Towers were often 
erected on deck and manned with soldiers in time of battle, 
and tormenta were used. The fighters were regular legionary 
soldiers temporarily on board. A favorite manceuver was to 
catch the enemy's ship with grappling-irons, let down a gang- 
way, and board the ship. The fighting then was hand-to-hand, 
just as in a land-battle. 




Means and Various means were used by the besieged to counteract the 
resistance en " orts f the attacking army. Bags of straw or wool were low- 
ered from the wall to deaden the blows of the ram. Great 


rocks were rolled down upon the soldiers and their implements. 
Nooses or huge tongs were let down to catch the (tries and the 
falx, and either turn them aside or draw them up. Fire-balls, 




burning pitch and suet, and blazing arrows were discharged at 
the agger and turns. Above all, a continuous shower of mis- 
siles was rained upon the attackers. 

Both besieged and besiegers were often provided with instru- 
ments (tormcnfa] for hurling heavy missiles. These consisted 
of heavy crossbows with highly elastic strings of sinew or hair. 


The catapulta discharged huge arrows, either horizontally or 
with a slight elevation. The scorpio was a smaller weapon of a 
similar kind. The ballista threw large stones or beams at a 
considerable angle. Caesar had tormenta, but the Gauls with 
whom he fought probably did not have them. 




The Navy. Ships of war (naves longae] were long and nar- 
row. They were propelled chiefly by oars, though sails also 
were used. The trireme was the usual type of war-vessel. It 
had three banks, or rows, of oars, one above another. The 
ships were steered by rudders (_gubernacula\ huge paddles on 
either side of the stern. At the prow was the beak (rostrum}, 
a piece of timber tipped with bronze or iron, projecting forward 
near the water-line or sometimes below it. The object of this 
was to ram the enemy's ship and sink it. Towers were often 
erected on deck and manned with soldiers in time of battle, 
and tormenta were used. The fighters were regular legionary 
soldiers temporarily on board. A favorite manceuver was to 
catch the enemy's ship with grappling-irons, let down a gang- 
way, and board the ship. The righting then was hand-to-hand, 
just as in a land-battle. 



other kinds Transports (naves onerariae) were wider and shorter than 
of ships. ships of war. Naves actuariae were vessels propelled by both 
oars and sails. Navigia speculatoria were small, swift vessels 
used for reconnoitering. Some of the larger ships were com- 
pletely decked over, but many were open, or decked only at 
-prow and stern. 


General Histories of Rome 

Any standard history covering the period of Caesar's life 
may be consulted. The following are especially valuable : 

APPIAN : Roman History, translated by White. 

ARNOLD : History of the Later Roman Commonwealth. 

DURUY : History of Rome and of the Roman People. 

FERRERO : Greatness and Decline of Rome. 

How- LEIGH : History of Rome to the Death of Caesar. 

IHNE : History of Rome. 

LIDDELL : History of Rome to the Establishment of the Empire. 

LONG : Decline of the Roman Republic. 

MERIVALE : Fall of the Roman Republic. 

MERIVALE : General History of Rome. 

MERIVALE : History of the Romans under the Empire. 

MOMMSEN : History of Rome. 

PELHAM : Outlines of Roman History. 

SHUCKBURGH : History of Rome to the Battle of Actium. 

TAYLOR : Constitutional and Political History of Rome. 

Histories of Countries Other than Rome 

CHURCH : Story of Early Britain. 
GUIZOT : History of France. 
HUG-STEAD : Story of Switzerland. 


MONTGOMERY : Leading Facts of French History. 
SCARTH : Roman Britain. 
TAYLOR : History of Germany. 

BiograpJiies and Special Histories 

ALLCROFT : The Making of the Monarchy. 

BARING- GOULD : The Tragedy of the Caesars. 

BOISSIER : Cicero and His Friends. 

CAESAR : Civil War, translated by Long. 

DE QUINCEY : The Caesars. 

DODGE : Caesar. 

FORSYTH : Life of Marcus Tullius Cicero. 

FOWLER : Julius Caesar and the Foundation of the Roman 
Imperial System. 

FROUDE : Caesar, a Sketch. 

HOLMES : Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar. 

HOLMES : Caesar's Conquest of Gaul. 

LIDDELL : Life of Julius Caesar. 

MERIVALE : The Roman Triumvirates. 

NAPOLEON III : History of Julius Caesar. 

OMAN : Seven Roman Statesmen of tfie Later Republic. 

PLUTARCH : Lives of Illustrious Men : Caesar. 

STRACHAN-DAVIDSON : Cicero and the Fall of the Roman 

SUETONIUS : Lives of the Twelve Caesars, translated by Thom- 
son and Forester. 

TACITUS : Germania and Agricola, translated by Church and 

TROLLOPE : The Commentaries of Caesar. 

TROLLOPE : Life of Cicero. 

Maps and Illustrations 

BAUMEISTER : Bilder aus dem Griechischen und Romischen 


GURLITT : Anschauungstafeln zu Caesars Bellum Gallicum. 

HILL : Illustrations of School Classics. 

KAMPEN : Quindecim ad Caesaris de Bella Gallico Commen- 

tarios Tabulae. 
KIEPERT : Atlas Antiquus. 

OEHLER : Bilder- Atlas zu Caesars Buchern de Bella Gallico. 
RHEINHARD : Album des Classischen Altertums. 
SCHREIBER : Atlas of Classical Antiquities. 

Histories of Roman Literature 

BROWNE : History of Roman Classical Literature. 
CRUTTWELL : History of Roman Literature. 
MACKAIL : Latin Literature. 
SIMCOX : History of Latin Literature. 
TEUFFEL-SCHWABE : History of Roman Literature. 


APPACH : C. Julius Caesars British Expeditions. 
CHAPMAN : Caesar and Pompey. 
CHURCH : Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. 
DAVIS : A Friend of Caesar. 
Gow: Companion to School Classics.. 
GUHL-KONER : The Life of the Greeks and Romans. 
HARRINGTON : Helps to the Intelligent Study of College Prepara- 
tory Latin. 

JUDSON : Caesar's Army. 
LUCAN : Pharsalia, translated by Ridley. 
MIDDLETON-MILLS : Studenf s Companion to Latin Authors. 
MONTESQUIEU : Grandeur and Decadence of the Romans. 
Scon': Portraitures of Julius Caesar. 
SEELEY : Roman Imperialism. 
SHAKSPERE : Julius Caesar. 
VINE : Caesar in Kent. 
WILLARD : Julius Caesar, an Historical Tragedy. 

rn^" Wiio^=^: K XT* VSR-V r^-rcjiixA 

b f lva ^3^- v .-- *5T /^ ' 

Bfito-vac/oJ;> > ^i>jjiESs ^ "V-v ^.yl ^ V p, rP Ws 

JiituspaffUu^ ,%V oJ^-^-i v\=, ^f I \ AEMEfEb 

. o X ^C__xt>i'n i\ Ua. =V \._.V 

4 Loogitudo East from Greenwich 8 




I. Gallia est omnis dlvisa in partis tris ; quarum unam 
incolunt Belgae, aliam AqmtanI, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua 
Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua, mstitutls, 
legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aqmtanis Garumna 
flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. Horum om- 5 
nium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque 
humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos 
mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos 
animos pertinent important; proximique sunt Germams, qui 
trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. 10 
Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute prae- 
cedunt, quod fere cottidianis proelils cum Germams con- 
tendunt, cum aut suls flnibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum 
finibus bellum gerunt. \ Eorum una pars, quam Gallos ob- 
tinere dictum est, initium capit aflumine Rhodano ; continetur-is 
Garumna flumine, Oceano, fmibus Belgarum ; attingit etiam 
ab Sequanis et Helvetils flumen Rhenum ; vergit ad septem- 
triones. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent 
ad Inferiorem partem fluminis RhenT, spectant in septem- 
trionem et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad 20 
Pyrenaeos mentis et earn partem Ocean! quae est ad His- 
paniam pertinet ; spectat inter occasum solis et septemtriones. \ 


The Helvetii, influenced by Orgetorix, prepare to migrate. Orgetorix 

forms a conspiracy. 

II. Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus 
Orgetorix. Is M. Messala et M. PIsone consulibus regm 



cupiditate inductus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit, et civitati 
persuasit ut de finibus siris cum omnibus copiis exirentj 
perfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praestarent, totlus Galliae 
imperio potlri. Id hoc facilius ils persuasit, quod undique 
5 loci natura Helvetii continentur : una ex parte flumine Rheno 
latissimo atque altissimo, qul agrum Helvetium a Germanis 
dlvidit ; altera ex parte monte lura altissimo, qui est inter 
Sequanos et Helvetios ; tertia lacu Lemanno et flumine 
Rhodano, qul provinciam nostram ab Helvetiis dlvidit. His 

10 rebus fiebat ut et minus late vagarentur et minus facile fmi- 
timls bellum Inferre possent ; qua ex parte homines bellandi 
cupidi magno dolore adficiebantur. Pro multitudine autem 
hominum et pro gloria belli atque fortitudinis angustos se 
finis habere arbitrabantur, qul in longitudinem milia passuum 

15 CCXL, in latitudinem CLXXX patebant. 

III. His rebus adducti et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti 
constituerunt ea quae ad proficlscendum pertinerent com- 
parare, iumentorum et carrorum quam maximum numerum 
coemere, sementls quam maximas facere, ut in itinere copia 

20 f rumenti suppeteret, cum proximis civitatibus pacem et ami- 
citiam confirmare. Ad eas res conficiendas biennium sibi 
satis esse duxerunt ; in tertium annum profectionem lege 
conflrmant. Orgetorix dux deligitur. Is sibi legationem ad 
civitates suscipit. In eo itinere persuadet Castico, Cataman- 

25 taloedis fllio, Sequano, cuius pater regnum in Sequams multos 
annos obtinuerat et a senatu populi Roman! amlcus appellatus 
erat, ut regnum in civitate sua occuparet, quod pater ante 


habuerat; itemque Dumnongi Haeduo, fratn Dlviciaci, qui 
eo tempore prlncipatum in civitate obtinebat ac maxime plebi 


acceptus erat, ut idem conaretur persuadet, eique filiam suam 
in matrimonium dat. Perfacile factu esse illls probat conata 
perficere, propterea quod ipse suae civitatis imperium obten- 
turus esset; non esse dubium quln totius Galliae plurimum 
Helvetii possent ; se suis copiis suoque exercitu illls regna 5 
conciliaturum confirmat. Hac oratione adducti inter se fidem 
et ius iurandum dant, et regno occupato per trls potentissimos 
ac firmissimos populos totius Galliae sese potiri posse spirant. 

Orgetorix is accused of treason; his death. 

IV. Ea res est Helvetils per indicium enuntiata. Moribus 
suis Orgetorigem ex vinculis causam dicere coegerunt ; dam- 10 
natum poenam sequi oportebat ut Tgni cremaretur. Die 
constituta causae dictionis Orgetorix ad iudicium omnem 
suam familiam, ad hominum milia decem, undique coegit, et 
omms clientis obaeratosque suos, quorum magnum numerum 
habebat, eodem conduxit ; per eos ne causam diceret se 15 
eripuit. Cum clvitas ob earn rein incitata armis ius suum 
exsequi conaretur, multitudinemque hominum ex agrls magis- 
tratus cogerent, Orgetorix mortuus est ; neque abest suspicio, 
ut Helvetii arbitrantur, quln ipse sibi mortem consciverit. 

Preparations for migration go on. Routes by which the Helvetii 

may leave their home. 

V. Post eius mortem nihilo minus Helvetii id quod con- 20 
stituerant facere conantur, ut e fmibus suis exeant. Ubi iam 
se ad earn rem paratos esse arbitrati sunt, oppida sua omnia, 
numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos, reliqua privata 
aedificia incendunt ; frumentum omne, praeter quod secum 
portaturl erant, comburunt, ut domum reditionis spe sublata25 
paratiores ad omnia perlcula subeunda essent ; trium mensium 
molita cibaria sibi quemque domo efferre iubent. Persuadent 
Rauracis et Tulingis et LatobrigTs finitimis uti eodem iisi 
consilio, oppidis suls viclsque exustls, una cum ils proficis- 
cantur ; Boiosque, qm trans Rhenum incoluerant et in agrum 30 


Noricum transierant Noreiamque oppugnarant, receptos ad 

se socios sibi asciscunt. 

VI. Erant ommno itinera duo, quibus itineribus domo 

exire possent: unum per Sequanos, angustum et difficile, 
sinter montem luram et fluinen Rhodanum, vix qua singull 

earn ducerentur (mons autem altissimus impendebat, ut facile 

perpauci prohibere possent); 

alterum per provinciam nos- 

tram, multo facilius atque 
10 expeditius, propterea quod 

inter finis Helvetiorum et 

Allobrogum, qui nuper pacati 

erant, Rhodanus fluit, isque 

non nullis locis vado trans- 
is Itur. Extremum oppidum Allobrogum est, proximumque 

Helvetiorum finibus, Genava. Ex eo oppido pons ad Hel- 

vetios pertinet. Allobrogibus sese vel persuasuros, quod 

nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur, ex- 

Istiinabant vel vi coacturos ut per suos finis eos ire pate- 
aorentur. Omnibus rebus ad profectionem comparatls diem 

dicunt, qua die ad rlpam Rhodani omnes conveniant. Is 

dies erat ante diem quantum Kalendas Aprilis L. Pisone, A. 

Gablnio consulibus. 


Caesar builds fortifications along the Rhone, and prevents the Helvetii 

from crossing the river. 

VII. Caesarl cum id nuntiatum esset, eos per provinciam 

25 nostram iter facere conari, maturat ab urbe proficlsci et quam 

maximls potest itineribus in Galliam ulteriorem contendit et 

ad Genavam pervenit. Provinciae toti quam maximum potest 

militum numerum imperat (erat ornnlno in Gallia ulteriore 

legio una), pontem qui erat ad Genavam iubet rescind!. Ubi 

30 de eius adventu Helvetii certiores fact! sunt, legatos ad eum 

mittunt nobilissimos civitatis, cuius legation is Nammeius et 

Verucloetius prmcipem locum obtinebant, qui dicerent sibi' 



esse in animo sine ullo maleficio iter per provinciam facere, 
propterea quod alind iter haberent nullum ; rogare ut eius 
voluntate id sibi facere liceat. Caesar quod memoria tenebat 
L. Cassium consulem occisum exercitumque eius ab Helvetils 
pulsum et sub iugum missum, concedendum non putabat; 5 
neque homines inimico animo data facilitate per provinciam 
itineris faciendi temperatures ab iniuria et maleficio exlsti- 
mabat. Tamen, ut spatimn intercedere posset dum milites 
quos imperaverat convenlrent, legatis respondit diem se ad 
dellberandum sumpturum ; si quid vellent, ad Idus AprilTs 10 

VIII. Interea ea legione quam secum habebat mllitibtisque 
qui ex provincia convenerant a lacu Lemanno, qui in flumen 
Rhodanum influit, ad montem luram, qui finis Sequanorum 
ab HelvetiTs dividit, milia passuum xvim inurum in altitu-i5 
dinem pedum .sedecim fossamque perducit. E6 opere per- 
fecto praesidia disponit, castella communit, quo facilius, si se 
imito transire conarentur, prohibere posset. Ubi ea dies 

^ / \ 

nurus fogsaque >, 
castcllfini - ^>- 

Section of v/all 
and trench 



quam constituerat cum legatis venit, et legatT ad eum rever- 
terunt, negat se more et exemplo populi Roman! posse iter 20 
ulli per provinciam dare ; et si vim facere conentur, prohi^ 
biturum ostendit. Helvetii ea spe deiecti navibus iunctis 


Noricum transierant Noreiamque oppugnarant, receptos ad 

se socios sibi asciscunt. 

VI. Erant oirmmo itinera duo, quibus itineribus domo 

exire possent : unum per Sequanos, angustum et difficile^ 
5 inter montem luram et flumen Rhoclanum, vix qua singuli 

earn ducerentur (mons autem altissimus impendebat, ut facile 

perpauci prohibere possent); 

alterum per provinciam nos- 

tram, multo facilius atque 
loexpeditius, propterea quod 

inter finis Helvetiorum et 

Allobrogum, qm nuper pacati 

erant, Rhodanus fluit, isque 

non nullls locls vado trans- 
isitur. Extremum oppidum Allobrogum est, proximumque 

Helvetiorum fmibus, Genava. Ex eo oppido pons ad Hel- 

vetios pertinet. Allobrogibus sese vel persuasiiros, quod 

nondum bond animo in populum Romanum viderentur, ex- 

Istimabant vel vi coacturos ut per suos finis eos Ire pate- 
aorentur. Omnibus rebus ad profectionem comparatls diem 

clicunt, qua die ad rip am Rhodani omnes conveniant. Is 

dies erat ante diem qulntum Kalendas Aprilis L. Pisone, A. 

Gabinio consnlibus. 


Caesar builds fortifications along the Rhone, and prevents the Helvetii 

from crossing the river. 

VII. Caesar! cum id nuntiatum esset, eos per provinciam 

25 nostram iter facere conari, maturat ab urbe proficisci et quam 

maximis potest itineribus in Galliam ulteriorem contendit et 

ad Genavam pervenit. Provinciae toti quam maximum potest 

militum numerum iinperat (erat omnlno in Gallia ulteriore 

legio una), pontem qul erat ad Genavam iubet rescind!. Ubi 

30 de eius adventu Helvetii certiores fact! sunt, legates ad eum 

mittunt nobilissimos clvitatis, cuius legationis Nammeius et 


Verucloetius pnncipem locum obtinebant, qul dicerent sibi 



esse in animo sine ullo maleficio iter per provinciam facere, 
propterea quod aliud iter haberent nulluin ; rogare ut eius 
voluntate id sibi facere liceat. Caesar quod memoria tenebat 
L. Cassium consulem occisum exercitumque eius ab Helvetils 
pulsum et sub iugum missum, conceclendum non putabat; 5 
neque homines inimico animo data facilitate per provinciam 
itineris faciendi temperatures ab iniuria et maleficio existi- 
mabat. Tamen, ut spatium intercedere posset dum mllites 
quos imperaverat convenirent, legatis respondit diem se ad 
deliberandum siimpturum ; si quid vellent, ad Idus ApnlTs 10 

A^III. Interea ea legione quam secum habebat mllitibusque 
qm ex provincia convenerant a lacu Lemanno, qui in flumen 
Rhodanum Influit, ad montem lurain, qui finis Sequanorum 
ab Helvetils dlvidit, mllia passuum xvim murum in altitu-i5 
dinem pedum .sedecim. fossamque perducit. Eo opere per- 
fecto praesidia disponit, castella communit, quo facilius, si se 
in\ito transire conarentur, prohibere posset. Ubi ea dies 



quam constituerat cum legatls venit, et legatl ad eum rever- 
terunt, negat se more et exemplo popull Roman! posse iter 20 
ullT per provinciam dare ; et sT vim facere conentur, prohi- 
biturum ostenclit. Helvetil ea spe deiecti navibus iiinctis 


ratibusque compluribus factis, alii vadis Rhodam, qua minima 
altitude fluminis erat, non numquam interdiu, saepius noctu, 
si perrumpere possent conatl, operis munitione et mllitum 
concursu et tells repulsl hoc conatu destiterunt. 

The Helvetii obtain permission to pass through the country of the 
Sequani. Cassar hurriedly raises an army. 

5 IX. Relinquebatur una per Sequanos via, qua Sequanis in- 
vitis propter angustias ire non poterant. His cum sua sponte 
persuadere non possent, legates ad Dumnorigem Haeduum 
mittunt, ut eo deprecatore a Sequanis impetrarent. Dum- 
norix gratia et largitione apud Sequanos plurimum poterat, 

10 et Helvetils erat amicus, quod ex ea civitate Orgetorigis filiam 
in matrimonium duxerat ; et cupiditate regni adductus novis 
rebus studebat et quam plurimas civitates suo beneficio habere 
obstrictas volebat. Itaque . rem suscipit, et a Sequanis im- 
petrat ut per finis suos Helvistios Ire patiantur, obsidesque 

15 uti inter sese dent perficit, Sequani, ne itinere Helvetios 
prohibeant; Helvetii, ut sine maleficio et iniuria transeant. 

X. Caesari nuntiatur Helvetils esse in animo per agrum 
Sequanorum et Haeduorum iter in Santonum finis facere, 
qui non longe a Tolosatium finibus absunt, quae civitas est 

20 in provincia. Id si fieret, intellegebat magno cum penculo 
provinciae futurum ut homines bellicos5s, populi R5mani 
inimicos, locis patentibus maximeqne frumentariis finitimos 
haberet. Ob eas causas el munitioni quam fecerat T. Labie- 
num legatum praeficit ; ipse in Italiam magnis itineribus . 

25 contendit duasque ibi legiones conscrlbit, et tns quae circum 
Aquileiam hiemabant ex hibernls educit, et qua proximum 
iter in ulteriorem Galliam per AlpTs erat cum his qulnque 
legionibus Ire contendit. Ibi Ceutrones et Graioceli et 
Caturiges locis superioribus occupatls itinere exercitum pro- 

3ohibere conantur. Compluribus his proeliis pulsis, ab Ocelo,' 
quod est oppidum citerioris provinciae extremum, in finis 
Vocontiorum ulterioris provinciae die septimo pervenit; inde 


in Allobrogum finis, ab Allobrogibus in Segusiavos exercitum 
ducit. Hi sunt extra provinciam trans Rhodanum primi. 

The Haedui, Ambarri, and Allobroges ask for help. 

XI. Helvetii iam per angustias et finis Sequanorum suas 
copias traduxerant et in Haeduorum finis pervenerant eo- 
rumque agros populabantur. Haedui cum se suaque ab iis 5 
defendere non possent, legates ad Caesarem mittunt rogatum 
auxilium : 'Ita se omni'tempore de populo Romano meritos 
esse ut paene in conspectu exercitus nostii agrl vastan, libeii 
in servitutem abduci, oppida expugnari non debuerint.' Eodem 
tempore Ambarri, necessarii et consanguine! Haeduorum, 10 
Caesarem certiorem faciunt sese depopulatis agns n5n facile 
ab oppidls vim hostium prohibere. Item Allobroges, qui 
trans Rhodanum vicos possessionesque habebant, fuga se ad 
Caesarem recipiunt et demonstrant sibi praeter agrl solum 
nihil esse reliqui. Quibus rebus adductus Caesar' non ex- 15 
spectandum sibi statuit dum omnibus fortums sociorum con- 
sumptis in Santonos Helvetii pervemrent. 

Part of the Helvetii cross the Arar. The Tigurini are cut to pieces 

by Caesar. 

XII. Flumen est Arar, quod per finis Haeduorum et Se- 
quanorum in Rhodanum mfluit incredibili lenitate, ita ut 
oculis in utram partem fluat iudicari non possit. Id Helvetii 2 o 
ratibus ac lintribus iunctis transibant. Ubi per exploratores 
Caesar certior factus est tris iam partis copiarum Helvetios 
id fliimen traduxisse, quartam fere partem citra flumen 
Ararim reliquam esse, de tertia vigilia cum legionibus tribus 

e castris profectus ad earn partem pervenit quae nondum 2 5 
flumen transierat. Eos impeditos et inopinantis adgressus 
magnam partem eorum concidit reliqui sese fugae mandarunt 
atque in proximas silvas abdiderunt. Is pagus appella- 
batur Tigurmus ; nam omnis clvitas Helvetia in quattuor 
pagos divisa est. Hie pagus unus, cum domo exisset, pa- 30 


trum nostrorum memoria L. Cassium consulem interfecerat 
et eius exercitum sub iugum mlserat. Ita sive casu sive 
consilio deorum immortalium, quae pars civitatis Helvetiae, 
inslgnem calamitatem populo Romano intulerat, ea prmceps 
Spoenas persolvit. Qua in re Caesar non solum publicas 'Sed 
etiam privatas iniurias ultus est, quod eius soceri L. Pisonis 
avum, L. Pisonem legatum, Tigurin! eodem proelio quo 
Cassium interfecerant. 

The Helvetii send an embassy to Caesar. His terms are rejected. 

XIII. Hoc proelio facto, reliquas copias Helvetiorum ut 
10 consequl posset, pontem in Ararl faciendum curat atque ita 

exercitum traducit. Helvetii repentmo eius adventu com- 
motl, cum id quod ipsi diebus xx aegerrime confecerant, ut 
flumen transirent, ilium uno die fecisse intellegerent, legates 
ad eum mittunt ; cuius legation is Divico pnnceps fuit, qul 

15 bello Cassiano dux Helvetiorum f uerat. Is ita cum Caesare 
egi't : ' Si pacem populus Romanus cum Helvetiis faceret, in 
earn partem ituros atque ibi futures Helvetios ubi eos Caesar 
constituisset atque esse voluisset ; sin bello persequi perse- 
veraret, reminlsceretur et veteris incommodl popull Roman! 

20 et pristinae virtutis Helvetiorum. Quod improvise unum 
pagum adortus esset, cum ii quT flumen transissent suis aux- 
ilium ferre non possent, ne ob earn rem aut suae magnopere 
virtuti tribueret aut ipsos despiceret Se - ita a patribus 
maioribusque suis didicisse ut magis virtute contenderent 

25 quam dolo aut msidiis mterentur. Quare ne committeret ut 
is locus ubi constitissent ex calamitate popull Romani et inter- 
neci5ne exercitus nomen caperet aut memoriam proderet.' 

XIV. His Caesar ita respondit : ' Eo sibi minus dubita- 
tionis dan, quod eas res quas legati Helvetii commemorassent 

30 memoria teneret, atque eo gravius ferre quo minus merito 
popull Roman! accidissent ; qiu si alicuius iniiariae sibi con- 

scius fuisset, non fuisse difficile cavere, sed eo deceptunv 
quod neque cotnmissum a se intellegeret quare timeret neque 


sine causa timendtim putaret. Quod si veteris contumeliae 
obliviscl vellet, num etiam recentium iniuriarum, quod eo 
invitp iter per provinciam per .vim temptassent, quod Haeduos, 
quod Ainbarros, quod Allobroges vexassent, memoriam de- 
ponere posse ? Quod sua victoria tarn msolenter gloriarentur 5 

(From a gravestone) 

quodque tam diu se impune iniurias intulisse admirarentur 
eodem pertinere. Consuesse enim deos immortalis, quo 
gravius homines ex commutatione rerum doleant, quos pro 
scelere eorum ulcisci velint, his secundiores interdum res et 


diuturniorem impunitatem concedere. Cum ea ita sint, tamen 
si obsides ab iis sibi dentur, uti ea quae polliceantur facturos 

intellegat, et si Haeduls de iniurils quas ipsis sociisque 
eorum intulerint, item si Allobrogibus satisfaciant, sese cum 

5 iis pacem esse facturum.' Divico respondit : ' Ita Helvetios a 
maioribus suls Institutes esse uti obsides accipere, non dare 
consuerint ; eius rel populum Romanum esse testem.' Hoc 
response dato discessit. 

A cavalry skirmish. 

XV. Postero die castra ex eo loco movent. Idem facit 
10 Caesar equitatumque omnem, ad numerum quattuor mllium, 

quern ex omni provincia et Haeduls atque eorum socils coac- 
tum habebat, praemittit, qui videant quas in partis hostes iter 
faciant. Qui cupidius novissimum agmen msecuti alieno loco 
cum equitatu Helvetiorum -proelium committunt, et pauci de 

isnostris cadunt. Quo proelio sublati Helvetii, quod qum- 
gentis equitibus tantam multitudinem equitum propulerant, 
audacius subsistere non numquam et novissimo agmine proelio 
nostros lacessere coeperunt. Caesar suos a proelio contine- 
bat ac satis habebat in praesentia hostem rapims populatio- 

aonibusque prohibere. Ita dies circiter xv iter fecerunt uti 
inter novissimum hostium agmen et nostrum prlmum non 
amplius quinls aut senls milibus passuum interesset. 

The Haedui are slow in furnishing grain. 

XVI. Interim cottidie Caesar Haeduos frumentum quod 
essent publice pollicitl flagitare. Nam propter frigora, quod 

25 Gallia sub septemtrionibus, ut ante dictum est, posita est, 
non modo frumenta in agrls matura non erant, sed ne pabull 
quidem satis magna copia suppetebat ; eo autem frumento 
quod flumine Ararl navibus subvexerat propterea uti minus 
poterat, quod iter ab Ararl Helvetii averterant, a quibus dis- 

30 cedere nolebat. Diem ex die ducere Haedui ; conferrii 
comportari, adesse dlcere. Ubi se diutius duel intellexit et 


diem Instare quo die frumentum militibus metiri oporteret, 
convocatis eorum principibus, quorum magnam copiam in 
castris habebat, in his Diviciaco et Lisco, qui summo magis- 
tratui praeerat (quern vergobretum appellant Haedui, qui 
creatur annuus et vitae necisque in suos habet potestatem), 5 
graviter eos accusat quod, cum neque emi- neque ex agris 
sum! possit, tarn necessario tempore, tarn propinquis hostibus 
ab ils non sublevetur, praesertim cum magna ex parte eorum 
precibus adductus bellum susceperit; multo etiam gravius 
quod sit destitutus queritur. ic 

XVII. Turn demum Liscus oratione Caesaris adductus 
quod antea tacuerat proponit : ( Esse non s nullos quorum auc- 
toritas apud plebem plurimum valeat, qm privatim plus possint 
quam ipsi magistrates. Hos seditiosa atque improba oratione 
multitudinem deterrere ne frumentum conferant quod de-i5 
beant : Praestare, si iam principatum Galliae obtinere non 
possint, Gallorum quam Roman orum imperia perferre, neque 
dubitare debere qum, si Helvetios snperaverint Roman!, una 
cum reliqua Gallia Haeduls libertatem sint erepturi. Ab 
isdem nostra consilia quaeque in castris gerantur hostibus 20 
enuntiari ; hos a se coerceri non posse. Quin etiam, quod 
necessariam rem coactus Caesari enuntiarit, intellegere sese 
quanto id cum periculo fecerit, et ob earn causam quam diu 
potuerit tacuisse.' 

Evidence of the treachery of Dumnorix is presented to Caesar. 

XVIII. Caesar hac oratione Lisci Dumnorigem, Diviciacias 
fratrem, designari sentiebat, sed quod pluribus praesentibus 
eas res iactari nolebat, celeriter concilium dimittit, Liscum 
retinet. Quaerit ex solo ea quae in conventu dlxerat. Dicit 
Hberius atque audacius. Eadem secreto ab aliis quaerit ; re- 
perit esse vera : ' Ipsum esse DumnorTgem, summa audacia, 30 
magna apud plebem propter liberalitatem gratia, cupidum 
rerum novarum. Compluris annos portoria reliquaque omnia 
Haeduorum vectigalia parvo pretio redempta habere, propterea 


quod illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo. His rebus et 
suam rem familiarem auxisse et facultates ad largiendum 
magnas comparasse ; magnum nuraerum equitatus suo sumptu 
semper alere et circum se habere, neque solum dorm sed 

5 etiam apud finitimas civitates largiter posse, atque huius 
potentiae causa matrem in Biturlgibus homim illic nobilissimo 
ac potentissimo conlocasse ; ipsum ex Helvetiis uxorem 
habere, sororem ex matre et propinquas suas nuptum in alias 
civitates conlocasse. Favere et cupere Helvetiis propter earn 

loadfinitatem, odisse etiam suo nomine Caesarem et Romanes, 
quod eorum adventu potentia eius deminuta et Diviciacus 
frater in antlquum locum gratiae atque honoris sit restitutus. 
Si quid accidat Romanis, summam in spem per Helvetios regnl 
obtinendi venire ; imperio populi Roman! non modo de regno 

15 sed etiam de ea quam habeat gratia desperare.' Reperiebat 
etiam in quaerendo Caesar, quod proelium equestre adversum 
paucis ante diebus esset factum, initium fugae factum a Dum- 
nonge atque eius equitibus (nam equitatui quern auxilio 
Caesari Haedul mlserant DumnorTx praeerat) j eorum fuga 

zoreliquum esse equitatum perterritum. 

XIX. Quibus rebus cognitis, cum ad has suspiciones cer- 
tissimae res accederent, quod per finis Sequanorum Helvetios 
traduxisset, quod obsides inter eos dandos curasset, quod ea 
omnia non modo iniussu suo et civitatis sed etiam inscientibus 

25 ipsis fecisset, quod a magistratii Haeduorum accusaretur, satis 
esse causae arbitrabatur quare in eum aut ipse animadverteret 
aut civitatem animadvertere iuberet. His omnibus rebus unum 
repugnabat, quod Diviciaci fratris summum in populum Ro- 
manum studium, summam in se voluntatem, egregiam fidem, 

3oiustitiam, temperantiam cognoveratj nam ne eius supplicio 
Diviciaci animum offenderet verebatur. Itaque priusquam 
quicquam conaretur, Diviciacum ad se vocarl iubet, et cotti- 
dianis interpretibus remotis per. C. Valerium Troucillum, prin- 
cipem Galliae provinciae, familiarem suum, cui summam 

35 omnium rerum fidem habebat, cum eo conloquitur ; simul com- 


monefacit quae ipso praesente in concilio Gallorum de Dnm- 
norige sint dicta et ostendit quae separatim quisque de eo apud 
se dixerit. Petit atque hortatur ut sine eius offensione animi 
vel ipse de eo causa cognita statuat vel civitatem statuere iubeat. 

Diviciacus intercedes for Dumnorix, and Caesar pardons him. 

XX. Diviciacus multis cum lacrimis Caesarem complexus 5 
obsecrare coepit ne quid gravius in fratrem statueret : 'Scire se 
ilia esse vera, nee quemquam ex eo plus quam se duloris 
capere, propterea quod, cum ipse gratia plurimum domi atque 
in reliqua Gallia, ille minimum propter adulescentiam posset, 
per se crevisset; quibus opibus ac nervis non solum ad minu- 10 
endam gratiam sed paene ad perniciem suam uteretur. Sese 
tamen et amore fraterno et existimatione vulgl commoverl. 
Quod si quid el a Caesare gravius accidisset, cum ipse eum 
locum amicitiae apud eum teneret, neminem existimaturum 
non sua voluntate factum ; qua ex re futurum uti totius Galliae 15 
animi a se averterentur.' Haec cum pluribus verbis flens a 
Caesare peteret, Caesar eius dextram prendit ; consolatus ro- 
gat flnem orandi faciat; tanti eius apud se gratiam esse os- 
tendit uti et rei piiblicae iniuriam et suum dolorem eius 
voluntati ac precibus condonet. Dumnorigem ad se vocat, 2 o 
fratrem adhibet; quae in eo reprehendat ostendit; quae ipse 
intellegat, quae civitas queratur proponit ; monet ut in reliquum 
tempus omnis suspiciones vitet; praeterita se Diviciaco fratrl 
condonare dicit. Dumnorigi custodes ponit, ut quae agat, 
quibuscum loquatur scire possit. . 2 * 

Caesar plans to attack the Helvetii ; the fright of Considius. 

XXI. Eodem die ab exploratoribus certior factus bostis sub 
monte consedisse mllia passuum ab ipsius castris octo, qualis 
esset natura mentis et qualis in circuitu ascensus qui cognos- 
cerent misit. Renuntiatum est facilem esse. De tertia vigilia 
T. Labienum, legatum pro praetore, cum duabus legionibus et^o 
iis ducibus qui iter cognpverant summum iugum montis ascen- 


dere iubet ; quid sui consili sit ostendit. Ipse de quarta vigilia 
eodem itinere quo hostes ierant ad eos contendit equitatumque 
omnem ante se rnittit. P. C5nsidius, qul re! militaris peritis- 
simus habebatur et in exercitu L. Sullae et postea in M. Crassi 
5 fuerat, cum exploratoribus praemittitur. 

XXII. Prlma luce, cum surnmus mons a Labieno teneretur, 
ipse ab hostium castris non longius mille et qumgentis passibus 
abesset, neque, ut postea ex captlvis comperit, aut ipslus 
adventus aut Labieni cognkus esset, Considius equo admisso 

load eum accurrit, dlcit montem quern a Labieno occuparl volu- 
erit ab hostibus teneri ; id. se a GallicTs armis atque insignibus 
cognovisse. Caesar suas copias in proximum collem subdiicit, 
aciem instruit. Labienus, ut erat el praeceptum a Caesare ne 
proelium coramitteret nisi ipslus copiae prope hostium castra 

15 vlsae essent, ut undique uno tempore in hostis impetus fieret, 
monte occupato nostros exspectabat proelioque abstinebat. 
Multo denique die per exploratores Caesar cognovit et montem 
a suis teneri et Helvetios castra movisse et Considium timore 
perterritum quod non vidisset pro vlso sibi renuntiavisse. Eo 

20 die quo consuerat intervallo hostis sequitur et milia passuum 
tria ab eorum castiis castra ponit. 

Caesar turns aside towards Bibracte; the Helvetii follow. 

XXIII. Postridie eius diel, quod omnmo biduum supererat 
cum exercituT frumentum metlri oporteret, et quod a Bibracte, 
oppido Haeduorum longe maximo et copiosissimo, non amplius 

25 milibus passuum xvm aberat, rei frumentariae prospiciendum 
existimavit ; itaque iter ab Helvetiis avertit ac Bibracte Ire con- 
tendit. Ea res per fugitivos L. Aemili, decurionis equitum 
Gallorum, hostibus nuntiatur. Helvetii, sen quod timore per- 
territos Romanos discedere a se existimarent, eo magis quod 

30 pridie superioribus locis occupatis proelium non commlsissent, 
sive eo, quod re frumentaria intercludi posse confiderent, com- 
mutato consilio atque itinere converso nostros a novissimo 
agmine msequi ac lacessere coeperunt. 


XXIV. Postquam id animum advertit, copias suas Caesar in 
proximum collem subduxit equitatumque qui sustineret hostium 
impetum mlsit. Ipse interim in colle medio triplicem aciem 
Instruxit legionum quattuor veteranarum ; in summo iugo duas 
legiones quas in Gallia citeriore proxime conscrlpserat et omnia 5 
auxilia conlocari ac totura montem hominibus complerl, et 
interea sarcinas in unum locum confern, et eum ab ils qui in 
superiore acie constiterant mumri iussit. Helvetii cum omni- 
bus suls earns secuti impedimenta in unum locum contulerunt ; 
ipsl confertissima acie reiecto nostro equitatu, phalange facta 10 
sub primam nostram aciem successerunt. 

A battle takes place, in which the Helvetii are defeated. 

XXV. Caesar primum suo, deinde omnium ex conspectu re- 
motls equis, ut aequato omnium periculo spem fugae tolleret, 
cohortatus suos proelium commlsit. MTlites e loco superiore 
pills missis facile hostium phalangem perfregerunt. Eais 
disiecta gladils destrictis in eos impetum fecerunt. GallTs 
magno ad pugnam erat impediments quod pluribus eorum scutls 
uno ictu pilorum transfixis et conligatis, cum ferrum se inflexis- 
set, neque evellere neque sinistra impedita ~satis commode 
pugnare poterant ; mult! ut diu iactato bracchio praeoptarent 20 
scutum manu emittere et nudo corpore pugnare. Tandem 
vulneribus defessi et pedem referre et, quod mons aberat circiter 
mille passus, e5 se recipere coeperunt. Capto monte et suc- 
cedentibus nostris Boil et TulingI, qui hominum milibus 
circiter xv agmen hostium claudebant et novissimls praesidio 25 
erarit, ex itinere nostr5s ab latere aperto adgressi circumvenire, 
et id conspicati Helvetii, qui in montem sese receperant, rursus 
Instare et proelium redintegrare coeperunt. RomanI conversa 
slgna bipartite intulerunt, prlma et secunda acies ut victls ac 
submotls resisteret, tertia ut vementis sustineret. 30 

XXVI. Ita ancipitl proelio diu atque acriter pugnatum est. 
Diutius cum sustinere nostrorum impetus non possent, alter! se, 
ut coeperant, in montem receperunt, alter! ad impedimenta 


et carros suos se contulerunt. Nam hoc toto prcelio, 
cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit, aversum 
hostem videre nemo potuit. Ad multam noctem etiam ad im- 
pedimenta pugnatum est, propterea quod pro vallo carros 
5 obiecerant et e Ioc5 superiore in nostros venientis tela conicie- 
bant, et non null! inter carros raedasque mataras ac tragulas 


subiciebant nostrosque vulnerabant. Diu cum esset pugnatum, 
impedimentls castrisque nostri potiti sunt. Ibi Orgetorigis filia 
atque unus e filils captus est. Ex eo proelio circiter hominum 
cxxx superfuerunt eaque tota nocte continenter ierunt 


nullam partem noctis itinere intermisso ; in finis Lingoniim die 
quarto pervenerunt, cum et propter vulnera militum et propter 
sepulturam occlsorura nostri triduum morati eos sequi non 
potuissent. Caesar ad Lingones litteras nuntiosque nrisit ne 
eos frumento neve alia re iuvarent : ' Qui si iuvissent, se eodem 5 
loco quo Helvetios habiturum.' Ipse trlduo intermisso cum 
omnibus copiis eos sequi coepit. 

The survivors surrender themselves to Caesar, who orders them to 

return to their homes. 

XXVII. Helvetii omnium rerum inopia adduetl legates de 
deditione ad eum miserunt. Qui cum enm in itinere conve- 
nissent seque ad pedes proiecissent suppliciterque locut! 10 
flentes pacem petissent, atque eos in eo loco quo turn 
essent suum adventum exspectare iussisset, paruerunt. Eo 
postquam Caesar pervenit, obsides, arma, servos qui ad eos 
perfugissent poposcit. Dum ea conqulruntur et conferuntur, 
nocte intermissa circiter hominum railia sex eius pagi qui Ver- 15 
bigenus appellatur, sive timore perterritl ne armis traditis sup- 
plicio adficerentur sive spe salutis induct!, quod in tanta mul- 
titudine dediticiorum suam fugam aut occultari aut ommno 
ignoran posse existimarent, prima nocte e castris Helvetiorum 
egress! ad Rhenum fimsque Germanorum contenderunt. 20 

XXVIII. Quod ubi Caesar resciit, quorum per f!n!s ierant, 
h!s ut! conquirerent et reducerent, si sibi purgat! esse vellent, 
imperavit ; reductos in hostium numero habuit ; reliquos omms 
obsidibus, armis, perfngis traditis in deditionem accepit. Hel- 
vetios, Tulingos, Latobrigos in finis suos unde erant profectizs 
revert! iussit ; et quod omnibus frugibus amissls domi nihil erat 
quo famem tolerarent, Allobrogibus imperavit ut ils frumenti 
copiam facerenfj ipsos oppida vicosque, quos incenderant, 
restituere iussit. Id ea maxime ratione fecit, quod noluit eum 
locum unde Helvetil discesserant vacare, ne propter bonitatem 30 
agrorum German!, qu! trans Rhenum incolunt, ex suis finibus 
in Helvetiorum finis transirent et finitimi Galliae provinciae 


et carros suos se contulerunt. Nam hoc toto prcelio, 
cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit, aversum 
hostem videre nemo potuit. Ad multam noctem etiam ad im- 
pedimenta pugnatum est, propterea quod pro vallo carros 
5 obiecerant et e loco superiore in nostros venientis tela conicie- 
bant, et non null! inter carros raedasque mataras ac tragulas 



subiciebant nostrosque vulnerabant. Diu cum esset pugnatum, 
impedlmentis castrisqne nostrl potiti sunt. Ibi Orgetorigis filia 
atque unus e filiis captus est. Ex eo proelio circiter hominum 
cxxx superfuerunt eaque tota nocte continenter ierunt 


nullara partem noctis itinere intermisso ; in finis Lingonum die 
quarto pervenerunt, cum et propter vulnera militum et propter 
sepulturam occlsorum nostri tridimm morati eos seqm non 
potuissent. Caesar ad Lingones litteras nuntiosque raisit ne 
eos frumento neve alia re iuvarent : ' Qui si iuvissent, se eodem 5 
loco quo Helvetios habiturum.' Ipse trlduo intermisso cum 
omnibus copiis eos sequl coepit. 

The survivors surrender themselves to Caesar, who orders them to 

return to their homes, 

XXVII. Helvetii omnium rerum inopia adductl legatos de 
deditione ad eum mlserunt. Qui cum eum in itinere conve- 
nissent seque ad pedes proiecissent suppliciterque lociitl 10 
flentes pacem petissent, atque eos in eo loco quo turn 
essent suum adventum exspectare iussisset, paruerunt. Eo 
postquam Caesar pervenit, obsides, arma, servos qui ad eos 
perfugissent poposcit. Dum ea conqulruntur et conferuntur, 
nocte intermissa circiter hominum mllia sex eius pagi qui Ver- 15 
bigenus appellatur, slve timore perterriti ne armis traditis sup- 
plicio adficerentur sive spe salutis induct!, quod in tanta mul- 
titudine deditlciorum suam fugam aut occultarT aut omnino 
ignoran posse existimarent, prima nocte e castris Helvetiorum 
egress! ad Rhenum fimsque Germanorum contendenmt. 20 

XXVIII. Quod ubi Caesar resciit, quorum per fmis ierant, 
h!s ut! conqinrerent et reducerent, s! sibi purgat! esse vellent, 
imperavit ; reductos in hostium numero habuit ; reliquos omnls 
obsidibus, armis, perfugis traditis in deditionem accepit. Hel- 
vetios, Tulingos, Latobrigos in fims suos unde erant profecti 25 
revert! iussit ; et quod omnibus frugibus amissis clom! nihil erat 
quo famem tolerarent, Allobrogibus imperavit ut iis frument! 
copiam facerent; ipsos oppida vicosque, quos incenderant, 
restituere iussit. Id ea maxime ratione fecit, quod n51uit eum 
locum unde Helvetii discesserant vacare, ne propter bonitatem 30 
agrorum German!, qu! trans Rhenum incolunt, ex suis finibus 
in Helvetiorum f!n!s transirent et finitimi Galliae provinciae 


Allobrogfbusque essent. Boios petentibus Haeduis, quod 
egregia virtute erant cogniti, ut in finibus suls conlocarent 
concessit; quibus ill! agros dederunt, quosque postea in 
parem iuris libertatisque condicionera atque ipsi erant 
5 receperunt. 

The number of the Helvetii and their allies. 

XXIX. In castris Helvetiorum tabulae repertae sunt, litteris 
Graecis confectae, et ad Caesarem relatae, quibus in tabulis 
nominatim ratio confecta erat, qul numerus domo exisset 
eorum qul arma ferre possent, et item separatim quot puen, 

xosenes, mulieresque. Quarura omnium rerum summa erat 
capitum Helvetiorum mllium CCLXIII, Tulingorum milium 
xxxvi, Latobrigorum xim, Rauracorum xxin, Boiorum 
xxxri ; ex his, qui arma ferre possent ad milia nonaginta 
duo. Summa omnium fuerunt ad milia CCCLXVIII. Eorum 

15 qul domum redierunt censu habito, ut Caesar imperaverat, re- 
pertus est numerus milium c et x. 


The Gauls congratulate Caesar. 

XXX. Bello Helvetiorum confecto totlus fere Galliae legati, 
prmcipes civitatum, ad Caesarem gratulatum convenerunt : 
'Intellegere sese, tametsi pro veteribus Helvetiorum iniurils 

aopopuli Roman! ab his poenas bello repetisset, tamen earn 
rem non minus ex usu Galliae quam populi Roman! accidisse, 
propterea quod eo consilio florentissimis rebus domos suas 
Helvetii reliquissent, ut! tot! Galliae bellum mferrent imperio- 
que potirentur locumque domicilio ex magna copia deligerent 

25 quern ex omn! Gallia opportunissimum ac fructuosissimum iudi- 
cassent reliquasque civitates stipendiarias haberent.' Petierunt 
ut! sibi concilium totius Galliae in diem certam indicere idque 
Caesaris voluntate facere liceret : l Sese habere quasdam res 
quas ex communi consensu ab eo petere vellent.' Ea re per- 


missa diem concilio constituerunt et iure iurando ne quis enun- 
tiaret, nisi quibus commum consih'5 mandatum esset, inter se 

Diviciacus asks Caesar's help against Ariovistus and the Germans. 

XXXI. Eo concilio dimisso Idem prlncipes civitatum qui 
ante fuerant ad Caesarem reverterunt, petieruntque uti sibi g 
secreto de sua omniumque salute cum eo agere h'ceret. Ea 
re impetrata sese omnes flentes Caesari ad pedes proiecerunt : 
' Non minus se id contendere et laborare, ne ea quae dixissent 
enuntiarentur, quam uti ea quae vellent impetrarent, propterea 
quod si enuntiatum esset, summum in cruciatum se ventures 10 
viderent.' Locutus est pro his Diviciacus Haeduus : ' Galliae 
totms factiones esse duas ; harum alterius principatum tenere 
Haeduos, alterius Arvernos. Hi cum tantopere de potentatu 
inter se multos annos contenderent, factum esse uti ab Ar- 
verms Sequamsque German! mercede arcesserentur. Horum 15 
primo circiter mllia xv Rhenum transisse ; posteaquam agros 
et cultum et copias Gallorum homines feri ac barbari adamas- 
sent, traductos plurls ; nunc esse in Gallia ad c et xx milium 
numerum. Cum his Haeduos eorumque clientls semel atque 
iterum armis contendisse ; magnam calamitatem pulsos ac- 20 
cepisse, omnem nobilitatem, omnem senatum, omnem equi- 
tatum amlsisse. Quibus proelils calamitatibusque fractos, qui 
et sua virtute et populi Romam hospitio atque amicitia pluri- 
mum ante in Gallia potuissent, coactos esse Sequams obsides 
dare nobilissimos civitatis, et iure iurando civitatem obstringere 25 
sese neque obsides repetlturos neque auxilium a populo Ro- 
mano imploraturos neque recusaturos quominus perpetuo sub 
illorum dicione atque imperio essent. Unum se esse ex omm 
civitate Haeduorum qui adducT non potuerit ut iuraret aut 

liberos suos obsides daret. Ob earn rem se ex civitate pro- 3 - . 

L I 
fugisse, et Romam ad senatum venisse auxilium postulatum, 

quod solus neque iure iurando neque obsidibus teneretur. Sed 
peius victoribus Sequanis quam Haeduis victls accidisse, prop- 


terea quod Ariovistus, rex Germanorum, in eorum fmibus con- 
sedisset tertiamque partem agri Sequam, qui esset optimus 
totlus Galliae, occupavisset, et nunc de altera parte tertia 
Sequanos decedere iuberet, propterea quod paucis raensibus 
5 ante Harudum milia hominura xxmi ad eum venissent, quibus 
locus ac sedes pararentur. Futurum esse paucis anms ut! 
ornnes ex Galliae finibus pellerentur, atque omnes German! 
Rhenum transirent ; neque enira conferendum esse Gallicum 
cum Germanorum agro neque hanc consuetudinera vlctus 

10 cum ilia comparandam. Ariovistum autem, ut semel Gallorum 
copias proelio vicerit, quod proelium factum sit ad Mageto- 
brigam, superbe et crudeliter imperare, obsides nobilissimi 
ciiiusque Hberos poscere, et in eos omnia exempla cruciatusque 
edere, si qua res non ad nutum aut ad voluntatem eius facta 

15 sit. Hominem esse barbarum, Iracundum, temerarium ; n5n 
posse eius imperia diutius sustinen. Nisi quid in Caesare 
populoque Romano sit auxili, omnibus Gallis idem esse facien- 
dum quod Helvetii fecerint, ut domo emigrent, aliud domici- 
lium, alias sedls remotas a Germanis petant, fortunarnque 

20 quaecumque accidat experiantur. Haec si enuntiata Ario- 
visto sint, non dubitare quin de omnibus obsidibus qm apud 
eum sint gravissimum supplicium sumat. Caesarem vel aucto- 
ritate sua atque exercitus vel recent! victoria vel nomine popul! 
Roman! deterrere posse ne maior multitude Germanorum 

25 Rhenum traducatur, Galliamque omnem ab Ariovist! iniuria 
posse defendere.' 

Caesar determines to aid the Gauls. 

XXXII. Hac oratione ab Diviciaco habita omnes qu! 
aderant magno fletu auxilium a Caesare petere coeperunt. 
Animadvertit Caesar unos ex omnibus Sequan5s nihil earum 
3rerum facere quas ceteri facerent, sed tr!st!s capite demisso 
terram intueri. Eius re! quae causa esset miratus ex ipsis 
quaesiit. Nihil Sequan! respondere, sed in eadem tnstitia 
tacit! permanere. Cum ab his saepius quaereret neque ullam 


ommno vocem exprimere posset, idem Diviciacus Haeduus 
respondit : ' Hoc esse miseriorem et graviorem fortunam Se- 
quanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli ne in occulto quidem 
queri neque auxilium implorare auderent, absentisque Ariovisti 
crudelitatem, velut si coram adesset, horrerent, propterea quod 5 
reliquis tarn en fugae facultas daretur, Sequams vero, quT intra 
finis suos Ariovistura recepissent, quorum oppida omnia in po- 
testate eius essent, omnes cruciatus essent perferendi.' 

XXXIII. His rebus cognitis Caesar Gallorum animos verbls 
conffrmavit pollicitusque est sibi earn rem curae futuram : 10 
' Magnam se habere spem et beneficio' suo et auctoritate ad- 
ductum Ariovistum finem iniurils facturum.' Hac oratione 
habita concilium dimlsit. Et secundum ea multae res eum 
hortabantur quare sibi earn rein cogitandam et suscipiendam 
putaret, in primls quod Haeduos, fratres consanguineosque 15 
saepenumer5 a senatu appellatos, in servitute atque in dicione 
videbat Germanorum tenen, eorumque obsides esse apud 
Ariovistum ac Sequanos intellegebat ; quod in tanto imperio 
populi Roman! turpissimum sibi et rel publicae esse arbitra- 
batur. Paulatirn autem Germanos consuescere Rhenum trans- 20 
ire et in Galliam magnam eorum multitudinem venire populo 
Romano periculosum videbat, neque sibi homines feros ac 
barbaros temperaturos exlstimabat quin, cum omnem Galliam 
occupavissent, ut ante Cimbri Teutonique fecissent, in provin- 
ciam exirent atque inde in Italiam contenderent, praesertim 25 
cum Sequanos a provincia nostra Rhodanus divideret ; quibus 
rebus quam maturrime occurrendum putabat. Ipse autem 
Ariovistus tantos sibi spiritus, tantam adrogantiam sumpserat 
ut ferendus non videretur. 

He sends an embassy to Ariovistus, who returns an insolent reply. 

XXXIV. Quam ob rem placuit el ut ad Ariovistum legates 30 
mitteret, qui ab eo postularent uti aliquem locum medium 
utrmsque conloquio deligeret : 'Velle sese de re publica et 
summis utrmsque rebus cum eo agere.' El legationl Ariovistus 


respondit : ' Si quid ipsi a Caesare opus esset, sese ad eum 
venturum fuisse ; si quid ille se velit, ilium ad se venire opor- 
tere. Praeterea se neque sine exercitu in eas partis Galliae 
venire audere quas Caesar possideret neque exercitum sine 
5 magno commeatu atque mollmento in uniim locum contrahere 
posse. Sibi autem rairum videri quid in sua Gallia, quam bello 
vicisset, aut Caesar! aut omnmo populo Romano negotl esset.' 

A second embassy and a second reply. 

XXXV. His responsis ad Caesarem relatls" iterum ad eum 
Caesar legates cum his mandatis mittit : ' Quoniam tanto suo 

zopopulique RomanI beneficio adfectus, cum in consulatu suo 
rex atque amicus a senatu appellatus esset, hanc sibi populoque 
Romano gratiam referret, ut in conloquium venire invitatus 
gravaretur neque de communi re discendum sibi et cogncs- 
cendum putaret, haec esse quae ab eo postularet : primum, ne 

15 quam multitudinem hominum amplius trans Rhenum in Galliam 
traduceret deinde, obsides quos haberet ab Haeduis redderet, 
Sequanisque permitteret ut quos ill! haberent voluntate eius 
reddere illls liceret neve Haeduos iniuria lacesseret neve his 
sociisque eorum bellum Inferret. Si ita fecisset, sibi populoque 

20 Romano perpetuam gratiam atque-amlcitiam cum eo futuram ; 
si non impetraret, sese, quoniam M. Messala, M. Plsone con- 
sulibus senatus censuisset utl quicumque Galliam provinciam 
obtineret, quod commodo rei publicae facere posset, Haeduos 
ceterosque amicos populi Romam defenderet, se Haeduorum 

ssiniurias non neglecturum.' 

XXXVI. Ad haec Ariovistus respondit : ' lus esse belli ut qui 
vicissent iTs quos ylcissent quern ad modum vellent imperarent. 
Item populum Romanum victis non ad alterius praescriptum, 
sed ad suum arbitrium imperare consuesse. Si ipse populo 

30 Romano non praescriberet quern ad modum suo iure uteretur, 
non oportere se a populo Romano in suo iure impedirl. Hae- 
duos sibi, quoniam belli fortunam temptassent et armis congress! 
ac superati essent, stipendiaries esse factos. Magnam Caesarem 


iniuriam facere, quT suo adventu vectlgalia sibi deteriora faceret. 
Haeduis se obsides redditurum non esse, neque his neque 
eorum sociis iniuria bellura inlaturum, si in eo manerent quod 
convenisset stlpendiumque quotannls penderent; si id non 
fecissent, longe ils fraternum nomen populi Roman! afuturum. 5 
Quod sibi Caesar denuntiaret se Haeduorum imurias non neg- 
lecturum, neminem secum sine sua pernicie contendisse. Cum 
vellet, congrederetur ; intellecturum quid invicti German!, exer- 
citatissimi in armis, qui inter annos xim tectum non subissent, 
virtute possent.' 


The Gauls complain of new hardships. Caesar hastens to Vesontio. 

XXXVII. Haec eodem tempore Caesar! mandata refere- 
bantur et legatl ab Haeduis et a Treveris veniebant, Haedui 
questum quod Harudes, qui nuper in Galliam transportati 
essent, finis eorum popularentur ; sese ne obsidibus quidem 
datis pacem Ariovisti redimere potuisse ; Treveri autem, pagos 15 

centum Sueborum ad ripas 
Rheni consedisse, qui Rhenum 
transire conarentur ; his prae- 
esse Nasuam et Cirnberium 
fratres. Quibus rebus Caesar 20 
vehementer commotus matii- 
randum sibi exlstimavit, ne, si 
nova manus Sueborum cum 
veteribus copiis Ariovisti sese 
coniunxisset, minus facile re- 25 
sisti posset. Itaque re frumen- 
taria quam celerrime potuit 
comparata magms itineribus 
ad Ariovistum contendit. 

XXXVIII. Cum tridul viam processisset, nuntiatum est eiso 
Ariovistum cum suls omnibus copiis ad occupandum Veson- 
tionem, quod est oppidum maximum Sequan5rum, contendere 
tridulque viam a suls fmibus processisse. Id ne accideret 



magnopere sibi praecavendum Caesar existimabat. Naraque 
omnium rerum quae ad bellum usui erant summa erat in eo 
oppido facultas, idemque natura loci sic muniebatur ut magnam 
ad ducendum bellum daret facultatem, propterea quod flumen 
5Dubis ut circino circumductum paene totum oppidum cingit, 
reliquum spatium, quod est non amplins pedum sescentorum, 
qua flumen intermittit, mons continet magna altitudine, ita ut 
radices eius mentis ex utraque parte ripae fluminis contingant. 
Hunc murus circumdatus arcem efficit et cum oppido coniungit. 
10 Hue Caesar magnis nocturnis diurmsque itineribus contendit 
occupatoque oppido ibi praesidium conlocat. 

A panic seizes the soldiers. 

XXXIX. Dura paucos dies ad Vesontionera rei frumentariae 
commeatusque causa moratur, ex percontatione nostrorum 
vocibusque Gallorum ac mercatorum, qui ingentl magnitudine 

iscorporum Germanos, incredibili virtute atque exercitatione in 
armis esse praedicaba'nt (saepenumero sese cum his congressos 
ne vultum quidem atque aciem oculorum dicebant ferre 
potuisse), tantus subito timor omnem exercitum occupavit ut 
non mediocriter omnium mentis animosque perturbaret. Hie 

20 primum ortus est a tribunls militum, praefectls, reliquisque qui 
ex urbe amicitiae causa Caesarem secuti non magnum in re mili- 
tari usum habebant ; quorum alius alia causa inlata, quam sibi 
ad proficlscendum necessariam esse dlceret, petebat ut eius vo- 
luntate discedere liceret; non nullipudore adducti, ut timoris sus- 

25 picionem vitarent, remanebant. Hi neque vultum fingere neque 
interdum lacrimas tenere poterant j abditi in tabernaculis aut 
suum fatumquerebantur aut cum familiaribus suis commune peri- 
culum miserabantur. Vulgo totis castris testamenta obsignaban- 
tur. Horum vocibus ac timore paulatim etiam ii qui magnum in 

30 castris usum habebant, milites centurionesque quique equitatui 
praeerant, perturbabantur. Qui se ex his minus timidos ex- 
Tstimari volebant, non se hostem vereri, sed angustias itineris et 
magnitudinem silvarum quae intercederent inter ipsos atque 


Ariovistum, aut rera frumentariam, ut satis commode supportari 
posset, timere dicebant. Non null! etiam Caesar! nuntiabant, 
cum castra mover! ac slgna fern iussisset, non fore dicto 
audientls rmlites neque propter timorem signa laturos. 

Caesar quiets their fears by a remarkable speech. 

XL. Haec cum animadvertisset, convocato consilio om- 5 
niumque ordinum ad id consilium adhibitis centurionibus vehe- 
menter eos incusavit : prlmum, quod aut quam in partem aut 
quo consilio ducerentur sibi quaerendum aut cogitandum 
putarent. ' Ariovistum se c5nsule cupidissime populi Romani 
amicitiam appetisse ; cur hunc tarn temere quisquam ab officio 10 
discessurum iudicaret? Sibi quidem persuader! cognitis suis 
postulatls atque aequitate condici5num perspecta eum neque 
suam neque populi Romam gratiam repudiaturnm. Quod 
si furore atque amentia impulsus bellum intulisset, quid tan- 
dem vererentur? Aut cur de sua virtute aut de ipsius diligentiais 
desperarent? Factum eius hostis periculum patrum nostrorum 
memoria, cum Cimbrls et Teutoms a C. Mario pulsis non 
minorem laudem exercitus quam ipse^ imperator meritus vide- 
batur ; factum etiam nuper in Italia servlll tumultu, quos tamen 
aliquid usus ac disciplina quam a nobis accepissent sublevarent. 2 o 
Ex quo iudicari posse quantum haberet in se bom constantia, 
propterea quod quos aliquamdiu inermis sine causa timuissent, 
hos postea armatos ac victores superassent. Denique hos 
esse eosdem Germanos quibuscum saepenumero Helvetii 
congressl non solu.m in suis sed etiam in illorum finibus plerumq^ue 25 
superarint ; qui tamen pares esse nostro exercitui non potuerint. 
Si quos adversum proelium et fuga Gallorum commoveret, hos, 
si quaererent, reperlre posse diuturnitate belli defatlgatls Gallis 
Ariovistum, cum multos mensis castris se ac paludibus tenuisset 
neque sui potestatem fecisset, desperantls iam de pugna et^o 
disperses subito adortum magis ratione et consilio quam vir- 
tute vicisse. Cui ration! contra homines barbaros atque 
imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare nostros 


exercitus capi posse. Qui suum timorem in rei frumentariae 
simulationem angustiasque itineris conferrent, facere adrogan- 
ter, cum aut die officio imperatoris desperare aut praescribere 
viderentur. Haec sibi esse curae ; frumentum Sequanos, 
5 Leucos, Lingones subministrare, iamque esse in agris frumen- 
tamatura; de itinere ipsos brevi tempore Judicatures. Quod 
non fore dicto audientes neque signa latuii dicantur, nihil 
se ea re commoveri ; scire enim quibuscumque exercitus dicto 
audiens non fuerit, aut male re gesta fortunam defuisse aut aliquo 

lofacinore comperto avaritiam esse convictam. Suam inno- 
centiam perpetua vita, felicitatem Helvetiorum bello esse per- 
spectam. Itaque se quod in longiorem diem conlaturus fuisset 
repraesentaturum, et proxima nocte de quarta vigilia castra 
moturum, ut quam primum intellegere posset utrum apud eos 

15 pudor atque officium an timor plus valeret. Quod si praeterea 
nemo sequatur, tamen se cum sola decima legione iturum, de 
qua non dubitaret, sibique earn praetoriam cohortem futuram.' 
Huic legion! Caesar et indulserat praecipue et propter virtutem 
confidebat maxime. 

The army moves toward Ariovistus. 

20 XLI. Hac oratione habita mirum in modum conversae snnt 
omnium mentes, summaque alacritas et cupiditas belli gerendi 
inlata est, princepsque decima legio per tribunes militurn el 
gratias egit quod de se optimum iudicium fecisset, seque esse ad 
bellum g;erendum paratissimam confirmavit. Deinde reliquae 

25 legiones cum tribunls militum et primorum ordinum centurioni- 
bus egerunt utT Caesar! satisfacerent : 'Se neque urnquam dubi- 
tasse neque timuisse neque de sum ma belli suum iudicium, sed 
imperatoris esse existimavisse.' Eorum satisfactione accepta 
et itinere exquisite per Dlviciacum, quod ex Gallis el maximam 

30 fidem habebat, ut milium amplius L circuitu locis apertls exerci- 

turn duceret, de quarta vigilia, ut dixerat, profectus est. Sep- 
timo die, cum iter non intermitteret, ab exploratoribus certior fac- 
tus est Ariovisti copias a nostris rnilia passuum mi et xx abesse. 



Negotiations between Caesar and Ariovistus. 

XLII. Cognito Caesaris adventu Ariovistus legates ad eum 
mittit : ' Quod antea de conloquio postulasset, id per se fieri 
licere, quoniara propius accessisset seque id sine periculo 
facere posse existimaret.' Non respuit condicionem Caesar, 

iamque eum ad sanitatem 5 
revertl arbitrabatur, cum id 
quod antea petentl denegas- 
set ultro polliceretur ; mag- 
namque in spem veniebat pro 
suls tantls populique Roman! 10 
in eum beneficils, cognitls suls 
postulatis, fore uti pertinacia 
desisteret. Dies conloquio 
dictus est ex eo die qumtus. 
Interim saepe cum Iegatii5 
ultro citroque inter eos mit- 
terentur, Ariovistus postulavit 
ne quern peditem ad conlo- 
quium Caesar adduceret : 
' Vereri se ne per insidias ab 20 
eo circumveniretur ; uterque 
cum equitatu vemret; alia 
ratione sese non esse ven- 
turum.' Caesar quod neque 
conloquium interposita causa 25 
toll! volebat neque salutem 
suam Gallorum equitatui com- 
mittere audebat, commodissi- 
mum esse statuit omnibus 
equis Gallis equitibus detractis 30 
eo legionaries milites legionis decimae, cui quam maxime con- 
fidebat, imponere, ut praesidium quam amicissimum, si quid 
opus facto esset, haberet. Quod cum fieret, non inridicule 
quidam ex militibus decimae legionis dixit plus quam pollicitus 


(From a gravestone) 


exercitus capT posse. QuI suura timorem in rei frumentariae 
simulationem angustiasque itineris conferrent, facere adrogan- 
ter, cum aut de officio imperatoris desperare aut praescrlbere 
viderentur. Haec sibi esse curae ; frumentum Sequanos, 
5 Leucos, Lingones subministrare, iamque esse in agiis frumen- 
ta matiira ; de itinere ipsos brevi tempore judicatures. Quod 
non fore dicto audientes neque slgna laturi dlcantur, nihil 
se ea re commoveri ; scire enim quibuscumque exercitus dicto 
audiens non fuerit, aut male re gesta fortunnm defuisse aut aliquo 

icfacinore comperto avaritiam esse convictam. Suam inno- 
centiam perpetua vita, felicitatem Helvetiorum bello esse per- 
spectam. Itaque se quod in longiorem diem conlaturus fuisset 
repraesentatiirum, et proxima nocte de quarta vigilia castra 
moturum, ut quam prlmum intellegere posset ntrum apud eos 

15 pudor atque officium an timor |5]us valeret. Quod si praeterea 
nemo sequatur, tamen se cum sola decima legione iturum, de 
qua non dubitaret, sibique earn praetoriam cohortem futiiram.' 
Huic legion! Caesar et indulserat praecipue et propter virtutem 
confldebat maxime. 

The army moves toward Ariovistus. 

20 XLI. Hac oratione habita mlrum in modum conversae sunt 
omnium mentes, summaque alacritas et cupiditas belli gerendi 
inlata est, princepsque decima legio per tribunos mlliturn el 
gratias egit quod de se optimum indicium fecisset, seque esse ad 
bellum gerendum paratissimam confirmavit. Deinde reliquae 

aslegiones cum tribiinls militum et primorum ordinum centurioni- 
bus egerunt uti Caesar! satisfacerent : 'Se neque umquam dubi- 
tasse neque timuisse neque de summa belli suum iudicium, sed 
imperatoris esse existimavisse.' Eorum satisfactione accepta 
et itinere exquislto per Diviciacum, quod ex Gallis el maximam 

3 fidem habebat, ut milium amplius L circuitu locis apertls exerci- 
tum duceret, de quarta vigilia, ut dixerat, profectus est. Sep- 
timo die, cum iter non intermitteret,ab exploratoribus certior fac- 
tus est Ariovisti copias a nostris milia passuum mi et xx abesse. 



Negotiations between Caesar and Ariovistus. 

XLII. Cognito Caesaris adventu Ariovistus legates ad eum 
mittit : ' Quod antea de conloquio postulasset, id per se fieri 
licere, quoniam propius accessisset seque id sine perlculo 
facere posse existimaret.' Non respuit condicionem Caesar, 

iamque eum ad sanitatem 5 
revert! arbitrabatur, cum id 
quod antea patent! denegas- 
set ultro polliceretur ; mag- 
namque in spem veniebat pro 
sms tantis populique Roman! 10 
in eum beneficiis, cognitis su!s 
postulat!s, fore ut! pertinacia 
desisteret. Dies conloquio 
dictus est ex eo die qumtus. 
Interim saepe cum legat! 15 
ultro citroque inter eos mit- 
terentur, Ariovistus postulavit 
ne quern peditem ad conlo- 
quium Caesar adduceret : 
' Vereri se ne per msidias ab 20 
eo circumveniretur ; uterque 
cum equitatu vemret j alia 
ration e sese non esse ven- 
turum.' Caesar quod neque 
conloquium interposita causa 25 
toll! volebat neque salutem 
suam Gallorum equitatu! com- 
mittere audebat, commodissi- 
mum esse statuit omnibus 
eqms Gallis equitibus detracts 30 
eo legionarios milites legionis decimae, cui quam maxima con- 
fidebat, imponere, ut praesidium quam amicissimum, si quid 
opus facto esset, haberet. Quod cum fieret, non inridicule 
quidam ex militibus decimae legionis dixit plus quam pollicitus 

(From a gravestone) 


esset Caesarem facere ; pollicitum se in cohortis praetoriae 
loco decimam legionem habiturum ad equum rescrlbere. 

A conference is held, in which Caesar makes demands of Ariovistus. 

XLIII. Planities erat magna et in ea tumulus terrenus satis 
grandis. Hie locus aequum fere spatium a castrls Ariovistl et 

5 Caesaris aberat. Eo, ut erat dictum, ad conloquium venerunt. 
Legionem Caesar quam equis devexerat passibus ducentis ab 
eo tumulo constituit. Item equites Ariovistl pan intervallo 
constiterunt. Ariovistus ex equis ut conloquerentur et praeter 
se denos ad conloquium adducerent postulavit. Ubi eo ven- 

10 turn est, Caesar initio orationis sua senatusque in eum beneficia 
commemoravit, quod rex appellatus esset a senatu, quod 
amlcus, quod munera amplissima missa; quam rem et paucis 
contigisse et pro magnis hominum officiis consuesse tribui do- 
cebat; ilium, cum neque aditum neque causam postulandi 

15 iustam haberet, beneficio ac liBeralitate sua ac senatus ea prae- 
mia consecutum. Docebat etiam quam veteres quamque 
iustae causae necessitudinis ipsis cum Haeduls intercederent ; 
quae senatus consulta, quotiens, quamque honorifica in eos facta 
essent ; ut omnl tempore totius, Galliae principatum HaeduT 

20 tenuissent, prius etiam quam nostram amlcitiam appetissent. 
'Populi Roman! hanc esse consuetudinem, ut socios atque 
amicos non modo sui nihil deperdere sed gratia, digmtate, 
honore auctiores vellet esse; quod vero ad amlcitiam popull 
Roman! attulissent, id iis eripl quis pati posset ? ' Postulavit 

25 deinde eadem quae legatis in mandatis dederat : ne aut 
HaeduTs aut edrum sociis bellum inferret, obsides redderet : si 
nullam partem Germanorum domum remittere posset, at ne 
quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur. 

Ariovistus rejects Caesar's demands and makes others in his turn, which 

Caesar rejects. 

XLIV. Ariovistus ad postulata Caesaris pauca respondit, de 
3 o suis virtutibus multa praedicavit : ' Transisse Rhenum sese non 



sua sponte, sed rogatum et arcessltum a Gallls ; non sine 
magna spe magnlsque praemiis domum propinquosque rell- 
quisse; sedls habere in Gallia ab ipsls concessas, obsides 
ipsorum voluntate dates ; stlpendium capere iure belli, quod 
victores victls imponere consuerinU Non sese Gallls, sed 5 
Gallos sibi bellum intulisse ; omuls Galliae crvitates ad se op- 
pugnandum venisse ac contra se castra habuisse ; eas omms 
copias a se uno proelio pulsas ac superatas esse. Si iterum ex- 
perm velint, se iterum paratum esse decertare ; si pace utl 
velint, iniquum esse de stipendio recusare, quod sua voluntate 10 
ad id tempus pependerint. 

' Amicitiam popull Roman! sibi ornamento et praesidio, non 
detrimento esse oportere, atque se hac spe petlsse. Si per 
populum Romanum stlpendium remittatur et deditlcil subtra- 
hantur, non minus libenter sese recusaturum popull Roman! 15 
amicitiam quam appetierit. Quod multitudinem Germanorum 
in Galliam traducat, id se sui munieridl, non Galliae oppug- 
nandae causa facere ; eius re! testimonium esse quod nisi 
rogatus non venerit, et quod bellum non intulerit, sed defen- 
derit. 20 

' Se prius in Galliam venisse quam populum Romanum. 
Numquam ante hoc tempus exercitum popull Roman! Galliae 
provinciae fmibus egressum. Quid sibi vellet? Cur in suas 
possessiones vemret ? Provinciam suam hanc esse Galliam,/ 
sicut illam nostram. Ut ips! conced! non oporteret, s! in nostros 25 
finis impetum faceret, sic item nos esse imquos, quod in suo 
iure se interpellaremus. Quod fratres a senatu Haeduos appel- 
latos diceret, non se tarn barbarum neque tain imperitum esse 
rerum ut non sclret neque bello Allobrogum proxim5 Haeduos 
Romams auxilium tulisse neque ipsos in his contentionibus 30 
quas Haedui secum et cum Sequanls habuissent auxilio popull 
Roman! usos esse. Debere se suspicar! simulata Caesarem 
amicitia, quern exercitum in Gallia habeat, sui opprimend! 
causa habere. Qu! nisi decedat atque exercitum deducat ex 
h!s regionibus, sese ilium non pro am!co, sed pro hoste 35 


habiturum. Quod si eum interfecerit, multis sese nobilibus 
prmcipibusque populi Roman! gratum esse facturum (id se 
ab ipsis per eorum nuntios compertum habere), quorum 
omnium gratiam atque ainicitiam eius morte redimere posset. 

5 Quod si decessisset et liberam possessionem Galliae sibi tradi- 
disset, magno se ilium praemio remuneraturum, et quaecumque 
bella gerl vellet sine ullo eius labore et periculo confec- 

XLV. Multa a Caesare in earn sententiam dicta sunt, quare 

ronegotio desistere non posset: 'Neque suam neque populi 
Roman! consuetudinem pat! uti optime meritos socios desereret, 
neque se iudicare Galliam potius esse Ariovistl quam popul! 
Roman!. Bello superatos esse Arvernos et Rutenos a Q. 
Fabio Maximo, quibus populus Romanus ignovisset neque in 

15 provinciam redegisset neque stipendium imposuisset. Quod si 
ant!quissimum quodque tempus spectar! oporteret, populi Ro- 
man! iustissimum esse in Gallia imperium ; si iudicium senatus 
observar! oporteret, liberam debere esse Galliam, quam bello 
victam sms legibus uti voluisset.' 

The conference is broken off by signs of bad faith on the part of the 


20 XLVI. Dum haec in conloquio genmtur, Caesar! nuntiatum 
est equites Ariovistl propius tumulum accedere et ad nostros 
adequitare, lapides telaque in nostros conicere. Caesar lo- 
quend! fmem fecit seque ad suos recepit, suisque imperavit ne 
quod ommno telum in hostis reicerent. Nam ets! sine ullo 

25 periculo legionis delectae cum equitatu proelium fore videbat, 
tamen committendum non putabat ut pulsis hostibus die! posset 
eos ab se per fidem in conloquio circumventos. Posteaquam 
in vulgus mllitum elatum est qua adrogantia in conloquio Ario- 
vistus usus omn! Gallia Romanis interdixisset, impetumque ut 

30 in nostros eius equites fecissent, eaque res conloquium dire- 
misset, multo maior alacritas studiumque pugnand! maius exer- 
citu! iniectum est. 


Ariovistus wishes to renew negotiations, but casts into chains envoys 

whom Caesar sends. 

XLVII. Biduo post Ariovistus ad Caesarem legates misit : 
' Velle se de iis rebus quae inter eos agl coeptae neque perfectae 
essent agere cum eo ; uti aut iterum conloquio diem constitueret 
aut, si id minus vellet, ex suis legatls aliquem ad se mitteret.' 
Conloquend! Caesar! causa visa non est, et eo magis quod 5 
pridie eius diel German! retineri non potuerant qum tela in 
nostros conicerent. Legatum ex suis sese magno cum periculo 
ad eum missurum et hominibus fens obiecturum existimabat. 
Commodissimum vlsum est C. Valerium Procillum, C. Valeri 
Cabuii filium, summa virtute et humanitate adulescentem, cuius 10 
pater a C. Valerio Flacc5 civitate donatus erat, et propter jfidem 
et propter linguae Gallicae scientiam, qua multa iam Ariovistus 
longinqua consuetudine utebatur, et quod in eo peccandi Ger- 
manis causa non esset, ad eum mittere, et una M. Metium, qul 
hospitio Ariovisti utebatur. His mandavit ut quae diceret 15 
Ariovistus cognoscerent et ad se referrent. Qu5s cum apud se 
in castrls Ariovistus conspexisset, exercitu suo praesente concla- 
mavit : ' Quid ad se venlrent ? An speculandl causa ? ' Conantis 
dicere prohibuit et in catenas coniecit. 

Caesar tries in vain to induce Ariovistus to fight. 

XLVIII. Eodem die castra promovit et milibus passuum sex 20 
a Caesaris castrls sub monte consedit. Postridie eius diel 
praeter castra Caesaris suas copias traduxit et milibus passuum 
duobus ultra eum castra fecit eo consilio, uti frumento com- 
meatuque, qui ex Sequanis et Haeduls supportaretur, Caesarem 
intercluderet. Ex eo die dies continues quinque Caesar pro 25 
castrls suas copias produxit et aciem Instructam habuit, ut si 
vellet Ariovistus proelio contendere, el potestas non deesset. 
Ariovistus his omnibus diebus exercitum castris continuit, eques- 
trl proelio cottidie contendit. Genus hoc erat pugnae quo se 
German! exercuerant. Equitum milia erant sex, totidem numero 30 
pedites velocissimi ac fortissiml, quos ex omn! copia singuli 


singulos suae salutis causa delegerant; cum his in proeliis 
versabantur, ad eos se equites recipiebant. Hi, si quid erat 
diirius, concurrebant ; si qui graviore vulnere accepto equo 
deciderat, circumsistebant ; si quo erat longius prodeundum 

5 aut celerius recipiendum, tanta erat horum exercitatione cele- 
ritas ut iubis sublevati equorum cursum adaequarent. 

XLIX. Ubi earn castris se tenure Caesar intellexit, ne diutius 
commeatu prohiberetur, ultra eum locum quo in loco German! 
consederant circiter passus sescentos ab his castrls idoneum 

10 locum delegit, acieque triplici mstructa ad earn locum venit. 
Primam et secundam aciem in armis esse, tertiam castra munlre 
iussit Hie locus ab hoste circiter passus sescentos, uti dictum 
est, aberat. Eo circiter hominum xvi milia expedita cum 
omm equitatu Ariovistus misit, quae copiae nostros terrerent 

15 et munitione prohiberent. Nihilo setius Caesar, ut ante con- 
stituerat, duas acies hostem propulsare, tertiam opus perficere 
iussit Munitis castris duas ibi legiones rellquit et partem 
auxiliorum, quattuor reliquas in castra maiora reduxit. 

Fighting at last begins. 

L. Proximo die institute suo Caesar ex castris utrisque 
aocopias suas eduxit, paulumque a maioribus castris progressus 
aciem Tnstruxit hostibusque pugnandi potestatem fecit. Ubi 
ne turn quidem eos prodfre intellexit, circiter meridie exercitum 
in castra reduxit. Turn demum Ariovistus partem suarum co- 
piarum, quae castra minora oppugnaret, misit. Acriter utrim- 
25 que usque ad vesperum pugnatum est. Solis occasu suas co- 
pias Ariovistus multis et inlatis et acceptls vulneribus in castra 
reduxit. Cum ex captivis quaereret Caesar quam ob rem 
Ariovistus proelio non decertaret, hanc reperiebat causam, quod 
apud Germanos ea consuetudo esset, ut matres familiae eorum 
sosortibus et vaticinationibus declararent utrum proelium com- 
mitti ex usu esset necne eas ita dicere : ' Non esse fas Ger- 
manos superare si ante novam lunam proelio contendis- 
sent.' . 

[ ll/Caesar's 
I _ll ' arger cam P 

Cra\ssus with the cavalry 




singulos suae salutis causa delegerant; cum his in proelils 
versabantur, ad eos se equites recipiebant. Hi, si quid erat 
durius, concurrebant ; si qui graviore vulnere accepto equ5 
deciderat, circumsistebant ; si quo erat longius prodeundum 
5 aut celerius recipiendum, tanta erat horum exercitatione cele- 
ritas ut iubls sublevatl equorum cursum adaequarent. 

XLIX. Ubi enm castris se teriere Caesar intellexit, ne diutius 
commeatu prohiberetur, ultra eum locum quo in loco German! 
consederant circiter passus sescentos ab his castris idoneum 

10 locum delegit, acieque triplicl mstructa ad eum locum venit. 
Primara et secundam aciem in armis esse, tertiam castra munlre 
iussit. Hie locus ab hoste circiter passus sescentos, uti dictum 
est, aberat. Eo circiter hominum xvi mllia expedlta cum 
omm equitatu Ariovistus mlsit, quae copiae nostros terrerent 

15 et munitione prohiberent. Nihilo setius Caesar, ut ante con- 
stituerat, duas acies hostem propulsare, tertiam opus perficere 
iussit. Munitis castris duas ibi legiones rellquit et partem 
auxiliorum, quattuor reliquas in castra maiora reduxit. 

Fighting at last begins. 

L. Proximo die Institute suo Caesar ex castris utrisque 
zocopias suas eduxit, paulumque a maioribus castris progressus 
aciem Instruxit hostibusque pugnandi potestatem fecit. Ubi 
ne turn quidem eos prodire intellexit, circiter meridie exercitum 
in castra reduxit. Turn demum Ariovistus partem suarum co- 
piarum, quae castra minora oppugnaret, mlsit. Acriter utrim- 
25 que usque ad vesperum pugnatum est. Solis occasu suas co- 
pias Ariovistus multis et inlatis et acceptls vulneribus in castra 
reduxit. Cum ex captlvis quaereret Caesar quam ob rein 
Ariovistus proelio non decertaret, hanc reperiebat causam, quod 
apud Germanos ea consuetudo esset, ut matres familiae eorum 
sosortibus et vaticinationibus declararent utrum proelium com- 
mittl ex usu esset necne ; eas ita dicere : ' Non esse fas Ger- 
manos superare si ante novam lunam proelio contendis- 

First camp 


I li /Caesar's 
. v( larger camp 

Second \ O 


smaller camp|l I 

Cra\ssus with the cavalry 


8 7 - 


A decisive battle. The Germans are defeated, and those who survive 
the battle flee across the Rhine. 

LI. Postridie eius die! Caesar praesidio utrisque castris quod 
satis esse visum est rellquit, alarios omms in conspectu hostium 
pro castris minoribus constituit, quod minus multituciine mili- 
tum legionariorum pro hostium numero valebat, ut ad speciem 

5 alarils uteretur ; ipse triplicl instructa acie usque ad castra hos- 
tium accessit. Turn demum necessari5 German! suas copias 
castris eduxerunt generatimque constituerunt paribus interval- 
Hs, Harudes, Marcomannos, Tribocos, Vangiones, Nemetes, 
Sedusios, Suebos, omnemque aciem suam raedis et earns cir- 

10 cumdederunt, ne qua spes in fuga relinqueretur. Eo mulieres 
imposuerunt, quae ad proelium proficiscentls milites passls 
manibus flentes implorabant ne se in servitutem Romanis 

LII. Caesar singulls legionibus singulos legates et quaestorem 

15 praef ecit, uti eos testis suae quisque virtutis haberet ; ipse a 
dextro cornu, quod earn partem minime firmam hostium esse 
animadverterat, proelium commlsit. Et ita nostri acriter in 
hostls slgno dato impetum fecerunt, itaque hostes repente ce- 
leriterque procurrerimt ut spatium pila in hostls coniciendi non 

2odaretur. Reiectis pills comrainus gladils pugnatum est. At 
GermanI celeriter ex consuetudine sua phalange facta impetus 
gladiorum exceperunt. Reperti sunt complures nostri qul in 
phalangem Insillrent et scuta manibus revellerent et desuper 
vulnerarent. Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu pulsa atque 

25 in fugam coniecta esset x a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine 
suorum nostram aciem premebant. Id cum animadvertisset P. 
Crassus adulescens, qul equitatui praeerat, quod expeditior erat 
quam ii qul inter aciem versabantur, tertiam aciem laborantibus 
nostris subsidio mlsit. 

30 LIII. Ita proelium restitutum est, atque oinnes hostes terga 
verterunt, nee prius fugere destiterunt quam ad flumen Rhenum 
mllia passuum ex eo loco circiter qulnque pervenerunt. Ibi 
perpaucl aut vlribus conflsl tranare contenderunt aut lintribus 


inventls sibi salutem reppererunt. In his fuit Ariovistus, qui 
naviculam deligatam ad ripam nactus ea profugit ; reliquos 
omms consecutl equites nostrl interfecerunt. Duae fuerimt 
Ariovisti uxores, una Sueba natione, quam domo secum duxerat, 
altera Norica, regis Voccionis soror, quam in Gallia duxerat a 5 
fratre missam ; utraque in ea fuga periit. Duae flliae ; harum 
altera occisa, altera capta est. C. Valerius Procillus, cum a 
custodibus in fuga trims catenls vinctus traheretur, in ipsum 
Caesarem hostls equitatu Insequentem incidit. Quae quid em 
res Caesar! non minorem quam ipsa victoria voluptatem attulit, 10 
quod hominem honestissimum provinciae Galliae, suum fami- 
liarem et hospitem, ereptum ex manibus hostium sibi restitutum 
videbat, neque eius calamitate de tanta voluptate et gratula- 
tione quicquam fortuna deminuerat. Is se praesente de se ter 
sortibus consultum dicebat, utrum Tgni statim necaretur an in 15 
aliud tempus reservaretur ; sortium beneficio se esse incolumem. 
Item M. Metius repertus et ad eum reductus est. 

Caesar, after placing the army in winter quarters, departs for 

Hither Gaul. 

LIV. Hoc proelio trans Rhenum nuntiato Suebl, qui ad 
ripas RhenI venerant, domum revert! coeperunt; quos Ubii, 
qui proxim! Rhenum incolunt, perterritos senserunt j msecut! 20 
magnum ex i!s numerum occlderunt. Caesar una aestate 
duobus maximis bellis confectls maturius paulo quam tempus 
anni postulabat in hiberna in Sequanos exercitum deduxit ; - 
hibernis Labienum praeposuit ; ipse in citeriorem Galliam ad 
conventus agendos profectus est. 25 



The Belgae conspire. 

I. Cum esset Caesar in citeriore Gallia, ita uti supra demon- 
stravimus, crebri ad eum rumores adferebantur litterlsque item 
Labiem certior fiebat omms Belgas, quam tertiam esse Galliae 
partem dlxeramus, contra popuhmi Romanum coniurare ob- 
5 sidesque inter se dare. Coniurandi has esse causas : primum, 
quod vererentur ne omnl pacata Gallia ad eos exercitus noster 
adduceretur ; deinde, quod ab non nullis Gallis sollicitarentur, 
partim qul, ut Germanos diiitius in Gallia versari noluerant, ita 
populi Roman! exercitum hiemare atque inveterascere in Gallia 
icmoleste ferebant, partim qul mobilitate et levitate animl novls 
imperils studebant ; ab non nullis etiam quod in Gallia a poten- 
tioribus atque Ms qul ad conducendos homines facultates habe- 
bant vulgo regna occupabantur, qul minus facile earn rem 
imperio nostro consequl poterant. 

Caesar with his army hastens towards them. The Remi join him. 

15 II. His nuntifs litterlsque commotus Caesar duas legiones 
in citeriore Gallia novas conscrlpsit, et inita aestate in ulteriorem 
Galliam qul deduceret, Q. Pedium legatum misit. Ipse, cum 
primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit. Dat 
negotium Senonibus reliquisque Gallis quT finitiml BelgTs erant 

20 uti ea quae apud eos gerantur cognoscant seque de his rebus 
certiorem faciant. HI constanter omnes nuntiaverunt manus 
cogi, exercitum in unum locum conduci. Turn vero dubitandum 
non existimavit quin ad eos proficlsceretur. Re frumentaria 
provisa castra movet diebusque circiter xv ad finis Belgarum 

25 pervenit. 



III. Eo cum de improvise celeriusque omnium oplnione 
venisset, RemI, qui proximl Galliae ex Belgis sunt, ad eum 
legates Icciura et Andebrogium, primos civitatis, mlserunt, qui 
dicerent se suaque omnia in fidem atque potestatem populi 
Roman! per mittere ; neque se cum reliquis Belgis consensisse 5 
neque contra populum Romanum coniurasse, paratosque esse 
et obsides dare et imperata facere et oppidls recipere et fru- 
mento ceterlsque rebus iuvare ; reliquos omnls Belgas in armis 
esse, German5sque qui cis Rhenum incolant sese cum his con- 
iunxisse ; tantumque esse eorum omnium furorem ut ne Sues- 10 
siones quidem, fratres consanguineosque suos, qui eodem iure 
et isdem legibus utantur, unum imperium unumque magistratum 
cum ipsis habeant, deterrere potuerint quin cum his consentirent. 

The strength of the Belgae. 

IV. Cum ab iis quaereret quae civitates quantaeque in armis 
essent et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat : ' Plerosque Belgas 15 
esse ortos a Germanis, Rhenumque antlquitus traductos propter 
loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse, Gallosque qui ea loca incolerent 
expulisse, solosque esse qui patrum nostrorum memoria omni 
Gallia vexata Teutonos Cimbrosque intra suos finis ingredl pro- 
hibuerint ; qua ex re fieri uti earum rerum memoria magnam 20 
sibi auctoritatem magnosque splritus in re mllitarl sumerent.' 
De numero eorum omnia se habere explorata RemI dlcebant, 
propterea quod propinquitatibus adflnitatibusque coniunctl 
quantam quisque multitudinem in communl Belgarum concilio 
ad id bellum pollicitus sit cognoverint. Plurimum inter 60525 
Bellovacos et virtute et auctoritate et hominum numero valere ; 
hos posse conficere armata milia centum, pollicitds ex eo 
numero electa milia LX, totlusque belli imperium sibi postulare. 
Suessiones suos esse flnitimos ; finis latissimos feracissimosque 
agros possidere. Apud eos fuisse regem nostra etiam memoria 30 
Dlviciacum, totlus Galliae potentissimum, qui cum magnae 
partis harum regionum, turn etiam Britanniae imperium obti- 
nuerit; nunc esse regem Galbam ; ad hunc propter iustitiam 


prudentiamque summam totius belli omnium voluntate deferri. 
Oppida habere numero xn, pollicerl milia armata L ; totidem 
Nervios, qui maxima feri inter ipsos habeantur longissimeque 
absint ; xv milia Atrebatls, Arnbianos x milia, Morinos xxv 
5 milia, Menapios vn milia, Caletos x milia, Veliocassls et Viro- 
manduos totidem, Atuatucos xvim milia ; Condrusos, Ebu- 
rones, Caeroesos, Caemanos, qui uno nomine German! 
appellantur, arbitrarl ad XL milia. 

Caesar sends a force of Haedui to threaten the Bellovaci; he himself 

crosses the Axona. 

V. Caesar Remos cohortatus llberaliterque oratione pro- 
10 secutus omnem senatum ad se convemre prmcipumque liberos 

obsides ad se adducl iussit. Quae omnia ab his diligenter ad 
diem facta sunt. Ipse Diviciacum Haeduum magnopere co- 
hortatus docet quantopere rel publicae communisque salutis 
intersit manus hostium distinerl, ne cum tanta multitudine uno 

15 tempore confligendum sit. ' Id fieri posse, si suas copias Haedui 
in finis Bellovacorum introduxerint et eorurn agros popularl coe- 
perint.' His datls mandatis eum a se dimittit. Postquam 
omnls Belgarum copias in unum locum coactas ad se venire 
vldit, neque iam longe abesse ab ils quos miserat exploratoribus 

20 et ab Remls cognovit, flumen Axonam, quod est in extremis 
Remorum fmibus, exercitum traducere maturavit atque ibi 
castra posuit. Quae res et latus unum castrorum ripls fluminis 
muniebat et post eum quae erant tuta ab hostibus reddebat, et 
commeatus ab Remls reliqulsque civitatibus ut sine periculo ad 

25 eum portari possent efficiebat. In eo flumine pons erat. Ibi 
praesidiumponitetinalteraparte fluminis Q. Titurium Sabmum 
legatum cum sex cohortibus relinquit ; castra in altitudinem 
pedum duodecim vallo fossaque duodevigintipedummunmiubet. 

He relieves Bibrax, a town of the Remi. 

VI. Ab his castris oppidum Remorum nomine Bibrax aberat 
30 milia passuum octo. Id ex itinere magno impetu Belgae 




oppugnare coeperunt. 
Aegre eo die sustentatum 
est. Gallorum eadem 
atque Belgarum oppug- 
natio est haec : ubi cir- 5 
cumiecta multitudine 
hominum toils moenibus 
undique in murum lapides 
iaci coepti sunt murusque 
def ensoribus nudatusio 
est, testudine facta suc- 
cedunt miirumque sub- 
ruunt. Quod turn facile 
fiebat. Nam cum tanta 
multitude lapides ac telais 
conicerent, in muro con- 
sistendi potestas erat nulli. 
Cum fmem oppugnandi 
nox fecisset, Iccius 
Remus, sum ma nobilitate 20 
et gratia inter suos, qui 
TESTUDO tum oppido praeerat, 

unus ex ils qui legatl de pace ad Caesarem venerant, nun- 
tios ad eum mittit, nisi subsidium sibi submittatur, sese 
diutius sustinere non posse. 25 

VII. E6 de media nocte Caesar isdem duci- 
bus usus qui nuntil ab Iccio venerant Numidas 
et Cretes sagittarios et funditores Balearis subsi- 
dio oppidams mittit ; quorum adventii et Remis 
cum spe defensionis studium propugnandi ac-so 
cessit et hostibus eadem de causa spes potiundi 
oppidi discessit. Itaque paulisperapud oppidum 
morati agrosque Remorum depopulati, omnibus 
vlcis aedificiisque quo adire potuerant incensis, 
SAGITTARIUS ad castra Caesaris omnibus copiis contenderuntss 


prudentiamque summam totius belli omnium voluntate deferrl. 
Oppida habere numero xn, pollicen milia armata L ; totidem 
Nervios, qui maxime fen inter ipso.s habeantur longissimeque 
absint ; xv milia Atrebatls, Ambianos x milia, Morinos xxv 
5 milia, Menapios vn milia, Caletos x milia, Veliocassls et Viro- 
manduos totidem, Atuatuco.s xvim milia ; Condrusos, Ebu- 
rones, Caeroesos, Caemanos, qui uno nomine German! 
appellantur, arbitrarl ad XL milia. 

Caesar sends a force of Haedui to threaten the Bellovaci ; he himself 

crosses the Axona. 

V. Caesar Remos cohortatus llberaliterqne oratione pro- 
iosecutus omnem senatum ad se convenire principmnque libero.s 

obsides ad se addiici iussit. Quae omnia ab his diligenter ad 
diem facta sunt. Ipse Diviciacum Haeduum magnopere co- 
hortatus docet quantopere re! publicae commiinisque salutis 
intersit manus hostium distinen, ne cum tanta multitudine lino 

15 tempore confligendum sit. ' Id fien posse, si suas copias Haedui 
in finis Bellovacorum introduxerint et eorum ngros popular! coe- 
perint.' His datls mandatls eum a se dlmittit. Postquam 
omnls Belgarum copias in unum locum coactas ad se venire 
vldit, neque iam longe abesse ab ils quos miserat exploratoribus 

20 et ab Remls cognovit, fliimen Axonam, quod est in extremis 
Remorum flnibus, exercitum tradiicere matiiravit atque ibi 
castra posuit. Quae res et latus unum castrorum rlpls fliiminis 
muniebat et post eum quae erant tuta ab hostibus reddebat, et 
commeatus ab Remls relicjulsque civitatibus tit sine perlculo ad 

25 eum portaii possent efficiebat. In eo flumine pons erat. Ibi 
praesidium ponit etin altera parte fluminis Q. Titiirium Sablnum 
legatum cum sex cohortibus relinquit ; castra in altitiidinem 
pedum duodecim vallo fossaque duodevlgintlpedummunlrliubet. 

He relieves Bibrax, a town of the Remi. 

VI. Ab his castrls oppidum Remorum nomine Bibrax aberat 
30 milia passuum octo. Id ex itinere magno impetu Belgae 




oppugnare coeperunt. 
Aegre eo die sustentatum 
est. Gallorum eadem 
atque Belgarum oppug- 
natio est haec : ubi cir- 5 
cumiecta multitiidine 
hominum tolls moenibus 
'I undique in miirum lapides 
iaci coeptlsunt murusque 
def ensoribus n u d a t u s 10 
est, testudine facta suc- 
cedunt murumque sub- 
ruunt. Quod turn focile 
fiebat. Nam cum tanta 
multitudo lapides ac tela 15 
conicerent, in miiro con- 
sistendT potestas erat niilli. 
Cum finem oppugnandl 
nox fecisset, Iccius 
Remus, summa nobilitate 20 
et gratia inter suos, qul 
turn oppido praeerat, 
unus ex ifs qul legati de pace ad Caesarem venerant, niin- 
tios ad eum mittit, nisi subsidium sibi submittatur, sese 
diutius sustinere non posse. 25 

VII. Eo de media nocte Caesar Isdem duci- 
bus usus qul nuntii ab Iccio venerant Numidas 
et Cretes sagittarios et funditores Baleans subsi- 
dio oppidanls mittit ; quorum adventu et Remis 
cum spe defensionis studium propugnandi ac-so 
cessit et hostibus eadem de causa spes potiundl 
oppidT discessit. Itaque paulisper apud oppidum 
moratl agrosque Remorum depopulati, omnibus 
vicis aedificiisque quo adire potuerant incensls, 
SAGITTARIUS a d castra Caesaris omnibus copiis contenderuntss 



et a milibus passuum minus duobus castra posueruntj quae 
castra, lit fumo atque Ignibus slgnificabatur, amplius milibus 
passuum octo in latitudinem patebant. 

Description of Caesar's camp on the Axona. 

VIII. Caesar primo et propter multitudinetn hostium et 
5 propter eximiam opmionem virtutis proelio supersedere statuit ; 

cottldie tamen equestribus proeliis quid hostis virtute posset et 
quid nostri auderent periclitabatur. Ubi nostros non esse 
mferiores intellexit, loco pro castris ad aciem Instruendam 
natura opportune atque idoneo, quod is coin's ubi castra posita 

xoerant paululum ex planitie editus tantum adversus in latitudi- 
nem patebat quantum loci acies Instructa occupare poterat, 
atque ex utraque parte lateris deiectus habebat et in fronte 
leniter fastigatus paulatim ad planitiem redibat, ab utroque 
latere eius collis transversam fossam obduxit circiter passuum 

15 quadringentorum, et ad extremas fossas castella constituit ibique 
tormenta conlocavit, ne cum aciem. instruxisset, hostes, quod 
tantum multitudine poterant, ab lateribus pugnantis suos cir- 
cumvenire possent. Hoc facto duabus legionibus quas proxime 
conscripserat in castris relictls, ut si quo opus esset, subsidio 

20 duel possent, reliquas sex legiones pro castris in acie constituit. 
Hostes item suas copias ex castris eductas Instruxerunt. 

A battle, in which the Belgae are defeated with much loss. 

IX. Palus erat non magna inter nostrum atque hostium ex- 
ercitum. Hanc si nostri transirent hostes exspectabant ; nostri 
autem, si ab illis initium transeundi fieret, ut impeditos adgre- 

25 derentur parati in armls erant. Interim proelio equestri inter 
duas acies contendebatur. Ubi neutri transeundi initium fa- 
ciunt, secundiore equitum proelio nostris Caesar suos in castra 
reduxit. Hostes protinus ex eo loco ad flumen Axonam con- 
tenderunt, quod esse post nostra castra demonstratum est. 

3olbi vadls repertis partem suarum copiarum traducere conati 
sunt eo consilio, ut, si possent, castellum cui praeerat Q. Titu- 




rius legatus expugnarent pontemque interscinderent ; si minus 
potuissent, agros Remorum popularentur, qui magno nobis usul 
ad bellum gerendum erant, commeatuque nostros prohiberent. 


X. Caesar certior factus ab Titurio omnem equitatum et 
levis armaturae Numidas, funditores sagittariosque ponte tra- 5 
ducit atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in eo loco pugnatum 
est. HostTs impeditos nostri in flumine adgressi magnum 
eorum numerum occiderunt ; per eorum corpora reliquos au- 
dacissime transire conantis multitudine telorum reppulerunt, 
primosque, qui transierant, equitatii circumventos interfecerunt. 10 
Hostes ubi et de expugnando oppido et de flumine transeundo 
spem se fefellisse intellexerunt, neque nostros in locum inl- 
quiorem progredi pugnandi causa vlderunt, atque ipsos res 
frumentaria deficere coepit, concilio convocato constituerunt 
optimum esse domum suam quemque revert!, et quorum in 15 
finis primum Roman! exercitum introduxissent, ad eos de- 
fendendos undique convenient, ut.potius in suis quam in aliems 
finibus decertarent et domesticis copiis rel frumentariae ute- 


et a mllibus passuum minus duobus castra posuerunt-j quae 
castra, ut fumo atque Ignibus slgnificabatur, amplius milibus 
passuum octo in latitudinem patebant. 

Description of Caesar's camp on the Axona. 

VIII. Caesar prlmo et propter multitudinem hostium et 
5 propter eximiam opmionem virtutis proelio supersedere statuit ; 

cottidie tamen equestribus proeliis quid hostis virtute posset et 
quid nostri auderent penclitabatur. Ubi nostros non esse 
mferiores intellexit, loco pro castrls ad aciem Instruendam 
natura opportune atque idoneo, quod is collis ubi castra posita 

joerant paululum ex planitie editus tan turn adversus in latitudi- 
nem patebat quantum loci acies Instructa occupare poterat, 
atque ex utraque parte lateris deiectus habebat et in fronte 
leniter fastlgatus paulatim ad planitiem redibat, ab utroque 
latere eius collis transversam fossam obduxit circiter passuum 

15 quadringentorum, et ad extremas fossas castella constituit ibique 
tormenta conlocavit, ne cum aciem instruxisset, hostes, quod 
tantum multitudine poterant, ab lateribus pugnantis suos cir- 
cumvemre possent. Hoc facto duabus legionibus quas proxime 
conscripserat in castrls relictls, ut si quo opus esset, subsidio 

20 duel possent, reliquas sex legiones pro castrfs in acie constituit. 
Hostes item suas copias ex castrls eductas instruxerunt. 

A battle, in which the Belgae are defeated with much loss. 

IX. Palus erat non magna inter nostrum atque hostium ex- 
ercitum. Hanc si nostri translrent hostes exspectabant nostri 
autem, si ab illls initium transeundi fieret, ut impedltos adgre- 

25 derentur paratl in armls erant. Interim proelio equestii inter 
duas acies contendebatur. Ubi neutri transeundi initium fa- 
ciunt, secundiore equitum proelio nostrls Caesar suos in castra 
reduxit. Hostes protinus ex eo loco ad flu men Axonam con- 
tenderunt, quod esse post nostra castra demonstratum est. 

3 o Ibi vadis repertls parte m suarum copiarum traducere conati 
sunt eo consilio, ut ; si possent, castellum cui praeerat Q. Titu- 




rius legatus expugnarent pontemque interscinderent ; si minus 
potuissent, agros Remorum popularentur, qui magno nobis usul 
ad bellum gerendum erant, commeatuque nostros prohiberent. 


X. Caesar certior factus ab Titurio omnem equitatum et 
levis armaturae Numidas, funditores sagittariosque ponte tra- 5 
ducit atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in e5 loco pugnatum 
est. Hostls impedltos nostrl in flumine adgressl magnum 
eorum numerum occlderunt ; per eorum corpora reliquos au- 
dacissime transire conantis multitudine telorum reppulerunt, 
primosque, qui transierant, equitatu circumventos interfecerunt. 10 
Hostes ubi et de expugnando oppido et de flumine transeundo 
spem se fefellisse intellexerunt, neque nostros in locum ini- 
quiorem progredi pugnandl causa vlderunt, atque ipsos res 
frumentaria deficere coepit, concilio convocato constituerunt 
optimum esse domum suam quemque reverti, et quorum in 15 
finis primum Rom am exercitum introduxissent, ad eos cle- 
fendendos undique convenient, ut.potins in suis quam in aliems 
finibus decertarent et domesticis copiis rei frumentariae ute- 


rentur. Ad earn sententiam cum reliquis causls haec quoque 
ratio eos deduxit, quod Dlviciacum atque Haeduos fmibus 
Bellovacorum appropinquare cognoverant. His persuader! ut 
diutius morarentur neque suls auxilium. ferrent non poterat. 
5 XI. Ea re constituta secunda vigilia magno cum strepitu ac 
tumultu castrls egress! nullo certo ordine neque imperio, cum 
sibi quisque prlmum itineris locum peteret et domtim pervemre 
properaret, fecerunt ut consimilis fugae profectio videretur. 
Hac re statim Caesar per speculatores cognita insidias veritus, 

10 quod qua de causa discederent nondum perspexerat, exercitum 
equitatumque castris continuit. Prima luce confirmata re ab 
exploratoribus omnem equitatum, qu! novissimum agmen mo- 
raretur, praemisit. His Q. Pedium et L. Aurunculeium Cottam 
legates praefecit j T. Labienum legatum cum legionibus tribus 

15 subsequ! iussit. . Hi novissimos adort! et multa milia passuum 
prosecut! magnam multitudinem eorum fugientium conciderunt, 
cum ab extremo agmine, ad quos ve'ntum erat, consisterent 
fortiterque impetum nostrorum militum sustinerent, priores, 
quod abesse a periculo viderentur neque ulla necessitate neque 

soimperio continerentur, exaudito clamore perturbatis ordinibus 
omnes in fuga sibi praesidium ponerent. Ita sine ullo periculo 
tantam eorum multitudinem nostr! interfecerunt quantum fuit 
diei spatium ; sub occasum solis sequi destiterunt seque in 
castra, ut erat imperatum, receperunt. 

Caesar receives the submission of the Suessiones, Bellovaci, and Ambiani. 

25 XII. Postridie eius die! Caesar, priusquam se hostes ex ter- 
rore ac fuga reciperent, in finis Suessionum, qui proximl Remls 
erant, exercitum duxit et magno itinere ad oppidum Noviodu- 
num contendit. Id ex itinere oppugnare conatus, quod vacuum 
ab defensoribus esse audiebat, propter latitudinem fossae mu- 

sorlque altitudinem paucis defendentibus expugnare non potuit. 
Castrls mumtis vineas agere quaeque ad oppugnandum usui 
erant comparare coepit. Interim, omnis ex fuga Suessionum 
multitude in oppidum proxima nocte convenit Celeriter vinels 




ad oppidum actis, aggere iacto, turribusque constitutls magni- 
tudine operum, quae neque viderant ante Galli neque audi- 
erant, et celeritate Romanorum permoti legates ad Caesarem 
de deditione mittunt et petentibus Reims ut conservarentur 

XIII. Caesar obsidibus acceptis primls civitatis atque ipslus 
Galbae regis duobus filiis armisque omnibus ex oppido traditls 


in deditionem Suessiones accipit exercitumque in Bellovacos 
ducit. Qui cum se suaque omnia in oppidum Bratuspantium 
contulissent, atque ab eo oppido Caesar cum exercitu circiteno 
milia passuum quinque abesset, omnes maiores natu ex oppido 
egress! maniis ad Caesarem tendere et voce significare coepe- 
runt sese in eius fidem ac potestatem venire neque contra 
populum Romanum armis contendere. Item, cum ad oppidum 
accessisset castraque ibi poneret, pueri mulieresque ex mur5i5 
passis manibus suo more pacem ab Romams petierunt. 

XIV. Pro his Diviciacus (nam post discessum Belgarum 
dimissls Haeduorum copils ad eum reverterat) facit verba : 
'Bellovacos omnl tempore in fide atque amicitia civitatis Hae- 
duae fuisse ; impulses ab suls principibus, qul dlcerent Haeduos 20 



a Caesare in servitutem redactos omms indignitates contume- 
liasque perferre, et ab Haeduls defecisse et populo Romano 
bellum intulisse. Qui eius consili prmcipes fuissent, quod 
intellegerent quantara calamitatem clvitatl intulissent, in Bri- 
Stanniam profugisse. Petere non solum Bellovacos sed etiara 
pro his Haeduos ut sua dementia ac mansuetudine in eos utatur. 
Quod si fecerit, Haeduorum auctoritatem apud omnls Belgas 
amplificatiirum, quorum auxilils atque opibus, si qua bella inci- 
derint, sustentare consuerint.' 

10 XV. Caesar honoris DIviciacI atque Haeduorum causa sese 
eos in fidem recepturum et conservaturum dixit, et quod erat 
clvitas magna inter Belgas auctoritate atque hominum multi- 
tudine praestabat, DC obsides poposcit. His traditls omni- 
busque armis ex oppido conlatis ab eo loco in finis Ambianorum 

15 pervenit ; qu! se suaque omnia sine mora dediderunt. 

The Nervii. 

Eorum finis Nervii attingebant. Quorum de natura mori- 
busque Caesar cum quaereret, sic reperiebat : ' Nullum esse 
aditum ad os mercatoribus ; nihil pati vim reliquarumque 
rerum ad liixuriam pertinentium Inferri, quod his rebus relan- 
soguescere animos et remitti virtutern existimarent ; esse homines 
feros magnaeque virtutis ; increpitare atque incusare reliquos 
Belgas, qui se populo Romano dedidissent patriamque virtiatem 
proiecissent ; confirmare sese neque legates missuros neque 
ullam condicionem pacis accepturos.' 

The Nervii plan an attack. 

25 XVI. Cum per eorum finis trlduum iter fecisset, inveniebat 
ex captlvls Sabim flumen a castris suis non amplius rnllia pas- 
suum decem abesse ; trans id flumen omms Nervios consedisse 
adventumque ibi Romanorum exspectare una cum Atrebatibus 
et Viromanduls, finitimis suis (nam his utrisque persuaserant 

3 o uti eandem belli fortunam experirentur) ; exspectari etiam ab 
iis Atuatucorum copias atque esse in itinere j mulieres qnlque 




per aetatem ad pugnam inutiles viderentur in eum locum con- 
iecisse quo propter paliides exercitui aditus non esset. 

XVII. His rebus cognitis exploratores centuri5nesque prae- 
mittit, qui locum castrls idoneum deligant. Cum ex dediticils 
Belgis reliquisque Gallis complures Caesarem secuti una iter 5 
facerent, quidam ex his, ut postea ex captivis cognitum est, 
eorum dierum consuetudine itineris nostri exercitus perspecta 


nocte ad Nervios pervenerunt atque his demonstrarunt inter 
singulas legiones impedimentorum magnum numerum inter- 
cedere, neque esse quicquam negotT, cum prima legio in castra 10 
venisset reliquaeque legiones magnum spatium abessent, hanc 
sub sarcinls adorm; qua pulsa impedimentisque direptis fu- 
turum ut reliquae contra consistere non auderent. Adiuvabat 
etiam eorum consilium qui rem deferebant quod Nervii antl- 
quitus, cum equitatu nihil possent (neque enim ad hoc tempus J5 
ei rei student, sed quicquid possunt pedestribus valent copiis), 
quo facilius finitimorum equitatum, si praedandi causa ad eos 
venissent, impedirent, teneris arboribus inclsls atque mflexls 


a Caesare in servitutem redactos omnis indignitates contume- 
liasque perferre, et ab HaeduTs defecisse et populo Romano 
bellum intulisse. Qui eius consili principes fuissent, quod 
intellegerent quantam calamitatem civitatl intulissent, in Bri- 
5 tanniam profiigisse. Petere non solum Bellovacos sed etiara 
pro his Haeduos ut sua dementia ac mansuetudine in eos utatur. 
Quod si fecerit, Haeduorum auctorilatem apud omnls Belgas 
amplificaturum, quorum auxilils atque opibus, si qua bella inci- 
derint, sustentare consuerint.' 

10 XV. Caesar honoris DlviciacT atque Haeduorum causa sese 
eos in fidem recepturam et cdnservaturum dixit, et quod erat 
civitas magna inter Belgas auctoritate atque hominum multi- 
tudine praestabat, DC obsides poposcit. His traditis omni- 
busque armls ex oppido conlatis ab eo loco in finis Ambianorum 

15 pervenit ; qul se suaque omnia sine mora dedidenmt. 

The Nervii. 

Eorum finis NerviT attingebant. Quorum de natiira mori- 
busqne Caesar cum quaere ret, sic reperiebat : ' Nullum esse 
aditum ad -eos mercatoribus ; nihil pati vim reliquarumque 
rerum ad liixuriam pertinentium TnferrT, quod his rebus relan- 
sogutiscere an i mas et remitti virtutern existimarent ; esse homines 
feros magnaeque virtiitis ; increpitare atque incusare reliquos 
Belgas, qui se populo Romano dedidissent patriamque virtutem 
proiecissent ; conffrmare sese neque legatos missuros neque 
ullam condicionem pacis accepturos.' 

The Nervii plan an attack. 

25 XVI. Cum per eorum finis tnduum iter fecisset, inveniebat 
ex captivis Sabim flumen a castrls suis non amplius rnilia pas- 
suum decem abesse ; trans id flumen omnls Nervios consedisse 
adventumque ibi Romanorum exspectare lina cum Atrebatibus 
et Viromanduls, finitimTs sins (nam his ntiisque persuaserant 

3 outieandem belli fortunam expeiirentur) ; exspectari etiam ab 
ils Atuatucorum copias atque esse in itinere ; mulieres qmque 




per aetatem ad pugnam inutiles viderentur in eum locum con- 
iecisse quo propter paludes exercitul aditus non esset. 

XVII. His rebus cognitis exploratores centurionesque prae- 
mittit, qul locum castris idoneum deligant. Cum ex dediticils 
BelgTs reliqulsque Gallls complures Caesarem secuti una iter 5 
facerent, quldam ex his, ut postea ex captivls cognitum est 7 
eorum dierum consuetucline itineris nostri exercitu.s perspecta 


nocte ad Nervios pervenerunt atque Ills demonstrarunt inter 
singulas legiones impedlmentorum magnum numerum inter- 
cedere, neque esse quicquam negoti, cum pnma legio in castra ic 
venisset reliquaeque legiones magnum spatium abessent, hanc 
sub sarcinls adoiirl; qua pulsa impedlmentlsque direptis fu- 
turum ut reliquae contra consistere non auderent. Adiuvabat ^ 
etiam eorum consilium qul rem deferebant quod Nervii antl- 
quitus, cum equitatu nihil possent (neque enim ad hoc tempus 15 
el re! student, sed quicquid possunt pedestribus valent copiis), 
quo facilius flnitimorum equitatum, si praedandl causa ad eos 
venissent, impedlrent, teneris arboribus inclsls atque mflexls 


crebrisque in latitudinem raims enatls et rubis sentibusque 
interiectis effecerant ut instar muri hae saepes munimentum 
praeberent, quo non modo non intrari sed ne perspici quidem 
posset. His rebus cum iter agminis nostri impedfretur, non 

5 omittendum sibi consilium Nervii existimaverunt. 

XVIII. Loci natura erat haec, quern locum nostri castris 
delegerant. Collis ab summo aequaliter decllvis ad flumen 
Sabim, quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. Ab eo flumine 
par! acclivitate collis nascebatur adversus huic et contrarius, 

xopassus circiter ducentos Infimus apertus, ab superiore parte 
silvestris, ut non facile introrsus perspici posset. Intra eas 
silvas hostes in occulto sese continebantj in aperto loco se- 
cundum flumen paucae stationes equitum videbantur. Fluminis 
erat altitude pedum circiter trium. 

The Romans are taken by surprise, but soon the value of experience 

and discipline is shown. 

15 XIX. Caesar equitatu praemisso subsequebatur omnibus 
copils ; sed ratio ordoque agminis aliter se habebat ac Belgae 
ad Nervios detulerant. Nam quod hostibus appropinquabat, 
consuetudine sua Caesar sex legiones expeditas ducebat ; post 
eas totius exercitus impedimenta conlocarat ; inde duae legiones 

aoquae proxime conscriptae erant totum agmen claudebant prae- 
sidioque impedimentis erant. Equites nostri cum funditoribus 
sagittarilsque flumen transgress! cum hostium equitatu proelium 
commiserunt. Cum se ill! identidem in silvas ad suos reciperent 
ac rursus ex silva in nostros impetum facerent, neque nostri 

25 longius quam quern ad finem porrecta loca aperta pertinebant 
cedentis Insequi auderent, interim legiones sex quae primae 
venerant opere dimenso castra rnunire coeperunt. Ubi prlma 
impedimenta nostri exercitus ab iis qui in silvis abditi latebant 
visa sunt, quod tempus inter eos committendi proeli convenerat, 

30 ut intra silvas aciem ordinesque constituerant atque ipsi sese 
confirmaverant, subito omnibus copils provolaverunt impe- 
tumque in nostros equites fecerunt. His facile pulsis ac pro- 


turbatis incredibili celeritate ad flumen decucurrerunt, ut paene 
uno tempore et ad silvas et in flumine et iam in manibus nostrls 
hostes viderentur. Eadera autem celeritate adverse colle ad 
nostra castra atque eos qui in opere occupati erant contenderunt. 

XX. Caesari omnia uno tempore erant agenda : vexillum s 
proponendum (quod erat msigne cum ad arma concurri opor- 
teret), signum tuba dandum, ab opere revocandi milites, qui 
paulo longius aggeris petendi causa processerant arcessendi, acies 
mstruenda, milites cohortandi, signum danclum. Quarum rerum 
magnam partem temporis brevitas et incursus hostium impedie- ic 
bat. His difEcultatibus duae res erant subsidio, scientia atque 
usus militum, quod superioribus proeliis exercitatT quid fieri 
oporteret non minus commode ipsT sibi praescribere quam ab alils 
doceri poterant, et quod ab opere singuKsque legionibus singulos 
legates Caesar discedere nisi munitls castris vetuerat. Hi prop- is 
ter propinquitatem et celeritatem hostium nihiliam Caesaris im- 
perium exspectabant, sed per se quae videbantur administrabant. 

XXI. Caesar necessarils rebus imperatis ad cohortandos 
milites, quam partem fors obtulit, decucurrit et ad legionem 
decimam devenit, Milites non longiore oratione cohortatus 20 
quam uti suae pristinae virtutis memoriam retinerent neu per- 
turbarentur animo hostiumque impetum fortiter sustinerent, 
quod non longius hostes aberant quam quo telum adigi posset, 
proeli committendi signum dedit. Atque in alteram partem 
item cohortandi causa profectus pugnantibus occurrit. Tern- 25 
poris tanta fuit exiguitas hostiumque tarn paratus ad dlmicandum 
animus ut non modo ad Insignia accommodanda sed etiam ad 
galeas induendas sciitisque tegimenta detrahenda tempus de- 
fuerit. Quam quisque ab opere in partem casu devenit quaeque 
prima signa conspexit, ad haec constitit, ne in quaerendis suis 30 
pugnandi tempus dlmitteret. 

The battle rages fiercely with varying fortunes. 

XXII. Instructo exercitu magis ut loci natura deiectusque 
collis et necessitas temporis quam ut rel militaris ratio atque 




ordo postulabat, cum diversae legiones aliae alia in parte hosti- 
bus resisterent, saepibusque densissimis, ut ante demonstravimus, 
interiectis prospectus impediretur, neque certa subsidia conlo- 
cari neque quid in quaque parte opus esset provider! neque ab 
suno omnia imperia administrar! poterant. Itaque in tanta 
rerum imquitate fortunae quoque eventus varii sequebantur. 

XXIII. Legionis nonae et decimae milites, ut in sinistra parte 
acie constiterant, pills emissis cursu ac lassitudine exanimatos 


vulneribusque confectos Atrebatis (nam his ea pars obvenerat) 

10 celeriter ex loco superiore in flumen compulerunt, e't translre 

conantls insecuti gladiis magnam partem eorura impeditam 

interf ecerunt. Ipsi translre flumen non dubitaverunt, et in 

locum inlquu-m progress! rursus resistentls hostis redintegrato 

proelio in fugam coniecerunt. Item alia in parte diversae duae 

15 legiones, undecima et octava, profligatis ViromanduTs, quibus- 

cum erant congressae, ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis 


proeliabantur. At totis fere castris a fronte et a sinistra parte 
nudatis, cum in dextro cornu legio duodecima et n5n magno ab 
ea intervallo septima constitisset, omnes Nervii confertissimo 
agmine duce Boduognato, qul summam imperi tenebat, ad eum 
locum contenderunt ; quorum pars ab aperto latere legiones 5 
circumvemre, pars summum castrorum locum petere coepit. 

XXIV. Eodem tempore equites nostri levisque armaturae 
pedites, qui cum iis una fuerant, quos primo hostium impetu 
pulsos dixeram, cum se in castra reciperent, adversls hostibus 
occurrebant ac rursus aliam in partem fugam petebant ; et 10 
calones, qul ab decumana porta ac summo iugo collis nostrds 
victores flumen transisse conspexerant, praedandi causa egressl, 
cum respexissent et hostis in nostrls castris versari vidissent, 
praecipites fugae sese mandabant Simul eorum qu! cum im- 
pedimentis veniebant clamor fremitusque oriebatur, aliique aliam 15 
in partem perterriti ferebantur. Quibus omnibus rebus per- 
moti equites Treveri, quorum inter Gallos virtutis opinio est 
singularis, qui auxili causa a clvitate missi ad Caesarem vene- 
rant, cum multitudine hostium castra nostra complen, legiones 
premi et paene circumventas teneri, calones, equites, fundi- 20 
tores, Numidas disperses dissipatosque in omnis partis fugere 
vidissent, desperatis nostris rebus domum contenderunt ; Ro- 
manos pulsos superatosque, castris impedimentisque eorum 
hostis potitos civitati renuntiaverunt. 

Caesar himself fights in the ranks, while the result of the contest con- 
tinues doubtful. 

XXV. Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum 25 
cornu profectus, ubi suos urgeri slgnlsque in unum locum con- 
latis duodecimae legionis confertos mllites sibi ipsos ad pugnam 
esse impedimento vidit, quartae cohortis omnibus centurio- 
nibus occisis, slgnifero interfecto, signo amisso, reliquarum co- 
hortium omnibus fere centurionibus aut vulneratls aut occisis, 30 
in his primipilo P. Sextio Baculo, fortissimo viro, multls gravi- 
busque vulneribus confecto, ut iam se sustinere non posset, 




ordo postulabat, cum diversae legiones aliae alia in parte hosti- 
bus resisterent, saepibusque densissimis, ut ante demonstravimus, 
interiectis prospectus impediretur, neque certa subsidia conlo- 
cari neque quid in quaque parte opus esset provider! neque ab 
suno omnia imperia administrari poterant. Itaque in tanta 
rerum imquitate fortunae quoque eventus varil sequebantur. 

XXIII. Legionis nonae et decimae mllites, ut in sinistra parte 
acie constiterant, pills emissls cursu ac lassitudine exanimatos 


vulneribusque confectos Atrebatis (nam his ea pars obvenerat) 

10 celeriter ex loco superiore in flumen compulerunt, et transire 

conantis InsecutT gladiTs magnam partem eorum impeditam 

interfecerunt. Ipsi transire flumen non dubitaverunt, et in 

locum mlquu-m progress! rursus resistentls hostls redintegrate 

proelio in fugam coniecerunt. Item alia in parte diversae duae 

15 legiones, undecima et octava, profligatls Viromanduis, quibus- 

cum erant congressae, ex Ioc5 superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis 


proeliabantur. At totis fere castris a fronte et a sinistra parte 
nudatis, cum in dextro cornu legio duodecima et non magno ab 
ea intervallo septima constitisset, omnes Nervii confertissimo 
agmine duce Boduognato, qui summam imperl tenebat, ad eum 
locum contenderunt ; quorum pars ab aperto latere legiones 5 
circumvemre, pars summum castrorum locum petere coepit. 

XXIV. Eodem tempore equites nostii levisque armaturae 
pedites, qui cum iis una fuerant, quos prlmo hostium impetu 
pulsos dixeram, cum se in castra reciperent, adversls hostibus 
occurrebant ac riirsus aliam in parte m fugam petebant ; et 10 
calones, qui ab decumana porta ac summo iugo collis nostros 
victores flumen translsse conspexerant, praedandi causa egressl, 
cum respexissent et hostis in nostris castris versari vldissent, 
praecipites fugae sese mandabant. Simul eorum qui cum im- 
pedimentis veniebant clamor fremitusque oriebatur, aliique aliam 15 
in partem perterriti ferebantur. Quibus omnibus rebus per- 
moti equites Treveri, quorum inter Gallos virtutis opinio est 
singularis, qui auxili causa a civitate missi ad Caesarem vene- 
rant, cum multitudine hostium castra nostra compleri, legiones 
premi et paene circumventas teneri, calones, equites, fundi- 20 
tores, Numidas disperses dissipatosque in omnis partis fugere 
vidissent, desperatis nostris rebus domum contenderunt ; Ro- 
manos pulsos superatosque, castris impeclimentisque eorum 
hostis potitos civitati renuntiaverunt. 

Caesar himself fights in the ranks, while the result of the contest con- 
tinues doubtful. 

XXV. Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum 25 
cornu profectus, ubi suos urgeri signlsque in u'num locum con- 
latis duodecimae legionis confertos milites sibi ipsos ad pugnam 
esse impediments vidit, quartae cohortis omnibus centurio- 
nibus occlsis, signifero interfectd, signo amisso, reliquarum co- 
hortium omnibus fere centurionibus aut vulneratis aut occlsis, 30 
in his primipilo P. Sextio Baculo, fortissimo viro, multis gravi- 
busque vulneribus confecto. ut iam se sustinere non posset, 


reliquas esse tardiores et non nullos ab novissimis deserto loco 
proelio excedere ac tela vitare, hostfs neque a frorite ex m- 
feriore loco subeuntis intermittere et ab utroque latere instare, 
et rem esse in angusto vidit, neque ullum esse subsidium quod 

5 submitti posset, scuto ab novissimis militi detracts, quod ipse 
eo sine scuto venerat, in prlmam aciem processit, centurioni- 
busque nominatim appellatis reliquos cohortatus milites slgna 
inferre et manipulos laxare iussit, quo facilius gladils uti pos- 
sent. Ciiius adventu spe inlata militibus ac redintegrate animo, 

10 cum pro se quisque in conspectu imperatoris etiam in extremis 
suls rebus operam navare cuperet, paulum hostium impetus 
tardatus est. 

XXVI. Caesar cum septimam legionem, quae iuxta con- 
stiterat, item urgeri ab hoste vldisset, tribunos militum monuit 

15 ut paulatim sese legiones coniungerent et conversa slgna in 
hostis Inferrent. Quo facto cum aliis alii subsidium ferrent 
neque timerent ne aversl ab hoste circumvenirentur, audacius 
resistere ac fortius pugnare coeperunt. Interim milites legi- 
onum duarum quae in novissimo agmine praesidio impedi- 

20 mentis fuerant proelio nuntiato cursu incitato in summo colle 
ab hostibus conspiciebantur; et T. Labienus castrls hostium 
potltus et ex loco superiore quae res in nostris castrls gere- 
rentur conspicatus decimam legionem subsidio nostris misit. 
Qui cum ex equitum et calonum fuga quo in loco res esset 

25 quantoque in periculo et castra et legiones et imperator ver- 
saretur cognovissent, nihil ad celeritatem sibi reliqui fecerunt. 

At last the Nervii are utterly defeated and almost annihilated. 

XXVII. Horum adventu tanta rerum commutatio est facta 
ut nostri, etiam qui vulneribus confecti procubuissent, scutis 
innm proelium redintegrarent, calones perterritos hostls con- 

30 spicati etiam inermes armatls occurrerent, equites vero, ut tur- 
pitiidinem fugae virtute delerent, omnibus in locis pugnandd 
se legionariis militibus praeferrent. At hostes etiam in ex- 
trema spe salutis tantam virtutem praestiterunt ut, cum primi 


eorum cecidissent, proximl iacentibus msisterent atque ex 
eorum corporibus pugnarent ; his deiectis et coacervatis cada- 
veribus, qui superessent, ut ex tumulo, tela in nostros conicerent 
et plla intercepta remitterent ; ut non nequiquam tantae virtu- 
tis homines iudicari deberet ausos esse translre latissimum 5 
flumen, ascendere altissimas rlpas, subire imquissimum locum ; 
quae facilia ex difficillimls animi magnitude redegerat. 

XXVIII. Hoc proelio facto et prope ad internecionem 
gente ac nomine Nerviorum redacto maiores natu, quos una 
cum pueris mulieribusque in . aestuaria ac paludes coniectos 10 
dixeramus, hac pugna nuntiata, cum victoribus nihil impeditum, 
victis nihil tiitum arbitrarentur, omnium qui supererant con- 
sensu legates ad Caesarem miserunt seque el dediderunt; et 
in commemoranda civitatis calamitate ex DC ad tris senatores, 
ex hominum milibus LX vix ad D qui arma ferre possent sese 15 
redactos esse dixerunt. Quos Caesar, ut in miseros ac sup- 
plices usus misericordia videretur, diligentissime conservavit 
suisque finibus atque oppidis utl iussit, et finitimis imperavit 
ut ab iniuria et maleficio se suosque prohiberent. 

The Atuatuci assemble in one town; Caesar besieges it. 

XXIX. Atuatuci, de quibus supra diximus, cum omnibus 20 
copiis auxilio Nerviis venirent, hac pugna nuntiata ex itinere 
domum reverterunt ; cunctls oppidis castellisque desertis sua 
omnia in unum oppidum egregie natura munitum contulerunt. 
Quod cum ex omnibus in circuitu partibus altissimas rupis 
deiectusque haberet, una ex parte leniter accllvis aditus in 25 
latitiidinem non amplius pedum cc relinquebatur ; quern lo- 
cum duplici altissimo muro munierant, turn magni ponderis 
saxa et praeacutas trabis in muro conlocabant. Ipsi erant ex 
Cimbris Teutonlsque prognati, qui, cum iter in provinciam 
nostram atque Italiam facerent, iis impedimentls quae secum 30 
agere ac portare non poterant citra flumen Rhenum depositis 
custodiam ex suis ac praesidium sex milia hominum una 

___ -a 

rehquerant. Hi post eorum obitum multos annos a finitimis 



exagitatl, cum alias bellum Inferrent, alias inlatum defenderent, 
consensu eorum omnium pace facta hunc sibi domicilio locum 

XXX. Ac primo adventii exercitus nostri crebras ex oppido 

5 excursiones faciebant parvulisque proelus cum nostris conten- 
debant; postea vallo pedum xn in circuitu xv milium cre- 
brisque castellis circummuniti oppido sese continebant. Ubi 
vmeis actis, aggere exstructo turrim procul constitui viderunt, 
primum inrldere ex muro atque increpitare vocibus quod tanta 

10 machinatio a tanto spatio institueretur : ' Quibusnam manibus 
aut quibus vlribus, praesertim homines tantulae staturae (nam 
plerumque omnibus Gallis prae magnitudine corporum suorum 
brevitas nostra contemptui e'st), tantl oneris turrim in muro sese 
posse conlocare conflderent ? ' 

The Atuatuci surrender on favorable terms; but attempting treachery, 
they are afterwards sold as slaves. 

i 5 XXXI. Ubi vero mover! et appropinquare muris viderunt, 
nova atque inusitata specie commoti legates ad Caesarem de 
pace miserunt, qui ad hunc modum locutl : ' Non se existimare 
Romanos sine ope deorum bellum gerere, qui tantae altitudinis 
machinationes tanta celeritate promovere possent ; se suaque 

20 om'nia eorum potestati permittere ' dixerunt. ' Unum petere ac 
deprecari : si forte pro sua dementia ac mansuetudine, quam 
ipsi ab aliis audirent, statuisset Atuatucos esse c5nservandos, 
ne se armis despoliaret. Sibi omuls fere fmitimos esse ini- 
micos ac suae virtuti invidere; a quibus se defendere traditis 

25 armis non possent. Sibi praestare, si in eum casum deduce- 
rentur, quamvis fortunam a populo Romano pati quam ab his 
per cruciatum interfici, inter quos dominari consuessent.' 

XXXII. Ad haec Caesar respondit : 'Se magis consuetudine 
sua quam merito eorum civitatem conservaturum, si priusquam 

30 murum aries attigisset se dedidissent ; sed deditionis nullam 
esse condicionem nisi armis traditis. Se id quod in Nerviis 
fecisset facturum fmitimisque imperaturum ne quam deditfciis 




populi Romam iniuriara Inferrent' Re renuntiata ad suos quae 
imperarentur facere dixerunt. Armorum magna multitudine de 
muro in fossam quae erat ante oppidum iacta, sic ut prope sum- 
mam murl aggerisque altitudinem acerviarmorum adaequarent, 
et tamen circiter parte tertia, ut postea perspectum est, celata 5 
atque in oppido retenta, portls patefactis eo die pace sunt usi. 

XXXIII. Sub vesperum Caesar portas claudT militesque ex 
oppido exire iussit, ne quam noctu oppidan! -a militibus iniuriam 
acciperent. 111! ante inito, ut intellectum est, consilio, quod 
deditione facta nostros praesidia deducturos aut denique indili- ic 
gentins servaturos crediderant, partira cum ils qnae retinuerant 
et celaverant armis, partim sciltis ex cortice factis aut vimini- 
bus intextis, quae subito, ut temporis exiguitas postulabat, pelli- 



/ , ._ ' \ 

bus induxerant, tertia vigilia, qua mini me arduus ad nostras 
munltiones ascensus videbatur, omnibus copiis repente ex 15 
oppido eruptionem fecerunt. Celeriter, ut ante Caesar impe- 
raverat, Ignibus significatione facta ex proximis castellis eo con- 
cursum est, pugnatumque ab hostibus ita acriter est ut a viris 
fortibus in extrema spe salutis iniquo loco contra eos qui ex 
vallo turribusque tela iacerent pugnari debuit, cum in una vir- 20 
tute omnis spes consisteret. OccisTs ad hominum milibus 
quattuor reliqui in oppidum reiecti sunt. Postridie eius die! 
refractls portls, cum iam defenderet nemo, atque intromissis 
militibus nostris sectionem eius oppidT universam Caesar ven- 
didit. Ab iTs qui emerant capitum numerus ad eu.m relatus est 25 
mllium LUI. 


Meantime several maritime states have been subjugated by Crassus. 

XXXIV. Eodem tempore a P. Crasso, quern cum legione 
iina miserat ad Venetos, Venellos, Osismos, Coriosolites, Esu- 
vios, Aulercos, Redones, quae sunt maritimae clvitates Ocea- 
numque attingunt, certior factus est omnis eas clvitates in 

5 dicionem potestatemque populi Roman! esse redactas. 

The army goes into winter quarters ; a thanksgiving. 

XXXV. His rebus gestis omm Gallia pacata tanta huius belli 
ad barbaros opinio perlata est uti ab ils natidnibus quae trans 
Rhenum incolerent legati ad Caesarem mitterentur, qui se ob- 
sides daturas, imperata facturas pollicerentur. Quas legationes 

10 Caesar, quod in Italiam Illyricumque properabat, inita proxima 
aestate ad se revert! iussit. Ipse in Carnutes, Andls, Turonos, 
quaeque civitates propinquae iis locls erant ubi bellum gesserat 
Iegi5nibus in hiberna deductis in Italiam profectus est. Ob 
casque res ex litteris Caesaris dierum xv supplicatio decreta 

15 est, quod ante id tempus accidit null!. 



Galba is sent into the Alps to hold in check certain mountain tribes. 

He occupies Octodurus. 

I. Cum in Italiam proficlsceretur Caesar, Ser. Galbam cum 
legione duodecimal et parte equitatus in Nantuatis, Veragros, 
Sedunosque misit, qui a fmibus Allobrogum et lacu Lemanno 
et flumine Rhodano ad summas Alpis pertinent. Causa rnit- 
tendi fuit quod iter per AlpTs, quo magno cum periculo mag- r 
msque cum portoriis mercatores ire consuerant, pate fieri vole- 
bat. Huic permlsit, si opus esse arbitraretur, uti in his locis 
legionem hiemandi causa conlocar'et. Galba secundis aliquot 
proeliis factis castellisque compluribus eorum expugnatis, missis 
ad eum undique legatis obsidibusque datis et pace facta con- 10 
stituit cohortis duas in Nantuatibus conlocare et ipse cum reli- 
quis eius legionis cohortibus in vico Veragrorum, qui appellatur 
Octodurus, hiemare ; qui vicus positus in valle non magna 
adiecta planitie altissimis montibus undique continetur. Cum 
hie in duas partis flumine divideretur, alteram partem eius vici 15 
Gallls concessit, alteram vacuam ab his rellctam cohortibus 
attribuit. Eum locum vallo fossaque munivit. 

The mountaineers threaten him. 

II. Cum dies hlbernorum complures translssent frumentum- 
que eo comportarl iussisset, subito per exploratores certior 
factus est ex ea parte vici quam Gallls concesserat omms noctiiao 
discessisse, montlsque qui impenderent a maxima multitudine 
Sedunorum et Veragrorum teneri. Id aliquot de causis acci- 
derat, ut subito Galll belli renovandi legionisque opprimendae 
consilium caperent : prlmum, quod legionem, neque earn ple- 
nissimam detractis cohortibus duabus et compluribus singilla- 25 



tim, quT commeatus petendi causa missi erant, absentibus, 
propter paucitatem despiciebant ; turn etiam, quod propter 
inlquitatem loci, cum ipsi ex montibus in vallem decurrerent et 
tela conicerent, ne primum quidem impetum suum posse sus- 
5 tineri existimabant. Accedebat quod su5s ab se Hberos abs- 
tractos obsidum nomine dolebant, et Romanes non solum 
itinerum causa sed etiam perpetuae possessions culmina Alpium 
occupare conari et ea loca finitimae provinciae adiungere sibi 
persuasum habebant. 

10 III. His nuntiis acceptis Galba, cum neque opus hibernorum 
munitionesque plene essent perfectae neque de frumento re- 
liquoque commeatu satis esset provisum, quod deditione facta 
obsidibusque acceptis nihil de bello timendum existimaverat, 
consilio celeriter convocato sententias exquirere coepit. Quo 

15 in consilio, cum tantum repentini periculi praeter oplnionem 
accidisset, ac iam omnia fere superiora loca multitudine arma- 
torum completa conspicerentur, neque subsidio venir! neque 
commeatus supportarl interclusis itineribus possent, prope iam 
desperata salute non nullae eius modi sententiae dicebantur, ut 

ao impedimentls relictis eruptione facta isdem itineribus quibus eo 
pervenissent ad salutem conteuderent. Mai or! tarn en parti 
placuit hoc reservato ad extremum casum consilio interim rel 
eventum experm et castra defendere. 

He repulses them, but thinks it best to return to the province. 

IV. BrevT spatio interiecto, vix ut iis rebus quas constituissent 
25 conlocandls atque administrandis tempus daretur, hostes ex 
omnibus partibus signo dato decurrere, lapides gaesaque in 
vallum conicere. Nostri primo integris viribus fortiter pro- 
pugnare neque ullum frustra telum ex loco superiore mittere, et 
quaecumque pars castrorum nudata defensoribus premi videba- 
3otur, eo occurrere et auxilium ferre; sed hoc superari, quod 
diuturnitate pugnae hostes defessi proelio excedebant, alii in- 
tegris viribus succedebant, quarum rerum a nostris propter 
paucitatem fieri nihil poterat, ac non modo defesso ex pugna 




excedendi, sed ne saucio quid em eius loci ubi constiterat relin- 
quendi ac sui recipiendi facultas dabatur. 

V. Cum iam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur ac 
non solum vires sed etiam tela nostros deficerent, atque hostes 
acrius instarent languidioribusque nostrls vallum, scindere et 5 
fossas complere coepissent, resque esset iam ad extremum 


perducta casum, P. Sextius Baculus, primi pill centurio, quern 
Nervico proelio compluribus confectum vulneribus diximus, et 
item C.Volusenus, tribunus mTlitum, vir et consilT magni et virtutis, 
ad Galbam accurrunt atque unam esse spem salutis docent, siio 
eruptione facta extremum auxilium expenrentur. Itaque con- 
vocatis centurionibus celeriter mllites certiores facit paulisper 
intermitterent proelium ac tantummodo tela missa exciperent 
seque ex labore reficerent, post dato signo ex castris erumpe- 
rent atque omnem spem salutis in virtute ponerent. 15 

VI. Quod iussi sunt faciunt, ac subito omnibus portis erup- 
tione facta neque cognoscendl quid fieret neque sui conligendi 
hostibus facultatem relinquunt. Ita commutata fortuna eos qul 
in spem potiundorum castrorum venerant undique circnmventos 
interficiunt, et ex hominum mllibus amplius xxx, quern nume- 20 
rum barbarorum ad castra venisse constabat, plus tertia parte 


tim, quT commeatus petendi causa missi erant, absentibus, 
propter paucitatem despiciebant ; turn etiam, quod propter 
inlquitatem loci, cum ipsl ex montibus in valleni decurrerent et 
tela conicerent, ne prlmum quidem impetum suum posse sus- 
5 tinerl existimabant. Accedebat quod suos ab se llberos abs- 
tractos obsidum nomine dolebant, et Romanos non solum 
itinerum causa sed etiam perpetuae possessions culmina Alpium 
occupare con an et ea loca flnitimae provinciae adiungere sibi 
persuasum habebant. 

10 III. His nuntils acceptis Galba, cum neque opus hibernorum 
miinitione.sque plene essent perfectae neque de frumento re- 
liquoque commeatu satis esset provisum, quod deditione flicta 
obsidibusque acceptTs nihil de bello timendum existimaverat, 
consilio celeriter convocato sententias exqulrere coepit. Quo 

15 in consilio, cum tantum repentini periculi praeter opmionem 
accidisset, ac iam omnia fere superiora loca multitudine arma- 
torum completa conspicerentur, neque subsidio vemn neque 
commeatus supportan interclusls itineribus possent, prope iam 
desperata salute non niillae eius modi sententiae dlcebantur, ut 

20 impedlmentls rellctis eruptione flicla Tsdem itineribus quibus eo 
pervenissent ad salutem contenderent. Mai or! tamen parti 
placuit hoc reservato ad extremum casum consilio interim rel 
eventum experiri et castra defendere. 

He repulses them, but thinks it best to return to the province. 

IV. Brevi spatio interiecto, vix ut ils rebus quas constituissent 

25 conlocandls atque administrandi's tempus daretur, hostes ex 

omnibus partibus signo dato decurrere, lapides gaesaque in 

vallum conicere. Nostn prlmo integris viribus fortiter pro- 

pugnare neque ullum friistra telum ex loco superiore mittere, et 

quaecumque pars castrorum niidata defensoribus prerai videba- 

3otur, eo occurrere et auxilium ferre ; sed hoc superan, quod 

diuturnitate pugnae hostes defessT proelio excedebant, alii in- 

tegrls viribus succedebant, quarum re rum a nostrls propter 

paucitatem fieri nihil poterat, ac non mo do defesso ex pugna 




excedencli, sed ne saucio quidem eius loci ubi constiterat relin- 
quendl ac sui recipiendi facultas dabatur. 

V. Cum iam amplius horls sex continenter pugnaretur ac 
non solum vires sed etiam tela nostros deficerent, atque hostes 
acrius mstarent languidioribusque nostris vallum scindere et 5 
fossas complere coepissent, resque esset iam ad extremum 


perducta casum, P. Sextius Baculus, pnmi pih centurio, quern 
Nervico proelio compliiribus confectiim vulneribus dlximus, et 
item C.Volusenus, tribunns militum, vir et consill magni et virtutis, 
ad Galbam accurrunt atque unam esse spem salutis docent, siio 
eruptione facta extremum auxilium expenrentur. Itaque con- 
vocatis centurionibus celeriter milites certiorcs facit paulisper 
intermitterent proelium ac tantummodo tela missa exciperent 
seque ex labore reficerent, post da to slgno ex castris erumpe- 
rent atque omnem spem salutis in virtute ponerent. 15 

VI. Quod iussi sunt faciunt, ac subito omnibus portls erup- 
tione facta neqne cognoscendi quid fieret neqne sui conligendl 
hostibus facultatem relinqnunt. Ita commntata fortuna eos quT 
in spem potiundorum castrorum venerant undique circumventos 
interficiunt, et ex hominnm milibus amplius xxx, quern nume- 20 
rum barbarorum ad castra venisse constabat, plus tertia parte 


interfecta reliqu5s perterritos in fugara coniciunt ac ne in locis 
quidem superioribus consistere patiuntur. Sic omnibus hos- 
tium copiis fusis armlsque exutis se intra munltiones suas recipi- 
unt. Quo proelio facto, quod saepius fortunam temptare 

5 Galba nolebat, atque alio se in hiberna consilio venisse memine- 
rat, alils occurrisse rebus viderat, maxime frumentl commeatus- 
que inopia permotus postero die omnibus eius vie! aedificiis 
incensis in provinciam revert! contendit, ac nul]6 hoste pro- 
hibente aut iter demorante incolumem legionem in Nantuatis, 

ioinde in Allobroges perduxit ibique hiemavit. 



Roman officers, sent among the tribes of the coast after grain, are detained. 

VII. His rebus gestis, cum omnibus de causis Caesar paca- 
tam Galliam existimaret superatis Belgis, expulsis Germams, 
victis in Alpibus Sedums, atque ita inita hieme in Illyri- 
cum profectus esset, quod eas quoque nationes adire et 

isregiones cognoscere volebat, subitum bellum in Gallia 
coortum est. Eius belli haec fait causa. P. Crassus 
adulescens cum legione septima proximus mare Oceanum 
in Andibus hiemabat. Is, quod in his locis inopia frumentl 
erat, praefectos tribunosque militum compluris in fmitimas 

20 civitates frumentl causa dimisit ; quo in numero est T. Terrasidius 
missus in Esuvios, M. Trebius Gallus in Coriosolites, Q. Vela- 
nius cum T. Silio in Venetos. 

VIII. Huius est clvitatis longe amplissima auctoritas omnis 
orae maritimae regionum earum, quod et navis habent Veneti 

25 plurimas, quibus in Britanniam navigare consuerunt, et scientia 
atque usu rerum nauticarum ceteros antecedunt, et in magno 
impetu maris vastl atque aperti paucis portibus interiectis, quos 
tenent ipsi, omnis fere quT eo man uti consuerunt habent vecti- 
galis. Ab his fit initium retinendl Sill atque Velam, quod per 

3 o eos suos se obsides quos Crasso dedissent recuperaturos existi- 


mabant. Horum auctoritate fmitimi adducti (ut sunt Gallorum 
subita et repentina consilia) eadem de causa Trebium Terrasi- 
diumque retinent, et celeriter missis legatis per suos principes 
inter se coniiirant nihil nisi commum consilio acturos eundem- 
que omnls fortunae exitum esse laturos, reliquasque civitates 5 
sollicitant ut in ea Hbertate quam a maioribus acceperint per- 
manere quam Romanorum servitutem perferre malint. Omni 
ora maritima celeriter ad suam sententiam perducta commu- 
nem legationem ad P. Crassum mittunt : 'Si velit suos recupe- 
rare, obsides sibi remittat.' 10 

Preparations for war. 

IX. Quibus de rebus Caesar a Crass5 certior factus, quod 
ipse aberat longius, navis interim longas aedificari in flumine 
Ligeri, quod Influit in Oceanum, remiges ex provincia Institui, 
nautas gubernatoresque comparari iubet. His rebus celeriter 
administratis ipse, cum primum per anm tempus potuit, ad 15 
exercitum contendit. Veneti reliquaeque item civitates cognito 
Caesaris adventu, simul quod quantum in se facinus admlsissent 
intellegebant, legates, quod nomen ad omnls nationes sanctum 
inviolatumque semper fuisset, retentos ab se et in vincula 
coniectos, pro magnitudine pericull bellum parare et maxime 20 
ea quae ad usum navium pertinent providere instituunt, hoc 
maiore spe, quod multum natura loci confidebant. Pedestria 
esse itinera concisa aestuariis, navigationem impeditam propter 
Inscientiam locorum paucitatemque portuum sciebant, neque 
nostros exercitus propter frumentl inopiam diutius apud 8625 
morari posse confidebant ; ac iam ut omnia contra opinionem 
acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse, Romanes ne- 
que ullam facultatem habere navium toeque eorum locorum ubi 
bellum gesturi essent vada, portus, Tnsulas novisse, ac longe 
aliam esse navigationem in concluso marl atque in vastissimoso 
atque apertissimo Oceano perspiciebant. His initis consiliTs 
oppida muniunt, frumenta ex agris in oppida comportant, 
navis in Venetiam, ubi Caesarem primum bellum gesturum 


constabat, quam plurimas possunt cogunt. Socios sibi ad id 
bellum Osismos, Lexovios, Namnetes, Ambiliatos, Morinos, 
Diablintes, Menapios asciscunt ; auxilia ex Britannia, quae 
contra eas regiones posita est, arcessunt. 

5 X. Erant hae difficultates belli gerendi quas supra ostendi- 
mus, sed tamen multa Caesarem ad id bellum incitabant, 
iniuria retentorum equitum Romanorum, rebellio facta post 
deditionem, defectio datTs obsidibus, tot civitatum coniuratio, in 
primls ne hac parte neglecta reliquae nationes sibi idem licere 

loarbitrarentur. Itaque cum intellegeret omnls fere Gallos 
novis rebus studere et ad bellum mobiliter celeriterque 
excitari, omms autem homines natura libertatT studere et 
cohdicionem servitutis odisse, priusquam pliires civitates con- 
splrarent, partiendum sibi ac latius distribuendum exercitum 

15 putavit. 

XI. Itaque T. Labienum legatum in Treveros, quT proximi 
flufnini Rheno sunt, cum equitatu mittit. Huic mandat Remos 
reliquosque Belgas adeat atque in officio contineat, Germanos- 
que, qul auxilio a Gallls arcessiti dicebantur, si per vim navibus 

20 flumen translre conentur, prohibeat. P. Crassum cum cohorti- 
bus legionariis xn et magno numero equitatus in Aquitaniam 
proficlsci iubet, ne ex his nationibus auxilia in Galliam mittan- 
tur ac tantae nationes coniungantur. Q. Titurium Sabinum 
legatum cum legionibus tribus in Venellos, Coriosolites, 

25 Lexoviosque mittit, qul earn manum distinendam curet. 
D. Brutum adulescentem class! Gallicisque navibus, quas ex 
Pictonibus et Santoms reliquisque pacatis regionibus con- 
venire iusserat, praeficit et cum primum possit in Venetos 
proficisci iubet. Ipse eo pedestribus copils contehdit. 

The towns and ships of the Veneti. 

30 XII. Erant eius modi fere situs oppidorum ut posita in ex- 
tremis lingulis promunturiisque neque pedibus aditum haberent 
cum ex alto se aestus incitavisset, quod accidit semper horarum 
xii spatio, neque navibus, quod riirsus minuente aestu naves 


in vadis adflictarentur. Ita utraque re oppidorum oppugnatio 
impediebatur. Ac si quando magnitudine opens forte superatl, 
extruso mar! aggere ac molibus atque his oppidi moenibus 
adaequatis, desperare fortunls suls coeperant, magno nuraero 
navium appulso, cuius rel summam facultatem habebant, sua 5 
deportabant omnia seque in proxima oppida recipiebant ; ibi 
se rursus Isdem opportunitatibus loci defendebant. Haec eo 
facilius magnam partem aestatis faciebant, quod nostrae naves 
tempestatibus detinebantur, 'summaque erat vasto atque aperto 
marl, magms aestibus, raris ac prope nullls portibus difBcultas 10 

XIII. Namque ipsorum naves ad hunc modum factae arma- 
taeque erant : carmae aliquanto planiores quam nostrarum 
navium, quo facilius vada ac decessum aestus excipere possent ; 
prorae admodum erectae atque item puppes, ad magnitudinem 15 
fluctuum tempestatumque accommodatae ; naves totae factae 
ex robore ad quamvis vim et contumeliam perferendam ; 
transtra ex pedalibus in altitudinem trabibus, conf Ixa clavis 
ferreis digit! pollicis crassitudine ; ancorae pro funibus ferrels 
catenls revinctae ; pelles pro veils alutaeque tenuiter confectae, 20 
slve propter inopiam llni atque eius usus Inscientiam sive eo, 
quod est magis veri simile, quod tantas tempestates Ocean! 
tantosque impetus ventorum sustineri ac tanta onera navium 
regi veils non satis commode posse arbitrabantur. Cum his 
navibus nostrae class! eius mod! congressus erat ut una ce- 25 
leritate et pulsu remorum praestaret, reliqua pro loci natura, 
pro v! tempestatum illls essent aptiora et accommodatiora. 
Neque enim ils nostrae rostro nocere poterant, tanta in ils 
erat firmitudo, neque propter altitudinem facile telum 
adigebatur, et eadem de causa minus commode copulls con- 30 
tinebantur. Accedebat ut, cum saevlre ventus coepisset et 
se vento dedissent, et tempestatem ferrent facilius et in vadis 
consisterent tutiiis, et ab aestu. rellctae nihil saxa et cautis 
timerent; quarum rerum omnium nostris navibus casus erat 
extimescendus. 35 


The Romans are victorious in a naval battle. 

XIV. Compluribus expugnatis oppidis Caesar, ubi intellexit 
frustra tantum laborem sum! neque hostium fugara captis oppi- 
dis reprimi neque iis noceri posse, statuit exspectandam 
classem. Quae ubi convenit ac primum ab hostibus visa est, 

scirciter ccxx naves eorum paratissimae atque omul genere 
armorum ornatissimae profectae ex portu nostrls adversae 
constiterunt ; neque satis Bruto, qul class! praeerat, vel tribums 
mllitum centurionibusque, quibus singulae naves erant attribu- 
tae, constabat quid agerent aut quam rationem pugnae Insis- 

10 terent. Rostro enira noceri non posse cognoverant ; turribus 
autem excitatis, tamen has altitudo puppium ex barbans navibus 
superabat, ut neque ex mferiore loco satis commode tela adigl 
possent et missa a Gallis gravius acciderent. Una erat magno 
usui res praeparata a nostris, falces praeacutae insertae adfixae- 

15 que longuriis, non absimili forma muralium falcium. His cum 
funes qui antemnas ad malos destinabant comprehensl adductl- 
que erant, navigio remis incitato praerumpebantur. Quibus 
absclsls antemnae necessario concidebant, ut, cum omnis Gal- 
licis navibus spes in veils armamentisque consisteret, his ereptis 

20 omnis usus navium uno tempore eriperetur. Reliquum erat 
certamen positum in virtute, qua nostri milites facile supera- 
bant, atque eo magis quod in conspectu Caesaris atque omnis 
exercitus res gerebatur, ut nullum paulo fortius factum latere 
posset ; omnes enim colles ac loca superiora unde erat propin- 

25 quus despectus in mare ab exercitu tenebantur. 

XV. Deiectls, ut diximus, antemms, cum singulas binae ac 
ternae naves circumsteterant, milites summa vi transcendere in 
hostium navis contendebant. Quod postquam barbari fieri 
animadverterunt, expugnatis compluribus navibus, cum el rei 

30 nullum repenretur auxilium, fuga salutem petere contenderunt. 
Ac iam conversls in earn partem navibus quo ventus ferebat 
tanta subito malacia ac tranquillitas 'exstitit ut se ex loco 
movere non possent. Quae quidem res ad negotium conficien- 
dum maxime fuit opportuna ; nam singulas nostri consectatl 


expugnaverunt, ut perpaucae ex oram mimero noctis interventu 
ad terram pervenirent, cum ab hora fere quarta ii.sque ad solis 
occasum pugnaretur. 

The survivors surrender, and Caesar punishes them. 

XVI. Quo proelio bellum Venetorum totmsqne orae mariti- 
raae confectum est. Nam cum omnis iuventus, omnes etiam 5 
gravioris aetatis in quibus aliquid consili ant dlgnitatis fuit eo 
convenerant, turn navium quod ubique fuerat in unum locum 
coegerant quibus amissis reliqm neque quo se reciperent 
neque quern ad modum oppida defenderent habebant. Itaque 
se suaque omnia Caesan dediderunt. In quos eo gravius 10 
Caesar vindicandum statuit, quo diligentius in reliquum tern- 
pus a barbarls ius legatorum conservaretur. Itaque omnl 
senatu necato reliqtios sub corona vendidit. 

Sabinus defeats the Venelli and their allies. 

XVII. Dum haec in Venetis geruntur, Q. Titiirius Sabinus 
cum ils copiis quas a Caesare acceperat in finis Venellorum 15 
pervenit. His praeerat Viridovix ac summam imperi tenebat 
earum omnium clvitatum quae defecerant, ex quibus exercitum 
magnasque copias coegerat; atque his panels diebus Aulercl 
EburovTces Lexoviique senatu suo interfecto, quod auctores 
belli esse nolebant, portas clauserunt seque cum Viridovice2o 
coniunxerunt ; magnaque praeterea multitude undique ex Gallia 
perditorum hominum latronumqne convenerat, et quos spes 
praedandl studiumque bellandi ab agrl cultura et cottidiano 
labore sevocabat. Sabinus idoneo ""omnibus rebus loco castris 
sese tenebat, cum Viridovix contra eum duorum mllium spatio25 
consedisset cottidieque productis copiis pugnandl potestatem 
faceret, ut iam non solum hostibus in contemptionem Sabinus 
veniret sed etiam nostrorum militum vocibus non nihil car- 
peretur ; tantamque opinionem timoris. praebuit ut iam ad 
vallum castrorum hostes accedere auderent. Id ea de causa 30 
faciebat, quod cum tanta multitudine hostium, praesertim eo 


absente qui summam imperi teneret, nisi aequo loco aut oppor- 
tunitate aliqua data legato dimicandum non exlstimabat. 

XVIII. Hac conflrmata opmione timoris idoneum quendam 
hominem et callidum delegit, Gallum, ex ils quos auxill causa 

5 secum habebat. Huic magms praemils pollicitationibusque per- 
suadet uti ad hostis transeat, et quid fieri velit edocet. Qui ubi 
pro perfuga ad eos venit, timorem Romanorum proponit, qui- 
bus angustiis ipse Caesar a Venetis prematur docet, neque 
longius abesse quin proxima nocte Sabmus clam ex castris 

10 exercitum educat et ad Caesarem auxili ferendi causa proficis- 
catur. Quod ubi auditum est, conclamant omnes occasionem 
negoti bene gerendi amittendam non esse ; ad castra Iri opor- 
tere. Multae res ad hoc consilium Gallos hortabantur, su- 
periorum dierum Sabmi cunctatio, perfugae confirraatio, inopia 

15 cibariorum, cui rei parum diligenter ab ils erat provlsum, spes 
Venetici belli, et quod fere libenter homines id quod volunt 
credunt. His rebus adducti non prius Viridovicem reliquosque 
duces ex concilio dimittunt quam ab ils sit concessum arma uti 
capiant et ad castra contendant. Qua re concessa laeti ut 

20 explorata victoria sarmentis virgultisque conlectis, quibus fossas 
Romanorum compleant, ad castra pergunt. 

XIX. Locus erat castrorum editus et paulatim ab imo acclivis 
circiter passus mille. Hue magno cursu contenderunt, ut quam 
minimum spati ad se conligendos armandosque Romanis daretur, 

25 exanimatique pervenerunt. Sabmus suos hortatus cupientibus 
signum dat. Impeditis hostibus.propter ea quae ferebant onera 
subito duabus portis eruptionem fieri iubet. Factum est oppor- 
tunitate loci, hostium inscientia ac defatlgatione, virtute militum 
et superiorum pugnarum exercitatione ut ne primum quidem 

30 nostrorum impetum ferrent ac statim terga verterent. Quos 
integris vlribus milites nostri consecuti magnum numerum eorum 
occlderunt ; reliquos equites consectati paucos, qui ex fuga 
evaserant, reliquerunt. Sic uno tempore et de navali pugna 
Sabmus et de Sabini victoria Caesar est certior factus, civita- 

35 tesque omnes se statim Titurio dediderunt. Nam ut ad bella 


suscipienda Gallorum alacer ac promptus est animus, sic mollis 
ac minime resistens ad calamitates ferendas mens eorum est. 


Crassus conquers the Sotiates. 

XX. Eodem fere tempore P. Crassus, cum in Aquitaniam 
pervenisset (quae, ut ante dictum est, est tertia pars Galliae), 
cum intellegeret in ils locis sibi bellum gerendum ubi paucis 5 
ante annis L. Valerius Praeconinus legatus exercitu pulso inter- 
fectus esset, atque unde L. Manlius proconsul impediments 
amissis profugisset, non mediocrem sibi diligentiam adhibendam 
intellegebat. Itaque re frumentaria pr5visa, auxiliis equita- 
tuque comparato, multis praeterea viris fortibus Tolosa et 10 
Carcasone et Narbone, quae sunt civitates Galliae provinciae 
flnitimae his regionibus, nominatim evocatis in Sotiatium finis 
exercitum introduxit. Cuius adventu cognito Sotiates magms 
copiis coactis equitatiique, quo plurimum valebant, in itinere 
agmen nostrum adorti primum equestre proelium commlserunt ; 15 
deinde equitatu suo pulso atque insequentibus nostris subito 
pedestris copias, quas in convalle in insidils conlocaverant, 
ostenderunt. Hi nostros disiectos adorti proelium renovarunt. 

XXI. Pugnatum est diu atque acriter, cum Sotiates superio- 
ribus victoriis freti in sua virtute totius Aquitaniae saliitem posi- 20 
tarn putarent, nostri autem quid sine imperatore et sine reliquis 
legionibus adulescentulo duce efficere possent perspici cuperent ; 
tandem confecti vulneribus hostes terga verterunt. Quorum 
magno numero interfecto Crassus ex itinere oppidum Sotiatium 
c;ppugnare coepit. Quibus fortiter resistentibus vmeas turrisque25 
git. 111! alias eruptione temptata, alias cuniculis ad aggerem 
vineasque actis (cuius rei sunt longe perltissimi Aquitani prop- 
terea quod multis locis apud eos aerariae secturaeque sunt), 
ubi diligentia nostrorum nihil his rebus proficl posse intellex- 
erunt, legates ad Crassum mittunt seque in deditionem utso 
recipiat petunt. Qua re impetrata arma tradere iussi faciunt. 


XXII. Atque in earn rera omnium nostrorum intentis animis, 
alia ex parte oppidi Adiatunnus, qul sumraam imperi tenebat, 
cum sescentis devotis, quos ill! soldurios appellant, quorum 
haec est condicio, ut omnibus in vita commodis una cum ils 

5 fruantur quorum se amicitiae dediderint, si quid his per vim 
accidat, aut eunde'm casum una ferant aut sibi mortem con- 
sciscant neque adhuc hominum memoria repertus est quisquam 
qui eo interfecto cuius se amicitiae devovisset mortem recusaret 
cum his Adiatunnus eruptionem facere conatus, clamore ab 

10 ea parte mumtionis sublato, cum ad arma milites concurrissent 
vehementerque ibi pugnatum esset, repulsus in oppidum, tamen 
uti eadem deditionis condicione uteretur a Crasso impe- 

The Aquitani ask help from Spain. 

XXIII. ArmTs obsidibusque acceptis Crassus in finis Vo- 
15 catium et Tarusatium profectus est. Turn vero barbari com- 

moti, quod oppidum et natura loci et manu munitum paucis 
diebus quibus eo v en turn erat expugnatum cognoverant, legates 
quoqueversus dimittere, coniurare, obsides inter se dare, 
copias parare coeperunt. Mittuntur etiam ad eas civitates 

20 legatl quae sunt citerioris Hispaniae fmitimae Aquitaniae ; inde 
auxilia ducesque arcessuntur. Quorum adventu magna cum 
auctoritate et magna hominum multitudine bellum gerere 
conantur. Duces vero ii deliguntur qui una cum Q. Sertorio 
omnis annos fuerant summamque scientiam rel militaris habere 

25 existimabantur. Hi consuetudine populf Roman! loca capere, 
castra rnumre, commeatibus nostros intercludere instituun 1 :. 
Quod ubi Crassus animadvertit suas copias propter exiguitatem 
non facile diduci, hostem et vagarl et vias obsidere et castrif 
satis praesidi relinquere, ob earn causam minus commode fru- 

30 mentum commeatumque sibi supportari, in dies hostium 
numerum augen, non cunctandum exlstimavit qum pugna de- 
certaret. Hac re ad consilium delata, ubi omms idem sentire 
intellexit, posterum diem pugnae constituit. 


Crassus defeats the Aquitani and their allies, and brings the greater part 

of Aquitania into submission. 

XXIV. Prima luce productis omnibus copils, duplicl acie 
instituta, auxiliis in mediam aciem coniectis, quid hostes consill 
caperent exspectabat. 111! etsi propter multitudinem et ve- 
terem belli gloriam paucitatemque nostrorum se tuto dimica- 
turos exlstimabant, tamen tutius esse arbitrabantur obsessis viis, 5 
commeatu intercluso sine vulnere victoria potiri, et si propter 
inopiam rel frumentariae Roman! sese recipere coepissent, im- 
peditos in agmine et sub sarcinls Tnfirmiores animo adoriri 
cogitabant. Hoc consilio probato ab ducibus, productis Ro- 
manorum copiis sese castrls tenebant. Hac re perspecta Cras- 10 
sus, cum sua cunctatione atque opinione timoris hostes nostros 
milites alacriores ad pugnandum effecissent, atque omnium 
voces audirentur exspectarl diutius non oportere quin ad castra 
iret'ur, cohortatus suos omnibus cupientibus ad hostium castra 
contendit. I5 

XXV. Ibi cum alii fossas complerent, alii multis tells coniec- 
tis defensores vallo mumtionibusque depellerent, auxiliaresque, 
quibus ad pugnam non multum Crassus confldebat, lapidibus 
telisque subministrandis et ad aggerem caespitibus comportandfs 
speciem atque opinionem pugnantium praeberent, cum item ab2o 
hostibus constanter ac non timide pugnaretur, telaque ex loco 
superiore missa non frustra acciderent, equites circumitis hos- 
tium castris Crasso renuntiaverunt non eadem esse diligentia ab 
decumana porta castra mumta facilemque aditum habere. 

XXVI. Crassus equitum praefectos cohortatus ut magniS25 
praemiis pollicitationibusque suos excitarent, quid fieri vellet 
ostendit. Illi, ut erat imperatum, devectls iis cohortibus quae 
praesidio castris relictae intritae ab labore erant et longiore 
itinere circumductis, ne ex hostium castris conspicT possent, 
omnium oculls mentibusque ad pugnam intentls celeriter ad easso 
quas diximus munltiones pervenerunt, atque his prorutis prius 
in hostium castris constiterunt quam plane ab his videri aut 
quid rel gereretur cognosci posset. Turn ver5 clamore ab ea 


parte audito nostri redintegratls viribus, quod plerumque in 
spe victoriae accidere consuevit, acrius impugnare coeperunt. 
Hostes undique circumvent! desperatis omnibus rebus se per 
munltiones deicere et fuga salutem petere contenderunt. Quos 
5 equitatus apertissimls campis consectatus ex milium L numero, 
quae ex Aquitania Cantabrisque convenisse constabat, vix quarta 
parte relicta multa nocte se in castra recepit. 

XXVII. Hac audlta pugna maxima pars Aquitaniae sese 
Crasso dedidit obsidesque ultro misit ; quo in numero fuerunt 

loTarbelll, Bigerriones, Ptianii, Vocates. Tarusates, Elusates, 
Gates, Ausci, Garumni, Sibusates, Cocosates ; paucae ultimae 
nationes anm tempore confisae, quod hiems suberat, id facere 


XXVIII. Eodem fere tempore Caesar, etsi prope exacta iam 
15 aestas erat, tamen quod omni Gallia pacata Morini Menapiique 

supererant qui in armis essent neque ad eum umquam legatos 
de pace misissent, arbitratus id bellum celeriter conficT posse eo 
exercitum duxit ; qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum 
gerere coeperunt. Nam quod intellegebant maxima's nationes, 

20 quae proelio contendissent, pulsas superatasque esse, conti- 
nentisque silvas ac paludes habebant, eo se suaque omnia 
contulerunt. Ad quarum initium silvarum cum Caesar per- 
venisset castraque mumre Tnstituisset, neque hostis interim 
visus esset, dispersis in opere nostris subito ex omnibus parti- 

25 bus silvae evolaverunt et in nostros impetum f ecierunt. Nostri 
celeriter arma ceperunt eosque in silvas reppulerunt, et com- 
pluribus interfectis longius impeditioribus locis secutl paucos ex 
suis deperdiderunt. 

XXIX. ReliquTs deinceps diebus Caesar silvas caedere insti- 
30 tuit, et ne quis inermibus imprudentibusque militibus -ab latere 

impetus fieri posset, omnem earn materiam quae erat caesa 
conversam ad hostem conlocabat et pro vallo ad utrumque latus 




exstruebat. Incredibill celeritate magno spatio paucis diebus 
confecto, cum iam pecus atque extrema impedimenta a nostris 
tenerentur, ipsi densiores silvas peterent, eius modi sunt tem- 
pestates conseciitae uti opus necessario intermitteretur, et con- 
tinuatione imbrium diutius sub pellibus milites contineri non 5 
possent. Itaque vastatis omnibus eorum agris, vlcis aedifi- 
ciisque incensis Caesar exercitum reduxit et in Aulercis Lexo- 
viisque, reliquis item clvitatibus quae proxime bellum fecerant, 
in hiberms conlocavit. 



parte audlto nostri redintegratis vi'ribus, quod plerumque in 
spe victoriae accidere consuevit, acrius impugnare coeperunt. 
Hostes undique circumvent! desperatls omnibus rebus se per 
mumtiones deicere et fuga salutem petere contenderunt. Quos 
5 equitatus apertissimls campis consectatus ex milium L numero, 
quae ex Aqultania Cantabrisque convenisse constabat, vix quarta 
parte relicta multa nocte se in castra recepit. 

XXVII. Hac audita pugna maxima pars Aquitaniae sese 
Crasso dedidit obsidesque ultro misit ; quo in numero fuerunt 

loTarbelli, Bigerriones, Ptianii, Vocates, Tarusates, Elusates, 
Gates, Ausci, GarumnT, Sibusates, Cocosates ; paucae ultimae 
nationes annl tempore confisae, quod hiems suberat, id facere 


XXVIII. Eodem fere tempore Caesar, etsT prope exacta iam 
15 aestas erat, tamen quod omm Gallia pacata Morim Menapifque 

supererant qm in armis essent neque ad eum umquam legates 
de pace misissent, arbitratus id bellum celeriter confici posse eo 
exercitum diiixit ; quT longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum 
gerere coeperunt. Nam quod intellegebant maximas nationes, 

20 quae proelio contendissent, pulsas superatasque esse, conti- 
nentisque silvas ac paliides habebant, eo se suaque omnia 
contulerunt. Ad quarum initium silvarum cum Caesar per- 
venisset castraque munire Tnstituisset, neque hostis interim 
visus esset. dispersls in opere nostrls subito ex omnibus parti- 

25 bus silvae evolaverunt et in nostros impetum f ecerunt. NostrT 
celeriter arma ceperunt eosque in silvas reppulerunt, et com- 
pluribus interfectis longius impeditioribus locls secuti paucos ex 
sms deperdiderunt. 

XXIX. ReliquTs deinceps diebus Caesar silvas caedere insti- 
sotuit, et ne quis inermibus imprudentibusque militibus-ab latere 

impetus fieri posset, omnem earn materiam quae erat caesa 
conversam ad hostem conlocabat et pro vallo ad utrumque latus 




exstruebat. Incredibili celeritate magno spatio panels diebus 
confecto, cum iam pecus atque extrema impedimenta a nostris 
tenerentur, ipsi densiores silvas peterent, eius modi sunt tem- 
pestates consecutae utT opus necessario intermitteretur, et con- 
tinuatione imbrium diutius sub pellibus mllites continerl non 5 
possent. Itaque vastatis omnibus eorum agris, vicis aedifi- 
ciisque incensis Caesar exercitum rediixit et in AulercTs Lexo- 
vilsque, reliquis item clvitatibus quae proxime bellum fecerant, 
in hiberms conlocavit. 





The Usipetes and Tencteri cross the Rhine into Gaul. Description of the 


I. Ea quae secfuta est hieme, qul fuit annus Cn. Pompeio, 
M. Crasso consulibus, Usipetes German! et item Tencteri magna 
cum multitudine hominum flumen Rhenum transierunt non 
longe a marl, quo Rhenus influit. Causa transeundi fuit quod 

5 ab Suebls compluris annos exagitati bello premebantur et agri 
cultura prohibebantur. 

Sueborum gens est longe maxima et bellicosissima Germano- 
ram omnium. Hi centum pagos habere dicuntur, ex quibus 
quotannis singula milia armatorum bellandi causa ex fmibus 

io educunt. ReliquI, qul domi manserunt, se atque illos alunt ; 
hi rursus invicem anno post in armis sunt, ill! domi remanent. 
Sic neque agri cultura nee rati5 atque usus belli intermittitur. 
Sed privati ac separati agri apud eos nihil est, neque longius 
anno remanere uno in loco colendi causa licet. Neque multum 

15 frumento, sed maximam partem lacte atque pecore vivunt, 
multumque sunt in venationibus ; quae res et cibi genere et 
cottidiana exercitatione et Hbertate vltae, quod a pueris nullo 
officio aut disciplina adsuefactT nihil ommno contra voluntatem 
faciunt, et viris alit et immanl corporum magnitudine homines 

aoefficit. Atque in earn se consuetudinem adduxerunt ut locis 


frlgidissimis neque vestitus praeter pellis haberent quicquam, 
quarum propter exiguitatem magna est corporis pars aperta, et 
lavarentur in fluminibus. 

II. Mercatoribus est aditus magis eo, ut quae bello ceperint 
25 quibus vendant habeant, quam quo ullam rem ad se importari 





desiderent. Qum etiam iumentis, quibus maxime Galli delec- 
tantur quaeque impenso parant pretio, German! importatls non 
utuntur, sed quae sunt apud e5s nata, parva atque deformia, 
haec cottidiana exercitatione summl ut sint laboris efficiunt. 
Equestribus proeliis saepe ex equis desiliunt ac pedibus proe- 5 
liantur, equosque eodem remanere vestlgio adsuefecerunt, ad 
quos se celeriter, cum usus est, recipiunt; neque eorum mori- 
bus turpius quicquam aut inertius habetur quam ephippiis uti. 
Itaque ad quemvis numerum-ephippiatorum equitum quamvis 

pauci adire audent. VinuuSic 
ommno ad se importari non 
patiuntur, quod ea re ad la- 
borem ferendum remollescere 
homines atque effeminari arbi- 
trantur. 15 

III. Publice maximam pu- 
tant esse laudem quam latissime 
a suls finibus vacare agjos; 
hac re significar! magnum 
numerum civitatum suam vim 20 
sustinere non posse. Itaque 
una ex parte a Suebiscirciter miliapassuum c agri vacare dicuntur. 
Ad alteram partem succedunt Ubii, quorum rait civitas ampla 
atque florens, iit est captus Germanorum ; ii paulo (quamquam 
sunt eiusdem generis) sunt ceteris humaniores, propterea quod 25 
Rhenum attingunt, multumque ad eos mercatores ventitant, et 
ipsi propter propinquitatem Gallicis sunt moribus adsuefacti. 
Hos cum Suebl multls saepe bellls experti propter amplitudinem 
gravitatemque civitatis finibus expellere non potuissent, tamen 
vectlgalls sibi fecerunt ac multo humiliores Infirmioresque 3 

The Menapii are overpowered by the Usipetes and Tencteri. 

IV. In eadem causa fuerunt Usipetes et TencterT, quos 
supra diximus, qui compluns annos Sueborum vim sustinuerunt ; 



ad extremum tamen agrls expulsi et multis locis Germaniae 
triennium vagati ad Rhenum pervenerunt, quas regiones Mena- 
pil incolebant. HI ad utramque ripam fluminis agros, aedi- 
ficia, vicosque habebant ; sed tantae multitudinis adventu 
5 perterriti ex ils aedificiis quae trans fluraen habuerant demigra- 
verant, et cis Rhenum dispositis praesidiis Germanos transire 
prohibebant. 111! omnia expert!, cum neque vr contendere 
propter inopiam navium neque clam translre propter custodias 
Menapiorum possent, revert! se in suas sedis regionesque simu- 

^ \ i ! i\ 

" 10 lav'erunt, et tridul viam progress! rursus reverterunt, atque omm 
hoc itinere una nocte equitatu confecto mscios inopinantisque 
Menapios oppresserunt, qu! de Germanorum discessu per ex- 
ploratores certiores fact! sine metu trans Rhenum in suos vicos 
remigraverant. His interfectls navibnsque eorum occupatis, 
15 priusquam ea pars Menapiorum quae citra Rhenum erat certior 
fieret, flumen transierunt, atque omnibus eorum aedificiis occu- 
patis reliquam partem hiemis se eorum copils aluerunt. 

The invaders are received in a friendly manner by certain of the 

Gallic tribes. 

V. His de rebus Caesar certior factus et infirmitatem Gallo- 
rum veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis mobiles et novls 

20 plerumque rebus student, nihil his committendum ex!stimavit. 
Est enim hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, uti et viatores etiam 
invitos consistere cogant, et quid quisque eorum de quaque re 
audierit aut cognoverit quaerant, et mercatores in pppidis 
vulgus circumsistat, quibusque ex regionibus veniant quasque 

25 ibi res cognoverint pronuntiare cogat. His rebus atque audi- 
tionibus permoti de summis saepe rebus consilia ineunt, quorum 
eos in vestigio paenitere necesse est, cum incertis rumoribus 
serviant, et plerique ad voluntatem eorum ficta respondeant. 

VI. Qua consuetudine cognita Caesar, ne gravior!' bello 
30 occurreret, maturius quam corisuerat ad exercitum proficiscitur. 

f\ . , ; J^>*- 

E6 cum venisset, ea quae fore suspicatus erat) facta^Cognovit ; 
missas legationes ab non nullis civitatibus ad Germanos, invita- 


tosque eos utl ab Rheno discederent : ' Omnia quae postulassent 
ab se fore parata.' Qua spe adducti German! latius iam vaga- 
bantur et in finis Eburonum et Condrusorum, qui sunt Treve- 
rorum clientes, pervenerant. Prmcipibus Galliae evocatTs Cae- 
sar ea quae cognoverat dissimulanda sibi exlstimavit, eoruinque 5 
animis permulsls et confirmatis equitatuque imperato bellum 
cum Germanis gerere constituit. 

Caesar demands that the Germans depart from Gaul. 

VII. Re frumentaria comparata equitibusque delectis iter in 
ea loca facere coepit quibus in locls esse Germanos audiebat. 

A quibus cum paucorum dierum iter abesset, legati ab iis vene- 10 
runt, quorum haec fuit oratio : ' Germanos neque priores 
populo Romano bellum Inferre neque tamen recusare, si laces- 
santur, qmn armis contendant, quod Germanorum consuetude 
haec sit a maioribus tradita, quicumque bellum mferant resistere 
neque deprecari. Haec tamen dicere : venisse invltos, eiectos 15 
domo ; si suam gratiam Roman! velint, posse iis utills esse a.micos ; 
vel sibi agros attribuant vel patiantur eos tenere quos armis 
possederint ; sese urns Suebls concedere, quibus ne dil quidem 
immortales pares esse possint ; reliquum quidem in terris esse 
neminem -quern non superare possint.' 20 

VIII. Ad haec Caesar quae vlsum est respondit; sed exitus 
foit orationis : ' Sibi riullam cum iis amicitiam esse posse, si in 
Gallia remanerent ; neque verum esse qui suos finis tueri non 
potuerint alienos occupare ; neque ullos in Gallia vacare agros 
qui dan, tantae praesertim multitudinl, sine iniuria possint ; sed 25 
licere, si velint, .in Ubiorum finibiis consldere, quorum sint 
legati apud se et de Sueborum iniuriis querantur et a se 
auxilium petantj hoc se Ubils imperaturum.' 

IX. Legati haec se ad suos relaturos dixerunt et re delibe- 
rata post diem tertium ad Caesarem reversuros ; interea ne pro- 30 
pius se castra moveret petierunt. Ne id quidem Caesar ab se 
impetrari posse dixit. Cognoverat enim magnam partem equi- 
tatus ab iis aliquot diebus ante praedandl frumentandlque causa 


ad Ambivaritos trans Mosam missam ; hos exspectari equites 
atque eius rei causa moram interponl arbitrabatur. 

The Meuse and the Rhine. 

X. Mosa profluit ex monte Vosego, qui est in fmibus 
Lingonum, et parte quadam ex Rheno recepta, quae appella- 
5 tur Vacalus, insulam efficit Batavorum, neque longius inde 
milibus passuum LXXX in Oceanum influit. Rhenus autem 
oritur ex Lepontils, qui AlpTs incolunt, et longo spatio per finis 
Nantuatium, Helvetiorum, Sequanorum, Mediomatricum, Tri- 
bocorum, Treverorum citatus fertur, et ubi Oceano appropin- 
loquavit, in pluris dififluit partis multis ingentibusque Insulis 
effectis, quarum pars raagna a fens barbarisque nationibus 
incolitur (ex quibu's sunt qui piscibus atque ovis avium vlvere 
existimantur), multisque capitibus in Oceanum influit. 

The Germans seek delay. A cavalry skirmish takes place. 

XL Caesar cum ab hoste non amplius passuum xn milibus 

15 abesset, ut erat constitutum, ad eum legati revertuntur; qui in 
itinere congress! magnopere ne longius progrederetur orabant. 
Cum id non impetrassent, petebant uti ad eos equites qui 
agmen antecessissent praemitteret eosque pugna prohiberet, 
sibique ut potestatem faceret in Ubios legatos mittendi ; quo- 

20 rum si principes ac senatus sibi iure iiirando fidem fecisset, ea 
condicione quae a Caesare ferretur se usuros ostendebant ; ad 
has res conficiendas sibi trldul spatium daret. Haec omnia 
Caesar eodem illo pertinere arbitrabatur, ut trldul mora in- 
terposita equites eorum qui abessent reverterentur ; tamen 

25 sese non longius milibus passuum quattuor aquationis causa 
processurum eo die dixit; hue postero die quam frequen- 
tissimi convemrent, ut de eorum postulatis cognosceret. 
Interim ad praefectos, qui cum omni equitatu antece^serant, 
mittit qui nuntiarent ne hostis proelio lacesserent, . et si 

30 ipsi lacesserentur, sustinerent quoad ipse cum exercitu propius 


XII. At hostes, ubi primum nostros equites conspexerunt, 
quorum erat qulnque mllium numerus, cum ipsT non amplius 
DCCC equites haberent, quod ii qui frumentandl causa ierant 
trans Mosam nondum redierant, nihil timentibus nostris, quod 
legati eorum paulo ante a Caesare- discesserant atque is dies s 
indutiis erat ab his petitus, impetu facto celeriter nostros per- 
turbaverunt ; rursus his resistentibus consuetudine sua ad pedes 
desiluerunt, suffossisque equis compluribusque nostris deiectis 
reliquos in fugam coniecerunt, atque ita perterritos egerunt ut 
non prius fuga desisterent quam in conspectum agminis nostrf ic 
venissent. In eo proelio ex equitibus nostris interficiuntur un 
et LXX, in his vir fortissimus Piso Aquitanus, amplissimo ge- 
nere natus, cuius avus in clvitate sua regnum obtinuerat amicus 
a senatu nostro appellatus. Hie cum fratri intercluso ab hosti- 
bus auxilium ferret, ilium ex periculo eripuit, ipse equo 15 
vulnerato deiectus quoad potuit fortissime restitit ; cum circum- 
ventus multls vulneribus acceptis cecidisset, atque id frater, 
qui iam proelio excesserat, procul animadvertisset, incitato 
equo se hostibus obtulit atque interfectus est. 

Caesar defeats the German army and destroys it. 

XIII. Hoc facto proelio Caesar neque iam sibi legates 20 
audiendos neque condiciones accipiendas arbitrabatur ab ils 
qui per dolum atque msidias petita pace ultro bellum intulis- 
sent; exspectare vero dum hostium copiae augerentur equita- 
tusque reverteretur summae dementiae esse iudicabat; et 
cognita Gallorum infirmitate quantum iam apud eos hostes un5 25 
proelio auctoritatis essent consecuti sentiebat ; quibus ad con- 
silia capienda nihil spatl dandum existimabat. His constitu- 
tis rebus et consilio cum legatis et quaestore communicato, 
ne quern diem pugnae praetermitteret, opportunissima res 
accidit, quod postridie eitis diel mane eadein et simulatione et 30 
perfidia usi German! frequentes omnibus principibus maiori- 
busque natu adhibitls ad eum in castra venerunt, simul, ut dice- 
batur, purgandi sui causa, quod contra atque esset dictum 



et ipsl petissent proelium pridie commisissent, simul ut, 
si quid possent, de indutils fallendo impetrarent. Quos sibi 
Caesar oblatos gavisus illos retinerl iussit ; ipse ornnis copias 
castris ediixit equitatumque, quod recent! proelio perterritum 
5 esse exlstimabat, agmen subsequi iussit. 

XIV. Acie triplici Instituta et celeriter octo milium itinere 
confecto prius ad hostium castra pervenit quam quid 
ageretur GermanI sentire possent. Qui omnibus rebus subito 
perterritT, et celeritate adventus nostn et discessu suorum, 

10 neque consilT habendi neque arma capiendi spatio dato pertur- 
bantur, copiasne adversus hostem ducere an castra defendere 
an fuga saliiteni petere praestaret. Quorum timor cum fremitu" 
et concursu significaretur, mllites nostrl pristini die! perfidia 
incitatl in castra inruperunt. Quo loco qui celeriter arma 

15 capere potuerunt paulisper nostris restiterunt atque inter car- 
ros impedimentaque proelium commiseruntj at reliqua multi- 
tude puerorum mulierumque (nam cum omnibus suis domo 
excesserant Rhenumque transierant) passim fugere coepit; ad 
quos consectandos Caesar equitatum misit. 

20 XV. GermanI post tergum clamore audito, cum suos inter- 
fici viderent, armis abiectis slgnisque mllitaribus relictis se ex 
castris eiecerunt, et cum ad confluentem Mosae et RhenI 
pervenissent, reliqua fuga desperata, magno numero interfecto 
reliqui se in flumen praecipitaverunt atque ibi timore, lassi- 

astudine, vl fluminis oppress! perierunt. Nostri ad unum 
omnes incolumes perpaucls vulneratis ex tant! belli timore, 
cum hostium numerus capitum ccccxxx milium fuisset, se in 
castra receperunt. Caesar ils quos in castris retinuerat disce- 
dendl potestatem fecit. 111! supplicia cruciatiisque Gallorum 

soveritl, quorum agros vexaverant, remanere se apud eum velle 
dlxerunt. His Caesar llbertatem concessit. 

Caesar determines to cross over into Germany. 

XVI. Germanico bello confecto multls de causls Caesar sta- 
tuit sibi Rhenum esse transeundum j quarum ilia fuit iustis- 


sima, quod, cum videret Germanos tarn facile impelli ut in 
Galliam venirent, suls quoque rebus ^eJ5s timere voluit, cum 
intellegerent et posse et audere popull Roman! exercitum 
Rhenum transire. Accessit etiam quod ilia pars equitatus 
Usipetum et Tencterorum quam supra commemoravi prae- 5 
dandl frumentandique causa Mosam translsse neque proelio 
interfuisse \ post fugam suorum se trans Rhenum in finis 
Sugambrorum receperat seque cum his coniunxerat.- Ad quos 

^ IS-' ' ' 

cum Caesar nuntios mlsisset, qui postularent "e5s qui sibi 
Galliaeque bellum intulissent sibi dederent, responderunt : 10 
1 Popull RomanI imperium Rhenum flnire ; si se invito Ger- 
manos in Galliam transire non aequum existimaret, cur sul 
quicquam esse imperl aut potestatis trans Rhenum postu- 
laret?' Ubil autem, qui unl ex Transrhenams ad Caesarem 
legates miserant, amicitiam fecerant, obsides dederant, mag- 15 
nopere orabant ut sibi auxilium ferret, quod graviter ab Sue- 
bis premerentur ; vel si id facere occupationibus rel publicae 
prohiberetur, exercitum modo Rhenum transportaret : 'Id sibi 
ad auxilium spemque reliqul temporis satis futurum. Tantum 
esse nomen atque oplnionem eius exercitus Ariovisto pulso et 20 
hoc novissimo proelio facto, etiam ad ultimas Germanorum 
nationes, utl opinion e et amicitia popull RomanI tutl esse 
possent.' Navium magnam copiam ad transportandum exer- 
citum pollicebantur. 

He builds a bridge over the Rhine. 

XVII. Caesar his de causis quas commemoravi Rhenum 25 
transire decreverat ; sed navibus transire neque satis tutum 
esse arbitrabatur neque suae neque popull RomanI dlgnitatis 
esse statuebat. Itaque, etsi summa difficultas faciendi pontis 
proponebatur propter latitudinem, rapiditatem, altitudinemque 
fluminis, tamen id sibi contendendum aut aliter non tradu-so 
cendum exercitum exlstimabat. Rationem pontis hanc Instituir. 
Tigna blna sesquipedalia paulum ab Imo praeacuta, dlmensa ad 
altitudinem fluminis, intervallo pedum duorum inter se iunge- 


bat. Haec cum macbiinationibus immissa in flumen defixerat 
fistucisque adegerat, non sublicae mod5 derecte ad perpen- 
diculum, sed prone ac fastigate, ut secundura naturam fluminis 
procumberent, iis item contraria duo ad eundem modum iuucta, 
Sintervallo pedum quadragenum ab inferiore parte contra vim 
atque impetum fluminis conversa statuebat. Haec utraque in- 
super bipedalibus trabibus immissis, quantum eorum tignorum 
iunctura distabat, blnis utrimque flbulis ab extrema parte dis- 


a a, tigna bina sesqiiipedalia, b, trabs bipedalis. c c.,_fibitlae. d d, derecta ma- 
terta. e, longurii. f, crates, g, sublicae oblique actae. h, sublicae supra ponton 

tinebantur; quibus disclusis atque in contrariam partem re- 
10 vinctis tanta erat operis firmitudo atque ea rerum natura ut, 
quo maior vis aquae se incitavisset, hoc artius inligata tene- 
rentur. Haec derecta materia iniecta contexebantur ac lon- 
guriis cratibusque consterneb'antur ; ac nihilo setius sublicae et 
ad Inferiorem partem fluminis oblique agebantur, quae pro ariete 
15 subiectae et cum omnl opere coniunctae vim fluminis e-xcipe- 
rent, et aliae item supra pontem mediocri spatio, ut si arborum 
trunci sive naves deiciendi operis causa essent a barbans 
immissae, his defensoribus earum rerum vis minueretur neu 
ponti nocerent. 





After spending eighteen days across the Rhine, Caesar returns into Gaul. 

XVIII. Diebus decem quibus materia coepta erat com- 
portari omni opere effecto exercitus traducitur. Caesar ad 


utramque partem pontis firmo praesidio rehcto in finis Su- 
gambrorum contendit. Interim a compluribus civitatibus ad 
eum legati veniunt j quibus pacem atque amicitiam petentibus 5 
Hberaliter respondet obsidesque ad se adduci iubet. At Su- 
gambrLex eo tempore quo pons mstitui coeptus est fuga com- 
parata/ hortantibus iis quos ex Tencteris atque Usipetibus apud 




bat. Haec cum machinationibus immissa in flumen defixerat 
fistuclsque adegerat, non sublicae modo derecte ad perpen- 
diculum, sed prone ac fastlgate, ut secundum naturam fluminis 
procumberent, ils item contraria duo ad eundem modum iuncta, 
Sintervallo pedum quadragenum ab Inferiore parte contra vim 
atque impetum fluminis conversa statuebat. Haec utraque In- 
super bipedalibus trabibus immissis, quantum eorum tignorum 
iunctura distabat, blnis utrimque fibulls ab extrema parte dis- 


a a, tigno. bina sesqnipedalia. b, trabs bipedalis. c c,Jil>nlae. d d, derecta Jiia- 
teria. e, longitrii. f, crates, g, sublicae oblique actae. h, sublicae supra pontetn 

tinebantur ; quibus disclusls atque in contrariam partem re- 
lovinctis tanta erat operis firmitudo atque ea rerum natura ut, 
quo maior vis aquae se incitavisset, hoc artius inligata tene- 
rentur. Haec derecta materia iniecta contexebantur ac lon- 
guriis cratibusque consternebantur ; ac nihilo setius sublicae et 
ad inferiorem partem fluminis oblique agebantur, quae pro ariete 
15 subiectae et cum omnl opere coniunctae vim fluminis excipe- 
rent, et aliae item supra pontem mediocrl spatio, ut si arborum 
truncl slve naves deiciendl operis causa essent a barbarls 
immissae, his defensoribus earum rerum vis minueretur neu 
ponti nocerent. 




After spending eighteen days across the Rhine, Caesar returns into Gaul. 

XVIII. Diebus decem quibus materia coepta erat com- 
portari omni opere effecto exercitus tradiicitur. Caesar ad 


utramque partem pontis firmo praesidio rellcto in finis Su- 
gambrSrum contendit. Interim a compliiribus civitatibus ad 
eum legati veniunt ; qnibns pacem atque amicitiam petentibus 5 
Hberaliter respondet obsidesqtie ad se adduci iubet. At Su- 
gambri ex eo tempore quo pons institm coeptus est fuga com- 
parata^ hortantibus iis quos ex Tencterls atque Usipetibus apud 


se habebant, fmibus suls excesserant suaque omnia exporta- 
verant 'seque in solitudinem ac silvas abdiderant. 

XIX. Caesar paucos dies in eorum finibus moratus omni- 
bus vicis aedificilsque incensls frumentlsque succisis se in finis 
5 Ubioram recepit, atque his auxilium suum pollicitus si a Suebis 
premerentur, haec ab iis cognovit : 'Suebos, posteaquam per ex- 
ploratores pontem fieri comperissent, more suo concilio habito 
nuntios in omnis partis dimlsisse, ut! de oppidls demigrarent, 
liberos, uxores, suaque omnia in silvls deponerent, atque omnes 

10 qui arma ferre possent iinum in locum convenlrent. Hunc esse 
delectum medium fere regionum earum quas Suebi obtinerent ; 
hie Romanorum adventum exspectare atque ibidem decertare 
constituisse.' Quod ubi Caesar compertt, omnibus iis rebus 
confectls quarum rerum causa traducere exercitum constitu- 

15 erat, ut Germams metum iniceret, ut Sugambros ulciscere- 
tur, ut Ubios obsidione Hberaret, diebus omnmo xvm trans 
Rhenum consumptis satis et ad laudem et ad utilitatem 
profectum arbitratus se in Galliam recepit pontemque re- 


Preparations for the voyage. 

20 XX. Exigua parte aestatis reliqua Caesar, etsi in his locis, 
quod omnis Gallia ad septemtriones vergit, maturae sunt 
hiemes, tamen in Britanniam proficlsci contendit, quod omni- 
bus fere Gallicis bellis hostibus nostris inde subministrata 
auxilia intellegebat ; et si tempus anni ad bellum gerendum 

25 deftceret, tamen magno sibi usul fore arbitrabatur si modo in- 
sulam adisset, genus hominum perspexisset, loca, portus, aditus 
cognovisset, quae omnia fere Gallis erant incognita. Neque 
enim temere praeter mercatores illo adit quisquam neque his 
ipsis quicquam praeter oram maritimam atque eas regiones 

30 quae sunt contra Gallias notum est. Itaque vocatis ad se 


undique mercatoribus neque quanta esset fnsulae magnitude 
neque quae aut quantae nationes incolerent neque quern usum 
belli haberent aut quibus institutls uterentur neque qui essent 
ad maiorem navium multitudinem idonei portus reperire 
poterat. 5 

XXI. Ad haec cognoscenda, priusquam periculum faceret, 
idoneum esse arbitratus C. Volusenum cum navi longa prae- 
mittit. Huic mandat ut exploratis omnibus rebus ad se quam 
primum revertatur. Ipse cum omnibus copils in Morinos pro- 
ficiscitur, quod inde erat brevissimus in Britanniam traiectus. 10 
Hue navis undique ex finitimis regionibus et quam superiore 
aestate ad Veneticum bellum fecerat classem iubet convemre. 
Interim consilio eius cognito et per mercatores perlato ad Bri- 
tannos a compluribus insulae civitatibus ad eum legati veniunt, 
qui polliceantur obsides dare atque imperio populi Romam ob- 15 
temperare. Quibus auditis Hberaliter pollicitus hortatusque ut 
in ea sententia permanerent, eos domura remittit et cum iis 
una Commiuirij quern ipse Atrebatibus superatis regem ibi con- 
stituerat, cuius et virtutem et consilium probabat et quem sibi 
fidelem esse arbitrabatur, cuiusque auctoritas in his regionibus 20 
magm habebatur, mittit. Huic imperat quas possit adeat civi- 
tates horteturque ut populi Romam fidem sequantur, seque 
celeriter eo venturum nuntiet. Volusenus perspectis regioni- 
bus, quantum el facultatis dari potuit qui navi egredi ac se 
barbaris committere non auderet, quinto die ad Caesarem re- 25 
vertitur quaeque ibi perspexisset renuntiat. 

XXII. Dum in his locls Caesar navium parandarum causa 
moratur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati venerunt, 
qui se de superioris temporis consilio excusarent, quod homines 
barbari et nostrae consuetudinis imperiti bellum populo Ro-so 
mano fecissent, seque ea quae imperasset facturos pollice- 
rentur. Hoc sibi Caesar satis opportune accidisse arbitratus, 
quod neque post tergum hostem relinquere volebat neque belli 
gerendi propter anni tempus facultatem habebat neque has tan- 
tularum rerum occupationes Britanniae anteponendas iiidicabat, 35 




magnum iis numerum obsidum imperat. Quibus adductis eos 
in fidem recipit. Navibus circiter LXXX onerariis coactis, quot 
satis esse ad duas transportandas legiones existimabat, quod 
praeterea navium longarum habebat quaestor!, legatis, praefec- 
5 tisque distribuit. Hue accedebant xvin onerariae naves, quae 
ex eo loco a milibus passuum oct5 vento tenebantur, quo- 
minus in eundem portum venire possent j has equitibus dis- 



tribuit .Reliquum exercitum Titurio Sabmo et Aurunculeio 
Cottae legatis in Menapios atque in eos pagos Morinorum a 
loquibus ad eum legati non venerant ducendum dedit. Sulpi- 
cium Rufum legatum cam eo praesidio quod satis esse arbi- 
trabatur portum tenere iussit. 

The voyage. 

XXIII. His constitutls rebus nactus idoneam ad navigandum 
tempestatem tertia fere vigilia solvit, equitesque in ulteriorem 


portum progredi et navis conscendere et se sequi iussit. A 
quibus cum paulo tardius esset administratum, ipse hora die! 
circiter quarta cum primis navibus Britanniam attigit atque ibi 
in omnibus collibus expositas hostium copias armatas conspexit. 
Cuius loci haec erat natura, atque ita montibus anguste mare 5 
continebatur, uti ex locls superioribus in lltus telum adigi posset. 
Hunc ad egrediendum nequaquam idoneum locum arbitratus, 
dum reliquae naves eo convenient, ad horam nonam in ancoris 
exspectavit. Interim legatis tribumsque militum convocatis et 
quae ex Voluseno cognovisset et quae fieri vellet ostendit, mo- 10 
nuitque, ut rei militaris ratio, maxime ut maritimae res postula- 
rent, ut quae celerem atque instabilem motum haberent, ad 
nutum et ad tempus omnes res ab ils administrarentur. His 
dlmissis et ventum et aestum uno tempore nactus secundum, 
dato signo et sublatis ancoris circiter mllia passuum septem ab 15 
eo loco progressus aperto ac piano Htore navis constituit. 

The Britons unsuccessfully attempt to prevent a landing. 

XXIV. At barbari consilio Romanorum cognito, praemisso 
equitatu et essedariis, quo plerumque genere in proelils uti 
consuerunt, reliquis copils subsecuti nostros navibus egredi 
prohibebant. Erat ob has causas summa difficultas, quod 20 
naves propter magnitudinem nisi in alto constitui non poterant, 
mllitibus autem ignotis locls, impeditis manibus, magno et 
gravl onere armorum pressis simul et de navibus desiliendum et 
in fluctibus consistendum et cum hostibus erat pugnandum ; cum 
ill! aut ex arido aut paulum in aquam progress! omnibus membris 25 
expeditls, notissimis locis audacter tela conicerent et equos in- 
suefactos incitarent. Quibus rebus nostri perterriti atque huius 
ommno generis pugnae imperiti non eadem alacritate ac studio 
quo in pedestribus uti proelils consuerant utebantur. 

XXV. Quod ubi Caesar animadvertit, navis longas, quarum 3 
et species erat barbaris inusitatior et motus ad usum expeditior, 
paulum removeri ab onerariis navibus et remis incitari et ad 
latus apertum hostium constitui, atque inde fundis, sagittis, 




magnum iis numerum obsidum imperat. Quibus adductis eos 
in fidem recipit. Navibus circiter LXXX onerariis coactis, quot 
satis esse ad duas transportandas legiones existimabat, quod 
praeterea navium longarum habebat quaestorl, legatis, praefec- 
5 tisque distribuit. Hue accedebant xvm onerariae naves, quae 
ex eo loco a milibus passuum octo vento tenebantur, quo- 
minus in eundem portum venire possent ; has equitibus dis- 


tribuit. " Reliquum exercitum Titurio Sabino et Aurunculeio 
Cottae legatis in Menapios atque in eos pagos Morinorum a 
loquibus ad eum legati non venerant ducendum dedit. Sulpi- 
cium Rufum legatum cam eo praesidio quod satis esse arbi- 
trabatur portum tenere iussit. 

The voyage. 

XXIII. His constitiitis rebus nactus idoneam ad navigandum 
tempestatem tertia fere vigilia solvit, equitesque in ulteriorem 


portum progredi et navTs conscenclere et se sequi iassit. A 
quibtis cum paulo tardius esset administratum, ipse hora die! 
circiter quarta cum prirnls navibus Britanniam attigit atque ibi 
in omnibus collibus expositas hostium copias armatas conspexit. 
Cuius loci haec erat natura, atque ita montibus anguste mare 5 
continebatur, utl ex locis superioribus in Htus telum adigl posset. 
Hunc ad egrediendum nequaquam idoneum locum arbitratus, 
dum reliquae naves eo convenlrent, ad horam nonam in ancoris 
exspectavit. Interim legatls tribunlsque militum convocatis et 
quae ex Voluseno cognovisset et quae fieri vellet ostendit, mo- 10 
nuitque, ut rei militaris ratio, maxime ut maritiinae res postula- 
rent, ut quae celerem atque Instabilem motum haberent, ad 
niitum et ad tempus omnes res ab ils administrarentur. His 
dimissis et ventum et aestum lino tempore nactus secundum, 
dato signo et sublatls ancoris circiter mllia passuum septem ab 15 
eo loco progressus aperto ac piano Htore navls constituit. 

The Britons unsuccessfully attempt to prevent a landing. 

XXIV. At barbarl consilio Romanorum cognito, praemisso 
equitatii et essedarils, quo plerumque genere in proeliTs utT 
consuerunt, reliquls copils subseciiti nostros navibus egredi 
prohibebant. Erat ob has causas sum ma difricultas, quod 20 
naves propter magnitiidinem nisi in alto constitui non poterant, 
mllitibus autem ignotis locis, impeditis manibus, magno et 
gravi onere armorum pressis simul et de navibus desiliendum et 
in fluctibus consistendum et cum hostibus erat pugnandum ; cum 
ill! aut ex arido aut paulum in aquam progress! omnibus membris 25 
expedltis, notissimis locis audacter tela conicerent et equos in- 
suefactos incitarent. Quibus rebus nostrl perterriti atque huius 
omnlno generis pugnae imperiti non eadem alacritate ac studio 
quo in pedestribus utl proeliis consuerant utebantur. 

XXV. Quod ubi Caesar animadvertit, navls longas, quarum 3 
et species erat barbarls inusitatior et motus ad usum expeditior, 
paulum removeii ab onerarils navibus et remls incitarl et ad 
latus apertum hostium constitui, atque inde fundis, sagittis, 




tormentis hostis propelli ac submoverl iussit ; quae res magno 

usui nostris fuit. Nam et navium figura et reraorum motu et 

inusitato genere tormento- 

rum permoti barbari consti- 
5 teruntacpaulumetiampedem 

rettulerunt Atque nostris 

mllitibus cunctantibus, max- 

ime propter altitudinem 

maris, qul decimae legionis 
10 aquilam ferebat, obtestatus 

deos ut ea res legion! feli- 

citer evemret : " Desilite," 

inquit, " commilitones, nisi 

vultis aquilam hostibus pro- 
15 dere ; ego certe meum rei 

publicae atque imperatori 

officium praestitero." Hoc 

cum voce magna dlxisset, 
. se ex navl proiecit atque 
20 in hostis aquilam ferre coepit. 

Turn nostri cohortatl inter 

se ne tantum dedecus ad- 

mitteretur universi ex navl 

desiluerunt. Hos item ex 
25proximis navibus cum con- 

spexissent, subsecuti hostibus 


XXVI. Pugnatum est ab 

utrlsque acriter. Nostri 
sotamen, quod neque ordines 

servare neque firmiter Insistere neque slgna subsequT poterant, 

atque alius alia ex navl quibuscumque sTgms occiirrerat se 

adgregabat, magnopere perturbabantur ; hostes vero notis omni- 
bus vadls, ubi.ex litore aliquos singularis ex navl egredientis 
35 conspexerant, incitatis equls impedltos adoriebantur, plures 

(From a graveston_e) 


paucos circumsistebant, alii ab latere aperto in universes tela 
coniciebant. Quod cum animadvertisset Caesar, scaphas 
longarum navium, item speculatoria navigia militibus com- 
pleri iussit, et quos laborantis conspexerat, his subsidia sub- 
mittebat. - Nostri simul in arido constiterunt, sms omnibus con- 5 
secutis in hostls impetum fecerunt atque eos in fugam dederunt ; 
neque longius prosequl potuerunt, quod equites cursum tenere 
atque msulam capere x non potuerant. Hoc unum ad pristinam 
fortunam Caesar! defuit. 

They sue for peace. 

XXVIL Hostes proe]io superati, simul atque se ex fugaio 
receperunt, statim ad Caesarem legates de pace miserunt; 
obsides daturos quaeque imperasset facturos sese polliciti sunt. 
Una cum his legatis Commius Atrebas venit, quern supra 
demonstraveram a Caesare in Britanniam praemissum. Hunc 
illl e navl egressum, cum ad eos oratoris modo Caesaris man- 15 
data deferret, comprehenderant atque in vincula coniecerant ; 
turn proelio facto remiserunt, et in petenda pace eius rei culpam 
in multitudinem contulerunt, et propter imprudentiam ut ignos- 
ceretur petiverunt. Caesar questus quod, cum ultro in conti- 
nentem legatis missis pacem ab se petissent, bellum sine causa 20 
intulissent, ignoscere imprudentiae dlxit obsidesque imperavit ; 
quorum illl partem statim dederunt, partem ex longinquioribus 
locis arcessitam paucis diebus sese daturos dixerunt. Interea 
suos remigrare in agros iusserunt, principesque undique con- 
venire et se civitatesque suas Caesari commendare coeperunt. 25 

Storm and tide damage the fleet. 

XXVIII. His rebus pace confirmata post diem quartum 
c[uam est in Britanniam ventum naves xvm, de quibus supra 
demonstratum est, quae equites sustulerant, ex superiore portii 
lenT vento solverunt. Quae cum appropinquarent Britanniae et 
ex castrls viderentur, tanta tempestas subito coorta est ut nulla 3 
earum cursum tenere posset, sed aliae eodem unde erant pro- 



Nam et navium figura et remorum motu et 

tormentis hostis propellf ac submoveri iussit ; quae res magno 

iisul nostris fuit. 

iniisitato genere tormento- 

rum permotl barbarl consti- 
5 terunt ac paulum etiam pedem 

rettulerunt. Atque nostris 

mllitibus cunctantibus, max- 

ime propter altitudinem 

man's, qm decimae legionis 
10 aquilam ferebat, obtestatus 

deos nt ea res legion! felf- 

citer evemret : " Desilite," 

inquit, " commilitones, nisi 

vultis aquilam hostibus pro- 
15 dere ; ego certe meum re! 

publicae atque imperatorl 

officium praestitero." Hoc 

cum voce magna dixisset, 

se ex navi proiecit atque 
20 in hostis aquilam ferre coepit. 

Turn nostri cohortati inter 

se ne tantum dedecus ad- 

mitteretur universi ex navi 

desiluerunt. Hos item ex 
25 proximis navibus cum con- 

spexissent, subsecuti hostibus 


XXVI. Pugnatum est ab 

(From a gravestone) 

utrisque acriter. Nostri 

sotamen, quod neque ordines 

servare neque firmiter Tnsistere neque sTgna subsequT poterant, 
atque alius alia ex navi quibuscumque slgnls occurrerat se 
adgregabat, magnopere perturbabantur ; hostes vero notls omni- 
bus vadls, ubi ex litore aliquos singulans ex navT egredientls 

35 conspexerant, incitatis equls impedltos adoriebantur, plures 


pancos circurnsistebant, alii ab latere aperto in universes tela 
coniciebant. Quod cum animadvertisset Caesar, scaphas 
longarum navium, item speculatoria navigia militibus com- 
plerl iussit, et quos laborantis conspexerat, his subsidia sub- 
mi tte bat. NostrT simul in arido constiterunt, sms omnibus con- 5 
secutls in hostis impetum fecerunt atque eos in fugam dederunt ; 
neque longius proseqm potuerunt, quod equites cursum tenere 
atque insulam capere non potuerant. Hoc tinum ad pristinam 
fortunam Caesarl defuit. 

They sue for peace. 

XXVII. Hostes proelio superati, simul atque se ex fuga 10 
receperunt, statim ad Caesarem legatos de pace mlserunt ; 
obsides datiiros quaeque imperasset factiiros sese pollicitl sunt. 
Una cum his legatis Commius Atrebas venit, quern supra 
demonstraveram a Caesare in Britanniam praemissum. Hunc 
illi e navl egressnm, cum ad eos orat5ris modo Caesaris man- 15 
data deferret, comprehenderant atque in vincula coniecerant ; 
turn proelio facto remiserunt, et in petenda pace eius rei culpam 
in multitudinem contulerunt, et propter imprudentiam ut ignos- 
ceretur petlverunt. Caesar questus quod, cum ultro in conti- 
nentem legatTs missis pacem ab se petlssent, bellum sine causa 20 
intulissent, ignoscere impriidentiae dixit obsidesque imperavit ; 
quorum ill! partem statim dederunt, partem ex longinquioribus 
locis arcessitam paucis diebus sese datiiros dlxenmt. Interea 
suos remigrare in agros iusserunt, principesque undique con- 
venire et se civitatesque suas Caesarl commendare coeperunt. 25 

Storm and tide damage the fleet. 

XXVIII. His rebus pace conflrmata post diem quartum 
quam est in Britanniam ventum naves xvm, de quibus supra 
demonstratum est, quae equites sustulerant, ex superiore portii 
lenT vent5 solvenmt. Quae cum appropinquarent Britanniae et 
ex castris viderentur, tanta tempestas subito coorta est ut niillas 
earum cursum tenere posset, sed aliae eodem unde erant pro- 


fectae referrentur, aliae ad Inferiorem partem insulae, quae est 
propius solis occasum, magno suo cum periculo deicerentur ; 
quae tamen. ancoris iactis cum fluctibus complerentur, neces- 
sario adversa nocte in altum provectae continentem petierunt. 

5 XXIX. Eadem nocte accidit ut esset luna plena, qui dies 
maritimos aestus maximos in Oceano efficere consuevit, nos- 
trisque id erat incognitum. Ita uno tempore et longas navis 
quibus Caesar exercitum transportandum curaverat, quas Caesar 
in aridura subduxerat, aestus complebat et onerarias, quae ad 

10 ancoras erant deligatae, tempestas adflictabat, neque ulla nostris 
facultas aut administrandl aut auxiliandi dabatur. Compliiribus 
navibus fractis reliquae cum essent fimibus, ancoris, reliqulsque 
armamentis amissis ad navigandum inutiles, magna, id quod 
necesse erat accidere, totms exercitus perturbatio facta est. 

15 Neque enim naves erant aliae quibus reportari possent, et 
omnia deerant quae ad reficiendas navis erant usui, et quod 
omnibus constabat hiemari in Gallia oportere, frumentum in 
his locis in hiemem provisum non erat. 

The Britons decide to renew hostilities. 

XXX. Quibus rebus cognitis prlncipes Britanniae, qui post 
20 proelium ad Caesarem convenerant, inter se conlocuti, cum et 
equites et navis et frumentum RomanTs deesse intellegerent et 
paucitatem: militum ex castrorum exiguitate cognoscer'ent, quae 
hoc erant etiam angustiora, quod sine impedlmentis Caesar 
legiones transportaverat, optimum factu esse duxerunt rebellione 
25 facta frumento commeatuque nostros prohibere et rem in hie- 
mem producere, quod his superatis aut reditu interclusls nerni- 
nem postea belli inferendi causa in Britanniam transiturum 
confidebant. Itaque rursus coniuratione facta paulatim ex 
castris discedere et suos clam ex agns deducere coeperunt. 
30 XXXI. At Caesar etsl nondum eorum consilia cognoverat, 
tamen et ex eventu navium suarum et ex eo, quod obsides dare 
intermiserant, fore id quod accidit suspicabatur. Itaque ad 
omnis casus subsidia comparabat. Nam et frumentum ex agris 


cottidie in castra conferebat, et quae gravissime adfllctae erant 
naves, earum materia atque acre ad reliquas reficiendas ute- 
batur, et quae ad eas res erant usu! ex continent! comparari 
iubebat. Itaque/ cum summo studio a mllitibus administraretur, 
xii navibus amissis, reliquis ut navigari satis commode posset s 

The seventh legion is attacked. 

XXXII. Dum ea geruntur, legione ex consuetudine una 
frumentatum missa, quae appellabatur septima, neque ulla ad 
id tempus belli suspicione interposita, cum pars hominum in 
agris remaneret, pars etiam in castra ventitaret, il qul pro portis 10 
castrorum in statione erant Caesari niintiaverunt pulverem ma- 


iorem quam consuetudo ferret in ea parte videri quam in partem 
legio iter fecisse^. Caesar, id quod erat, suspicatus aliquid 
novl a barbaris initum consill, cohortis quae in stationibus erant 
secum in earn partem pr&ficiscl, ex reliquis duas in stationem 15 
succedere, reliquas a'rmari et confestim sese subseqm iussit. 
Cum paulo longius a castris processisset, suos ab hostibus premi 
atque aegre sustinere et conferta legione ex omnibus partibus 
tela conic! animadvertit. Nam quod omn! ex reliquis partibus 
demesso frumento pars una erat reliqua, suspicat! hostes hue 20 
nostros esse ventures noctu in silv!s delituerant ; turn disperses, 
depositis armis in metendo occupatos subito adort! paucis inter- 
fectis reliquos incertis ordinibus perturbaverant, simul equitatu 
atque essedis circumdederant. 

The war-chariots of the Britons. 


XXXIII. Genus hoc est ex essedis pugnae. Primo per 25 
omms part!s perequitant et tela coniciunt, atque ipso terrore 
equorum et strepitu rotarum ordines plerumque perturbant j et 
cum se inter equitum turmas Insinuaverunt, ex essedis desiliunt 
et pedibus proeliantur. Aurigae interim paulatim ex proelio 
excedunt atque ita currus conlocant ut s! ill! a multitudine 3 
hostium premantur, expedltum ad suos receptum habeant. Ita 





mobilitatem equitum, stabilitatem peditum in proelils praestant, 
ac tantum usu cottidiano et exercitatione efficiunt uti in declivl 
ac praecipitl loco incitatos equos sustinere et brevl moderari 
ac flectere et per temonem percurrere et in iugo Insistere et se 
5 inde in currus citissime recipere consuerint. 

Caesar relieves the seventh legion. He defeats the Britons in. battle. 

XXXIV. Quibus re-bus perturbatis nostris novitate pugnae 
tempore opportunissimo Caesar auxilium tulit ; namque eius 
adventii hostes consti- 

terunt, nostri se ex timore 

10 receperunt. Quo facto 
ad lacessendum hostem 
et committendum proe- 
lium alienum esse 
tempus arbitratus suo 

15 se loco continuit, et 
brevl tempore intermisso 

in castra legiones reduxit. Dura haec geruntur, nostris omnibus 
occupatis, qui erant in agrls reliqul discesserunt. Secutae sunt 
continues compliiris dies tempestates, quae et nostros in castris 

20 continerent et hostem a pugna prohiberent. Interim barbarl 
nuntios in omnls partis dimiserunt paucitatemque nostro- 
rum militum suis praedicaverunt, et quanta praedae faciendae 
atque in perpetuum sul Hberandi facultas daretur, si Romanos 
castris expulissent, demonstraverunt. His rebus celeriter 

ssmagna multitudine peditatus equitatusque coacta ad castra 

XXXV. Caesar etsi idem quod superioribus diebus acciderat 
fore videbat, ut, si essent hostes pulsi, celeritate periculum 
effugerent, tamen nactus equites circiter xxx, quos Commius 

3 Atrebas, de quo ante dictum est, secum transportaverat, legiones 
in acie pro castris constituit. Commisso proelio diutius nos- 
troruin militum impetum hostes ferre non potuerunt ac terga 


verteruht. Quos tanto spatio secuti quantum cursu et viribus 
efficere potuerunt, compluris ex ils occiderunt., deinde omnibus 
longe lateque aedificiis incensls se in castra receperunt. 

The Britons again ask for peace. Caesar returns to Gaul. 

XXXVI. Eodem die legatl ab hostibus missi ad Caesarem 
de pace venerunt. His Caesar numerum obsidum quern ante 5 
imperaverat duplicavit eosque in continentem adduci iussit, 
quod propinqua die aequinoctl, infirmis navibus hiemi naviga- 
tionem subiciendam non existimabat. Ipse idoneam tempes- 
tatem nactus paulo post mediam noctem navis solvit, quae 
omnes incolumes ad continentem pervenerunt; sed ex iisio 
onerariae duae eosdem portus quos reliquae capere non potu- 
erunt, et paulo infra delatae sunt. 

The Morini and Menapii cause trouble. The army goes into winter 
quarters. A thanksgiving at Rome. 

XXXVII. Quibus ex navibus cum essent expositi milites 
circiter ccc atque in castra contenderent, Morini, quos Caesar 
in Britanniam proficiscens pacatos reliquerat, spe praedae ad- 15 
ducti prlmo non it-a magno suorum numer5 circumsteterunt ac, 

si sese interfici nollent, arma ponere iusserunt. Cum ill! orbe 
facto sese defenderent, celeriter ad clamorem hominum circiter 
milia sex convenerunt. Qua re nuntiata Caesar omnem ex 
castris equitatum suis auxilio misit. Interim nostri milites 20 
impetum hostium sustinuerunt atque amplius horis quattuor 
fortissime pugnaverunt et panels vulneribus acceptis compluris 
ex his occiderunt. Postea vero quam equitatus noster in con- 
spectum venit, hostes abiectis armis terga verterunt, magnusque 
eorum numerus est occisus. 25 

XXXVIII. Caesar postero die T. Labienum legatum cum ils 
legionibus quas ex Britannia reduxerat in Morinos, qui re- 
bellionem fecerant, misit. QuT cum propter siccitates paludum 
quo se reciperent non haberent, quo perfugio superiore anno 
erant usi, omnes fere in potestatem Labiem venerunt. At Q. 30 


Titurius et L. Cotta legati, qui in Menapiorum finis legiones 
duxerant, omnibus eorum agris vastatis, frumentis succisis, 
aedificiis incensls, quod Menapii se omnes in densissimas 
silvas abdiderant, se ad Caesarem receperunt. Caesar in 
5 BelgTs omnium legionum hiberna constituit. E6 duae ommno 
civitates ex Britannia obsides miserunt, reliquae neglexerunt. 
His rebus gestis ex litterls Caesaris dierum xx supplicatio 
a senatu decreta est. 



Having given orders for the building of a fleet, Caesar goes to Hither 

Gaul and Illyricum. 

I. L. Domitio, App. Claudio consulibus discedens ab hi- 
berms Caesar in Italiam, ut quotanms facere consuerat, legatis 
imperat, quos legionibus praef ecerat, uti quara plurimas possint 
hieme navis aedificandas veteresque reficiendas curent. Earum 
modum formamque demonstrat. Ad celeritatem onerandi sub- 5 
ductionisque paulo facit humiliores quam quibus in nostro marl 
uti consuevimus, atque id eo magis, quod propter crebras-com- 
mutationes aestuum minus magnos ibi fluctiis fieri cognoverat ; 
ad onera ac multitudinem iumentorum transportandam paulo 
latiores quam quibus in reliquis utimur maribus. Has ommsio 
actuarias imperat fieri, quam ad rem multum humilitas adiuvat. 
Ea quae sunt usul ad armandas navis ex Hispania apportari 
iubet. Ipse conventibus Galliae citerioris peractis in Illyricum 
proficlscitur, quod a Plrustis finitimam partem provinciae in- 
cursionibus vajtari audiebat. E5 cum venisset, civitatibus 15 
mllites imperat certumque in locum convemre iubet. Qua re 
nuntiata Plrustae legatos ad eum mittunt, qul doceant nihil 
earum rerum publico factum consilio, seseque paratos esse 
demonstrent omnibus rationibus de iniuriis satisfacere. Per- 
cepta oratione eorum Caesar obsides imperat eosque ad certam 20 
diem adduci iubet ; nisi ita fecerint, sese bello civitatem perse- 
cuturum demonstrat. Us ad diem adductis, ut imperaverat, 
arbitros inter civitates dat, qul litem aestiment poenamque 

L 145 


He checks an incipient revolt among the Treveri. 

II. His confectis rebus conventibusque peractis in citeriorem 
Galliam revertitur atque inde ad exercitum proficiscitur. Eo 
cum venisset, circumitis omnibus hiberms singular! militum 
studio in summa omnium rerum inopia circiter DC eius generis 

5 cuius supra demonstravimus navis et longas xxvm invenit 
Instructas, neque raultum abesse ab eo, qum paucis diebus 
deduc! possint. Conlaudatis militibus atque iis qui negotio 
praefuerant, quid fieri velit ostendit atque omms ad portum 
Itium convenlre iubet, quo ex portu commodissimum in Britan- 

loniam traiectum esse cognoverat, circiter milium passuum xxx 
a continent! ; huic re! quod satis esse visum est militum relin- 
quit. Ipse cum Iegi5nibus expeditis quattuor et equitibus 
DCCC in fims Treverorum profic!scitur, quod hi neque ad con- 
cilia veniebant neque imperio parebant, Germanosque Trans- 

15 rhenanos sollicitare dicebantur. 

III. Haec c!vitas longe plurimum totius Galliae equitatu 
valet magnasque habet copias peditum, Rhenumque, ut supra 
demonstravimus, tangit. In ea civitate duo de piincipatu inter 
se contendebant, Indutiomarus et Cingetonx; ex quibus alter, 

20 simul atque de Caesaris legionumque adventu cognitum est, ad 
eum venit, se suosque omms in officio futures neque ab amicitia 
populi Roman! defecturos confirmavit, quaeque in Treveris 
gererentur ostendit. At Indutiomarus equitatum peditatumque 
cogere, usque qu! per aetatem in armls esse non poterant in 

assilvam Arduennam abditis, quae ingent! magnitudine per 
medios f!n!s Treverorum a flumine Rheno ad initium Remorura 
pertinet, bellum parare Instituit ; sed posteaquam non null! 
principes ex ea civitate et auctoritate Cingetorigis adduct! et 
adventu nostri exercitus perterrit! ad Caesarem venerunt et de 

3 osu!s privatis rebus ab eo petere coeperunt, quoniam civitat! 
consulere non possent, veritus ne ab omnibus desereretur lega- 
tes ad Caesarem mittit : ' Sese idcirco ab su!s discedere atque 
ad eum venire noluisse, quo facilius civitatem in officio con- 
tineret, ne omnis nobilitatis discessu plebs propter impruden- 


tiam laberetur ; itaque civitatem in sua potestate esse, seque, 
si Caesar permitteret, ad eum in castra venturum et suas civita- 
tisque fortunas ems fidei permissurum.' 

IV. Caesar etsi intellegebat qua de causa ea dicerentur 
quaeque eum res ab institute consilio deterreret, tamen, ne 5 
aestatem in Treveris consumere cogeretur omnibus rebus ad 
Britannicum bellum comparatls, Indutiomarum ad se cum 
cc obsidibus venire iussit. His adductis, in iis filio propin- 
quisque eius omnibus, quos nominatim evocaverat, c5nsolatus 
Indutiomarum hortatusque est uti in officio maneret ; nihilo 10 
tamen setius principibus Treverorum ad se convocatis hos singil- 
latim Cingetorigi conciliavit, quod cum merito eius ab se fieri 
intellegebat, turn magm interesse arbitrabatur eius auctoritatem 
inter suos quam plurimum valere, cuius tarn egregiam in se vo- 
luntatem perspexisset. Id factum graviter tulit Indutiomarus, 15 
suam gratiam inter suos minul, et qul iam ante inimico in nos 
animo fuisset, multo gravius hoc dolore exarsit 

The fleet and army assemble at Portus Itius. 

V. His rebus constitutes Caesar ad portum Itium cum 
legionibus pervehit. Ibi cognoscit LX navis, quae in Meldis 
factae erant, tempestate reiectas cursum tenere non potuisseao 
atque eodem unde erant profectae revertisse ; reliquas paratas 
ad navigandum atque omnibus rebus Instructas invenit. Eodem 
equitatus totius Galliae convenit, numero milia quattuor, prm- 
cipesque ex omnibus civitatibus ; ex quibus perpaucos, quorum 
in se fidem perspexerat, relinquere in Gallia, reliquos obsidumras 
loco secum ducere decreverat, quod, cum ipse abesset, motum 
Galliae verebatur. 

Dumnorix, refusing to obey Caesar's commands and acting treacherously, 

is killed. 

VI. Erat una cum ceteris Dumnorix Haeduus, de quo ante 
a nobis dictum est. Hunc secum habere in primis constituerat, 
quod emu cupidum rerum novarum, cupidum imperi, magniso 


animi, raagnae inter Gallos auctoritatis cognoverat. Accedebat 
hue quod in concilio Haeduorum Duranorlx dixerat sibi" a 
Caesare regnum clvitatis deferri ; quod dictum Haedui graviter 
ferebant neque recusand! aut deprecandl causa legatos ad Cae- 
5 sarera mittere audebant. Id factum ex suls hospitibus Caesar 
cognoverat. Ille omnibus primo precibus petere contendit ut 
in Gallia relinqueretur, partim quod msuetus navigandi mare 
timeret, partim quod religionibus impedlri sese dlceret. Pos- 
teaquam id obstinate sibi negarl vidit, omm spe impetrandi 

loadempta prmcipes Galliae sollicitare, sevocare singulos horta- 
rique coepit utl in continent! remanerent ; metu territare : 'Non 
sine causa fieri ut Gallia omm nobilitate spoliaretur; id esse 
consilium Caesaris, ut quos in conspectu Galliae interficere 
vereretur, hos omnis in Britanniam traductos necaret;' fidem 

i5reliquls interponere, ius iurandum poscere, ut quod esse ex 
usu Galliae intellexissent communl consilio administrarent. 
Haec a compluribus ad Caesarem deferebantur. 

VII. Qua re cognita Caesar, quod tantum civitati Haeduae 
dignitatis tribuebat^ coercendum atque deterrendum quibuscum- 

2oque rebus posset DumnorTgem statuebat; quod longius eius 
amentiam progredi videbat, prospiciendum ne quid sibi ac rei 
pilblicae nocere posset. Itaque dies circiter xxv in eo loco 
commoratus, quod Corus ventus navigationem impediebat, qul 
magnam partem omnis temporis in his locis flare consuevit, 

asdabat operam ut in officio Dumnorigem contineret, nihilo 
tamen setius omnia eius consilia cognosceret ; tandem idoneam 
nactus tempestatem milites equitesque conscendere navis iubet. 
At omnium impeditis animis Dumnorix cum equitibus Hae- 
duorum a castris Insciente Caesare domum discedere coepit. 

30 Qua re nuntiata Caesar intermissa profectione atque omnibus 
rebus postpositls magnam partem equitatus ad eum insequen- 
dum mittit retrahique imperat; si vim faciat neque pareat, 
interne! iubet, nihil hunc se absente pro sano facturum arbi- 
tratus, qu! praesentis imperium neglexisset. IHe autem 

SSrevocatus resistere ac se manu defendere suorumque fidem 


implorare coepit, saepe clamitans liberum se liberaeque esse 
civitatis. IllI, ut erat imperatum, circumsistunt hominem 
atque interficiunt ; at equites Haedui ad Caesarem omnes 

The voyage to Britain. 

VIII. His rebus gestis, Labieno in continent! cum tribus 5 
legionibus et equitum milibus duobus relicto, ut portus tue- 
retur et re! frumentariae provideret, quaeque in Gallia gere- 
rentur cognosceret, consiliumque pro tempore et pro re caperet, 
ipse cum qumque legionibus et par! numero equitum quern in 
continent! relinquebat ad solis occasum navis solvit ; et len! 10 
Africo provectus media circiter nocte vento intermisso cursum 
non 'tenuit, et longiu^ delatus aestii orta luce sub sinistra 
Britanniam relictam conspexit. Turn rursus aestus commuta- 
tionem secutus remis contendit ut earn partem msulae caperet 
qua optimum esse egressum superiore aestate cognoverat. Qua 15 
in re admodum fuit m!litum virtus laudanda, qu! vectori!s 
gravibusque navigiis non intermisso remigandi labore i lon- 
garurri navium cursum adaequarunt. Accessum est ad Bri- 
tanniam omnibus navibus meridiano fere tempore, neque 
in eo loco hostis est v!sus j sed, ut postea Caesar ex cap- 20 
t!v!s cognovit, cum magnae manus eo convenissent, multitu- 
dine navium perterritae, quae, cum annotims' pnvatisque 
quas su! quisque commod! causa fecerat, amplius DCCC uno 
erant v!sae_ tempore, a litore discesserant ac se in superiora 

loca abdiderant. 25 

Caesar marches against the enemy and storms a stronghold. 

IX. Caesar exposito exercitu et loco castris idoneo capto, 
ubi ex captMs cognovit quo in loco hostium copiae consedis- 
sent, cohortibus decem ad mare relictis et equitibus ccc, qu! 
praesidio navibus essent, de tertia vigilia ad host!s contendit, eo 
minus veritus navibus quod in l!tore moll! atque aperto deli- 30 
gatas ad ancoras relinquebat. E! praesidio navibusque Q. 
Atrium praefecit. Ipse noctu progressus milia passuum cir- 


citer XIL, hostium copias conspicatus est. UK equitatu atque 
essedis ad flumen progress! ex loco superiore nostros prohibere 
et proelium committere coeperunt. Repuls! ab equitatu se in 
silvas abdiderunt locum nact! egregie et natura et opere 
5 munltum, quern domestic! belli, ut videbatur, causa iam ante 
praeparaverant ; nam crebris arboribus succisis omnes introitus 
erant praeclus!. Ips! ex silvis ran propugnabant nostrosque 
intra mumtiones ingred! prohibebant. At milites legionis 
septimae testudine facta et aggere ad munitiones adiecto locum 
10 ceperunt eosque ex silvis expulerunt paucis vulneribus acceptis. 
Sed eos fugient!s longius Caesar prosequi vetuit, et quod loci 
naturam ignorabat et quod magna parte die! consumpta 
munition! castrorum tempus relinqm volebat. 

A storm shatters the fleet, which is lying at anchor, Caesar decides to 
beach the ships and build a fortification around them, 

X. Postridie eius die! mane tripartite milites equitesque in 

15 expeditionem misit, ut eos qui fugerant perseqiierentur. His 
aliquantum itineris progressis, cum iam extremi essent in pro- 
spectu, equites a Q. Atrio ad Caesarem venerimt, qui nuntiarent 
superiore nocte maxima coorta tempestate prope omms navis 
a'dflictas atque in litus eiectas esse, quod neque ancorae funes- 

20 que sustinerent neque nautae gubernatoresque vim tempestatis 
pat! possent; itaque ex eo concursu navium magnum esse 
incommodum acceptum. 

XL H!s rebus cognitis Caesar legiones equitatumque revo- 
car! atque in itinere resistere iubet, ipse ad navis revertitur; 

aseadem fere quae ex nuntiis litterisque cognoverat coram per- 
spicit, sic ut amissis circiter XL navibus reliquae tamen refic! 
posse magno negotio viderentur. Itaque ex legionibus fabros 
deligit et ex continent! alios arcess! iubet ; Labieno scribit ut 
quam plurimas possit i!s legionibus quae sint apud eum navis 

30 mstituat. Ipse, etsr res erat multae operae ac laboris, tamen 
commodissimum esse statuit omms navis subdue! et cum 
castris Una munitione coniungl. In his rebus circiter dies 


decem consumit ne nocturms quidem temporibus ad laborem 
militum intermissis. Subdue tis navibus castriscme egregie 
mumtis easdem copias quas ante praesidio navibus relinquit; 
ipse eodem unde redierat proficlscitur. E6 cum venisset, 
maiores iam undique in eum locum copiae Britannorum con- 5 
venerant summa imperl belllque administrandl communi con- 
silio permissa Cassivellauno, cuius f mis a maritimis civitatibus 
flumen dividit, quod appellatur Tamesis, a marl circiter milia 
passuum LXXX. Huic superiore tempore cum reliquis civita- 
-tibus continentia bella intercesserant ; sed nostro adventuio 
permoti Britanm hunc toll bello imperioque praef ecerant. 

Britain: inhabitants, geography, customs of the people. 

XII. Britanniae pars interior ab iis incolitur quos natos in 
Insula ipsa memoria proditum dicunt, maritima pars ab iis qui 
praedae ac belli inferendi causa ex Belgio transierunt (qui 
omnes fere isdem nominibus civitatum appellantur quibus ort! 15 
ex civitatibus eo pervenerunt) et bello inlato ibi remanserunt 
atque agros colere coeperunt. Hominum est Infmlta multitudo 
creberrimaque aedificia fere Gallicis consimilia, pecoris magnus 
numerus. Utuntur aut acre aut nummo aureo aut taleis ferreis 
ad certum pondus examinatls pro nummo. Nascitur ibi plum- 20 
bum album in mediterraneis regionibus, in maritimis ferrum, 
sed eius exigua est copia ; acre utuntur importato. Materia 
cuiusque generis ut in Gallia est praeter fagum atque abietem. 
Leporem et gallinam et anserem gustare fas non putant ; haec 
tamen alunt animi voluptatisque causa. Loca sunt temperatiora 25 
quam in Gallia remissioribus fngoribus. 

XIII. Insula natura triquetra, cuius unum latus est contra 
Galliam. Huius lateris alter angulus, qui est ad Cantium, quo 
fere omnes ex Gallia naves appelluntur, ad orientem solem, 
inferior ad meridiem spectat> Hoc latus tenet circiter milia 30 
passuum D. Alterum vergit ad Hispaniam atque occidentem 
solem j qua ex parte est Hibernia Insula, dimidio minor, ut ex- 
istimatur, quam Britannia, sed par! spatio transmissus atque ex 





Gallia est in Britanniam. In hoc medio cursu est insula. quae 
appellatur IVI^ona ; complures praeterea minores obiectae Insu- 
lae existimantur, de quibus msulis non null! scripserunt dies 
continues xxx sub brumam esse noctem. Nos nihil de eo 
5 percontationibus reperiebamus, nisi certis ex aqua mensuris 
breviores esse quara in continent! noctis videbamus. Hiiius 
est longitiido lateris, ut fert illorum opmio, DCC milium. Ter- 
tium est contra septemtriones, cui parti nulla est obiecta terra ; 
sed eius angulus alter maxime 

load Germaniam spectat. Hoc 
milium passuum DCCC in longi- 
tudinem esse existimatur. Ita 
omnis insula est in circuitu 
vlcies centum milium passuum. 

15 XIV. Ex his omnibus longe 
sunt humanissimi qui Cantium 
incolunt, quae regio est maritima 
omnis, neque multum a Gallica 
differunt consuetudine. In- 

aoteriores plerique frumenta non 

serunt, sed lacte et carne vivunt pellibusque sunt vestlti. Om- 
-nes vero se Britanm vitro mficiunt, quod caeruleum efficit colo- 
rem, atque hoc horribiliores sunt in pugna aspectu j capilloque 

/ sunt promisso atque omnl parte corporis rasa praeter caput et 

25labrum superius. Uxores habent dem duodemque inter se 
communis, et maxime fratres cum fratribus parentesque cum 
liberls ; sed qui sunt ex iis nati eorum habentur Hberi quo 
primum virgo quaeque deducta est. 

The Britons gain some slight advantages, but on the whole the Romans 

are superior. 

XV. Equites hostium essedariique acriter proelio cum equi- 

30 tatu nostro in itinere conflixerunt, ita tamen ut nostri omnibus 

partibus superiores fuerint atque eos in silvas collisque com- 

pulermtj sed compluribus interfectls cupidius insecutl non 




nullos ex suls amiserunt. At ill! intermisso spatio, imprudenti- 
bus nostrls atque occupatis in munitidne castrorum subito se ex 
silvis eiecerunt, impetuque in eos facto qui erant in stati5ne pro 
castris conlocati acriter pugnaverunt, duabusque missis subsidio 
cohortibus a Caesare, atque his primls legionum duarum, cum 5 
eae ;perexiguo intermisso loci spatio inter se constitissent, novp 
genere pugnae perterritis nostrls per medios audacissime perra- 
perunt seque inde incolumis receperunt. Eo die Q. Laberius 
Durus, tribunus militum, interficitur. 111! pluribus submissis 
cohortibus repelluntur. 10 

XVI. Toto hoc in genere pugnae, cum sub oculis omnium 
ac pro castris dimicaretur, intellectum est nostros propter gravi- 
tatem armorum, quod neque insequl cedentis possent neque 
ab sigms discedere auderent, minus aptos esse ad huius generis 
hostem ; equites autem magno cum periculo proelio dTmicare, 15 
propterea quod illl etiam consulto plerumque cederent, et cum 
paulum ab legionibus nostr5s removissent, ex essedis desilirent 
et pedibus disparl proelio contenderent. Equestris autem 
proeli ratio et cedentibus et Insequentibus par atque idem peri- 
culum mferebat. Accedebat hue ut numquam confertl, sedzo 
ran magmsque intervallis proeliarentur, stationesque dispositas 
haberent atque alios alii deinceps exciperent, integrique et 
recentes defatigatis succederent. I/ 

XVII. Postero die procul a castris hostes in collibus con- 
stiterunt, rarique se ostendere et lenius quani prldie nostros 25 
equites proelio lacessere coeperunt. Sed meridie, cum Caesar 
pabulandi causa tris legiones atque omnem equitatum cum C. 
Trebonio legato misisset, repente ex omnibus partibus ad pabu- 
latores advolaverunt, sic uti ab signis legionibusque non absis- 
terent.- Nostrl acriter in eos impetu fact5 reppulerunt, neque 3 
fmem sequendl fecerunt quoad subsidio conf is! equites, cum 
post se legiones viderent, praecipitis hostis egerunt, magnoque 
eorum numero interfecto neque sul conligendl neque consistendi 
aut ex essedis desiliendl facultatem dederunt. Ex hac fuga 
protinus quae undique convenerant auxilia discesserunt, neque 35 


post id tempus umqdam summis nobiscum copiis hostes con- 

Caesar crosses the Thames. 

XVIII. Caesar cognito consilio eorum ad flumen Tamesim 
in finis Cassivellaum exercitum duxit ; quod flumen uno ommno 

5 loco pedibus, atque hoc aegre, transfri potest. E6 cum ve- 
nisset, animadvertit ad alteram fluminis ripam magnas esse 
copias hostium mstructas. RTpa. autem erat acutis sudibua 
praefixlsque munita, eiusdemque generis sub aqua defixae sudes 
flumine tegebantur. His rebus cognitis a captMs perfugisque 

10 Caesar praemisso equitatu confestim legiones subsequi iussit. 
Sed ea celeritate atque eo impetii mllites ierunt, cum capita 
sold ex aqua exstarent, ut hostes impetum legionum atque 
equitum sustinere non possent ripasque se fugae 

Many tribes surrender to him. 

15 XIX. Cassivellaunus, ut supra demonstravimus, omm depo- 
sita spe contentionis, dlmissls amplioribus copiis, milibus circiter 
quattuor essedariorum relictis itinera nostra servabat paulumque 
ex via excedebat locisque impedltis ac silvestribus sese occulta- 
bat, atque iis regionibus quibus nos iter facturos cognoverat 

20 pecora atque homines ex agris in silvas compellebat ; et cum 
equitatus noster liberius praedandi vastandique causa se in 
agros effunderet, omnibus viis semitisque essedarios ex silvis 
emittebat, et magno cum perlculo nostrorum equitum cum his 
confligebat atque hoc metu latius vagari prohibebat. Relin- 

25 quebatur ut neque longius ab agmine legionum disced! Caesar 
pateretur, et tantum agris vastandis incendiisque faciendis 
hostibus noceretur quantum in labore atque itinere legionarii 
mllites efficere poterant. 

XX. Interim Trinovantes, prope firmissima earum regionum 

30 civitas, ex qua Mandubracius adulescens Caesaris fidem secutus 
ad eum in continentem venerat, cuius pater in ea civitate reg- 
num obtinuerat interfectusque erat a Cassivellauno, ipse fuga 


mortem vitaverat, legates ad Caesarem mittunt pollicenturque 
sese el dedituros atque imperata facturos ; petunt ut Mandubra- 
cium ab miuria Cassivellauni defendat atque in civitatem mittat, 
qui praesit imperiumque obtineat. His Caesar imperat ob- 
sides XL frumentumque exercitui, Mandubraciumque ad eos 5 
.mittit. 111! imperata celeriter fecerunt, obsides ad numerum 
frumentumque miserunt. 

XXI. Trinovantibus defensis atque ab omm militum iniuria 
prohibits Cenimagni, Segontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci, Cassi lega- 
tionibus missis sese Caesari dedunt. Ab his cognoscit non 10 
longe ex eo loco oppidum Cassivellaum abesse silvis paludi- 
busque munitum, quo satis magnus hominum pecorisque nume- 
rus convenerit. Oppidum autem Britanni vocant .cum silvas 
impeditas vallo atque fossa munierunt, quo incursionis hostium 
vitandae causa convenire consuerunt. Eo proficlscitur cum 15 
legionibus ; locurn reperit egregie natura atque opere munitum ; 
tamen hunc duabtis ex partibus oppugnare contendit. 
paulisper moratl militum nostrorum impetum non tulerunt sese- 
que alia ex parte oppidi eiecerunt. Magnus ibi numerus peco- 
ris repertus multlque in fuga sunt comprehensi atque interfecti. 20 

XXII. Dum haec in his locis geruntur, Cassivellaunus ad 
Cantium, quod esse ad mare supra demonstravimus, quibus 
regionibus quattuor reges praeerant, Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taxi- 
magulus, Segovax, nuntios mittit atque his imperat uti coactis 
omnibus copiis castra navalia de improviso adoriantur atque 25 
oppugnent. Hi cum ad castra venissent, nostri eruptione facta, 
multis eorum interfectis, capto etiam nobili duce Lugotorlge 
suos incolumis reduxerunt. Cassivellaunus hoc proelio nun- 
tiato, tot detrimentis acceptis, vastatis fmibus, maxime etiam 
permotus defectione civitatum legates per Atrebatem Commium 3 
de deditione ad Caesarem mittit. Caesar cum cSnstituisset 
hiemare in continent! propter repentinos Galliae motus, neque 
multum aestatis superesset, atque id facile extrahi posse intel- 
legeret, obsides imperat et quid in annos singulos vectigalis 
populo Romano Britannia penderet constituit ; interdicit atque 35 


imperat Cassivellauno ne Mandubracid neu Trinovantibus 

He returns to Gaul. 

XXIII. Obsidibus acceptis exercitum reducit ad mare, navis 
invenit refectas. His deductis, quod et captivorum magnum 

5 numerum habebat et non nullae tempestate deperierant naves, 
duobus co.mmeatibus exercitum reportare instituit. Ac sic 
accidit utl ex tanto navium nuinero tot navigationibus neque hoc 
neque superiore anno ulla omnmo navis quae milites portaret 
desideraretur ; at ex iis quae inanes ex continent! ad eum remit- 

10 terentur prioris commeatus expositls militibus, et quas postea 
Labienus faciendas curaverat numero LX, perpaucae locum 
caperent, reliquae fere omnes reicerentur. Quas cum ali- 
quamdiii Caesar frustra exspectasset, ne anni tempore a navi- 
gatione excluderetur, quod aequinoctium suberat, necessario 

15 angustius milites conlocavit, ac surama tranquillitate consecuta, 
secunda inita cum solvisset vigilia, prima luce terrain attigit 
ommsque incolumis navis perduxit. 


The legions are placed in winter quarters. 

XXIV. Subductis navibus concilioque Gallorum Samarobri- 
vae peracto, quod eo anno frumentum in Gallia propter sicci- 

20 tates angustius provenerat, coactus est aliter ac superioribus 
annis exercitum in hiberms conlocare legionesque in pluris 
civitates distribuere. Ex quibus unam in Morinos diicendam 
C. Fabi5 legato dedit, alteram in Nervios Q. Ciceroni, tertiam 
in Esuvios L. Roscio ; quartam in Remis cum T. Labieno in 

25 confmio Treverorum hiemare iussit ; tris in Bellovacls conlo- 
cavit, his M. Crassum et L. Munatium Plancum et C. Trebo- 
nium legates praefecit. Unam legionem, quam proxime trans 
Padum conscripserat, et cohortis quinque in Eburones, quorum 
pars maxima est inter Mosam ac Rhenum, qui sub imperio 


Ambiorigis et Catuvolcl erant, misit. His militibus Q. Titurium 
Sabmum et L. Aurunculeium Cottam legates praeesse iussit. Ad 
hunc modum distributis legionibus facillime inopiae rei frumen- 
tariae sese mederi posse existimavit. Atque harum tarn en 
omnium legionum hiberna, praeter earn quam L. Roscio in s 
pacatissimam et quietissimam partem diicendam dederat, mili- 
bus passuum c continebantur. Ipse interea, quoad legiones 
conlocatas mumtaque hiberna cognovisset, in Gallia morari 

The murder of Tasgetius. 

XXV. Erat in Carnutibus summo loco natus Tasgetius, cuius 10 
maiores in sua clvitate regnum obtinuerant. Huic Caesar pro 
eius virtute atque in se benevolentia, quod in omnibus bellis 
singular! eius opera fuerat usus, maiorum locum restituerat. 
Tertium iam hunc annum regnantem inimici palam multis ex 
clvitate auctoribus interfecerunt. Defertur ea res ad Caesarem. 15 
Ille veritus., quod ad pluris pertinebat, ne civitas eorum impulsu 
deficeret, L. Plancum cum legione ex Belgio celeriter in Car- 
nutes proficlsci iubet ibique hiemare, quorumque opera cogno- 
verit Tasgetium interfectum, hos comprehensos ad se mittere. 
Interim ab omnibus quibus legiones tradiderat certior factusso 
est in hiberna perventum locumque hibernis esse munitum. 

The Eburones, led by Ambiorix, revolt, 

XXVI. Diebus circiter xv quibus in hiberna ventum est 
initium repeiitml tumultus ac defectionis ortum est ab Ambio- 
rige et Catuvolco ; quT cum ad finis regnl sui Sabmo Cottaeque 
praesto fuissent frumentumque in hiberna comportavissent, 25 
Indutiomari Treveri nuntils impulsi suos concitaverunt, subi- 
toque oppressls lignatoribus magna manu ad castra oppug- 
nanda venerunt. Cum celeriter nostri arma cepissent vallumque 
ascendissent, atque una ex parte Hispanls equitibus emissis 
equestn proelio superiores fuissent, desperata re hostes suos ab 30 
oppugnatione reduxerunt. Turn suo more conclamaverunt uti 


aliqul ex nostris ad conloquium prodlret : ' Habere sese quae de 
re commun! dicere vellent, quibus rebus controversies minui 
posse sperarent.' 

Ambiorix makes proposals to Sabinus and Cotta. 

XXVII. Mittitur ad eos conloquendi causa C. Arpmeius, 
5 eques Romanus, familiaris Q. Tituri, et Q. lunius ex Hispania 
quidam, qui iam ante missu Caesaris ad Ambiorigem ventitare 
consuerat. Apud quos Ambiorix ad hunc modum locutus est : 
'Sese pro Caesaris in sebeneficiis plurimum el confiteri debere, 
quod eius opera stlpendio liberatus esset quod Atuatucis, finiti- 

10 mis suls, pendere consuesset, quodque el et filius et fratris filius 
a Caesare remiss! essent, quos Atuatuci obsidum numero missos 
apud se in servitute et catems tenuissent ; neque id quod 
fecerit de oppugnatione castrorum aut iudicio aut voluntate 
sua f ecisse, sed coactu civitatis ; suaque esse eius modi imperia 

15 ut non minus haberet iuris in se multitudo quam ipse in multi- 
tudinem. Civitati porro hanc fuisse belli causam, quod repen- 
tmae Gallorum coniuratiom resistere non potuerit. Id se facile 
ex humilitate sua probare posse, quod non adeo sit imperitus 
rerum ut suis copiis populum Romanum superari posse con- 

20 fidat. Sed esse Galliae commune consilium ; omnibus hibernls 
Caesaris oppugnandis hunc esse dictum diem, ne qua legio 
alter! legion! subsidio venire posset. Non facile Gallos Gall!s 
negare potuisse, praesertim cum de recuperanda communl li- 
bertate consilium initum videretur. Quibus quoniam pro pietate 

25 satisfecerit, habere nunc se rationem offic! pro beneficils 
Caesaris ; monere, orare Titurium pro hospitio ut suae ac 
mllitum saluti coiasulat. Magnam manum Germanorum con- 
ductam Rhenum transisse ; hanc adfore b!duo. Ipsorum esse 
consilium, velintne, priusquam finitim! sentiant, eductos ex 

30 hibernis m!lites aut ad Ciceronem aut ad Labienum deducere, 
quorum alter mllia passuum circiter L, alter paulo amplius ab 
iis absit. Illud se pollicer! et iure iurando conf!rmare, tutum 
se iter per suos finis daturum. Quod cum faciat, et clvitat! 


sese consul ere, quod hlbernls levetur, et Caesari pro eius raeri- 
tls gratiam referre.' Hac oratione habita discedit Ambiorix. 

The Romans hold a council of war. Sabinus and Cotta cannot agree. 

XXVIII. ArpFneius et lunius quae audierant ad legates 
deferunt. 111! repentma re perturbati, etsi ab hoste ea dice- 
bantur, tamen non neglegenda existimabant, maximeque hac 5 
re permovebantur, quod civitatem ignobilem atque humilem 
Eburonum sua sponte populo Romano bellum facere ausam 
vix erat credendum. Itaque ad consilium rem deferunt, mag- 
naque inter eos exsistit controversia. L. Aunmculeius com- 
pluresque tribum militum et primorum ordinum centuriones 10 
nihil temere agendum neque ex hibernls iniussu Caesaris dis- 
cedendum existimabant ; quantasvls copias etiam Germanorum 
sustineri posse munltls hiberms docebant ; rem esse testimoni5, 
quod primum hostium impetum multls ultro vulneribus inlatls 
fortissime sustinuerint ; re frumentaria non premi ; interea et 15 
ex proximis hiberms et a Caesare conventura subsidia; pos- 
tremo, quid esse , levius aut turpius quam auctore hoste de 
summis rebus capere consilium ? 

XXIX. Contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, cum 
maiores manus hostium adiunctis Germanis convenissent, aut 20 
cum aliquid calamitatis in proximis hiberms esset acceptum. 
'Brevem consulendl esse occasionem. Caesarem se arbitrari 
profectum in Italian! ; neque aliter Carnutes interficiendi Tas- 
geti consilium fuisse captures neque Eburones, si ille adesset, 
tanta contemptione nostrl ad castra ventures. Sese non hos- 25 
tern auctorem, sed rem spectare : subesse Rhenum ; magno 
esse Germanis dolorl Ariovisti mortem et superiores nostras 
victorias ; ardere Galliam tot contumeliis acceptis sub populi 
Roman! imperium redactam, superiore gloria rel militaris ex- 
stmcta. Postremo, quis hoc sibi persua.ieret, sine certa spes 
Ambiorigem ad eius modi consilium descendisse ? Suam sen- 
tentiam in utramque partem esse tutam : si nihil esset durius, 
nullo cum periculo ad proximam legionem perventuros ; si 


Gallia omnis cum Germams consentlret, unam esse in -eden- 
tate positam salutem. Cottae quidem atque eorum qui dis- ; 
sentlrent consilium quern habere exitum ? In quo si non 
praesens periculum, at certe longinqua obsidione fames esset 

5 timenda.' ; 

XXX. Hac in utramque partem disputatione habita, cum 
a Cotta prlmlsque ordinibus acriter resisteretur, "Vincite," 
inquit, " si ita vultis," Sablnus, et id clariore voce, ut magna 
pars militum exaudiret ; " neque is sum," inquit, " qui gravis- 

10 sime ex vobls mortis periculo terrear. Hi sapient j si gravius 
quid accident, abs te rationem reposcent ; qui, si per te liceat, 
perendino die cum proximis hlbernis coniuncti commiinem cum 
reliquls belli casum sustineant, non reiectl et relegatl longe a 
ceteris aut ferro aut fame intereant." 

The Romans abandon their camp. 

15 XXXI. Consurgitur ex consilio ; comprehendunt utrumque 
et orant ne sua dissensione et pertinacia rem in summum peri- 
culum deducant : ' Facilem esse rem, seu maneant seu proficis- 
cantur, si modo unum omnes sentiant ac probent ; contra in 
dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere.' Res disputatione 

20 ad mediam noctem perducitur. Tandem dat Cotta permotus 
manus, superat sententia Sabmi; pronuntiatur prima luce 
ituros. Consumitur vigiliis reliqua pars noctis, cum sua quis- 
que miles circumspiceret, quid secum portare posset, quid ex 
instrumento hibernorum relinquere cogeretur. Omnia excogi- 

25 tantur quare nee sine periculo maneatur et languore militum et . 
vigiliis periculum augeatur. Prima luce sic ex castris proficls- 
cuntur ut quibus esset persuasum non ab hoste, sed ab homine 
amicissimo consilium datum, longissimo agmine maximisque 

They are attacked on the march by Ambiorix. 

3 o XXXII. At hostes posteaquam ex nocturne fremitu vigili- 
isque de profectione eorum senserunt, conlocatls Insidils bi- 


partito in silvis opportune atque occulto loco a milibus passuum 
circiter duobus Romanorum adventum exspectabant ; et cum 
se maior'pars agminis in magnam convallem demisisset, ex 
utraque parte eius vallis subito se ostenderunt, novissimosque 
premere et primes prohibere ascensu atque imquissimo nostris 5 
loco proelium committere coeperunt. 

XXXIII. Turn demum Titurius, qui nihil ante providisset, 
trepidare et concursare cohortisque disponere, haec tamen 
ipsa timide atque ut eum omnia deficere viderentur, quod 
plerumque iis accidere consuevit qui in ipso negotio consilium 10 
capere coguntur. At Cotta, qui cogitasset haec posse in iti- 
nere accidere atque ob earn causam profectionis auctor non 
fuisset, nulla in re commum saluti deerat, et in appellandis 
cohortandisque militibus imperatoris et in pugna militis officia 

-praestabat. , Cum propter longitudinem agminis non facile 15 
per se omnia obire et quid quoque loco faciendum esset 
providere possent, iusserunt pronuntiari ut impedimenta 
relinquerent atque in orbem consisterent. Quod consilium, 
etsi in eius modi casu reprehendendum non est, tamen 
incommode cecidit ; nam et nostris militibus spem minuit 20 
et hostis ad pugnam alacriores effecit, quod non sine summo 
timore et desperatione id factum videbatur. Praeterea 
accidit, quod fieri necesse erat, ut vulgo milites ab sighis 
discederent, quaeque quisque eorum carissima haberet ab 
impedimentis petere atque adripere properaret, clamore etss 
fletu omnia complerentur. 

After a long fight the Romans are defeated. The few survivors kill 


XXXIV. At barbaris c5nsilium non defuit. Nam duces 
eorum rota acie pronuntiari iusserunt ne quis ab loco disce- 
deret : ' Illorum esse praedam atque illis reservari quaecumque 
Romani reliquissent ; proinde omnia in victoria posita ex!s-3 
timarent.' Erant et virtute et genere pugnandl pares. Nostri 
tametsl ab duce et a fortuna deserebantur, tamen omnem spem 



salutis in virtute ponebant, et quotiens quaeque cohors pro- 
currerat, ab ea parte magnus numerus hostium cadebat. Qua 
re animadversa Ambiorlx pronuntiari iubet ut procul'tela con- 
iciant neu propius accedant, et quam in partem Roman! 
5 impetuin f ecerint, cedant : 'Levitate armorum et cottldiana exer- 
citatione nihil his noceri posse j ' rursus se ad slgna recipients 

XXXV. Quo praecepto ab ils dlligentissime observato, cum 
quaepiam cohors ex orbe excesserat atque impetum fecerat, 

10 hostes velocissime refugiebant. Interim earn partenr nudarl 
necesse erat et ab latere aperto tela recipere. Rursus cum in 
eum locum unde erant progress! revert! coeperant, et ab iis qu! 
cesserant et ab i!s qu! proxim! steterant circumveniebantur ; sin 
autem locum tenere vellent, nee virtut! locus relinquebatur 

15 neque ab tanta multitudine coniecta tela^ confert! v!tare pote- 
rant. Tarneri tot incommodis conflictat! mult!s vulneribus ac- 
cept!s resistebant, et magna parte die! consumpta, cum a prima 
luce ad horam octavam pugnaretur, nihil quod ipsis esset in- 
dignum .committebant. Turn T. Balventio, qu! superiore anno 

so primum p!lum duxerat, virp fort! et magnae auctoritatis, utrum- 
que femur tragula traicitur ; Q. Lucanius, eiusdem ordinis, 
fortissime pugnans, dum circumvento filio subvenit, interfi- 
citur ; L. Cotta legatus omms cohortis ordinesque adhortans in 
adversum os funda vulneratur. 

25 XXXVI. His rebus permotus Q. Titurius, cum procul 
Ambiorigem suos cohortantem conspexisset, interpretem suum 
Cn. Pompeium ad eum mittit rogatum ut sibi militibusque 
parcat. Ille appellatus respondet : ' Si velit secum conloqui, 
licere ; sperare a multitudine impetrar! posse quod ad mllitum 

30 salutem pertineat ; ips! vero nihil nocitum iri, inque earn rem 
se suam fidem interponere.' Ille cum Cotta saucio commu- 
nicat, si videatur, pugna ut excedant et cum Ambiorige una 
conloquantur : ' Sperare se ab eo de sua ac militum salute im- 
petrari posse.' Cotta se ad armatum hostem iturum negat 

35 atque in eo perseverat. 


XXXVII. Sabmus quos in praesentia tribunes militum circum 
se habebat et primorum ordinum centuriones se sequi iubet, 
et cum propius Ambiorigem accessisset, iussus arma abicere im- 
peratum facit sulsque ut idem faciant imperat. Interim dum 
de condicionibus inter se agunt longiorque consulto ab Ambio- 5 
rlge instituitur sermo, paulatim circumventus interficitur. Turn 
vero suo more victoriam conclamant atque ululatum tollunt 
impetuque in nostros facto ordines perturbant. Ibi L. Cotta 
pugnans interficitur cum maxima parte militum. Reliqui se in 
castra recipiunt unde erant egressi. Ex quibus L. Petrosidius 10 
aquilifer, cum magna multitudine hostium premeretur, aquilam 
intra vallum proicit; ipse pro castris fortissime pugnans occi- 
ditur. Illi aegre ad noctem oppugnationem sustinent ; nocte ad 
unum omnes desperata salute se ipsi interficiunt. Pauci ex 
proelio elapsl incertis itineribus per silvas ad T. Labienum 15 
legatum in hiberna perveniunt atque eum de rebus gestis certi- 
orem faciunt. 

Ambiorix induces the Nervii to revolt. 

XXXVIII. Hac victoria sublatus Ambiorix statim cum equi- 
tatu in Atuatucos, qui erant eius regno finitimi, proficlscitur ; 
neque noctem neque diem intermittit, peditatumque se subsequl 20 
iubet. Re demonstrate Atuatucisque concitatls postero die in 
Nervios pervenit, hbrtaturque ne suT in perpetuum Hberandi atque 
ulciscendi Romanos pro iis quas acceperint iniuriis occasionem 
dlmittant. Interfectos esse legatos duos magnamque partem ex- 
ercitus interisse demonstrat ; nihil esse negoti subito oppressam 25 
legionem quae cum Cicerone hiemet interficT. Se ad earn rem 
profitetur adiutorem. Facile hac oratione Nerviis persuadet. 

The Eburones and Nervii and their allies attack Cicero's camp, but meet 

a vigorous resistance. 

XXXIX. Itaque confestim dimissis nuntiis ad Ceutrones, 
Grudios, Levacos, Pleumoxios, Geidumnos, qui omnes sub eorum 
imperio sunt, quam maxima's possunt manus cogunt, et de im- 3 


proviso ad Ciceroriis hiberna advolant nondum ad eum fama de 
Titurl morte perlata. Huic quoque accidit, quod fuit necesse, 
ut non nulll mllites, qui lignationis raumtionisque causa in sil- 
vas discessissent, repentmo equitum adventu interciperentur. 

5 His circumventls magna manu Eburones, Nervii, Atuatuci, 
atque horum omnium socii et clientes legionem oppugnare 
incipiunt. Nostri celeriter ad arma concurrunt, vallum con- 
scendunt. Aegre is dies sustentatur, quod omnera spem hostes 
in celeritate ponebant, atque hanc adept! victoriam in per- 

10 petuum se fore victores conf idebant. 

XL. Mittuntur ad Caesarem confestim a Cicerone litterae, 
magnls propositls praemiTs si pertulissent ; obsessls omnibus 
vils missi intercipiuntur. Noctu ex materia quam mumtionis 
causa comportaverant turres admodum cxx excitantur incre- 

15 dibill celeritate ; quae deesse open videbantur perficiuntur. 
Hostes postero die multo maioribus coactls copils castra op- 
pugnant, fossam complent. A nostris eadem ratione qua pridie 
resistitur. Hoc idem reliquis deinceps fit diebus. Nulla pars 
nocturni temporis ad laborem intermittitur non aegris, non 

20 vulneratls facultas quietis datur. Quaecumque ad proximl die! 
oppugnationem opus sunt noctu comparantur ; multae praeus- 
tae sudes, magnus muralium pilorum numerus Instituitur ; turres 
contabulantur, pinnae loricaeque ex cratibus attexuntur. Ipse 
Cicero, cum tenuissima valetudine esset, ne nocturnum quidem 

25 sibi tempus ad quietem relinquebat, ut ultro militum concursu 
ac vocibus sibi parcere cogeretur. 

XLI. Turn duces principesque Nerviorum, qui aliquem ser- 
monis aditum causamque amicitiae cum Cicerone habebant, 
conloqui sese velle dlcunt. Facta potestate eadem quae Am- 

sobiorix cum Titurio egerat commemorant : 'Omnem esse in 
armis Galliara, Germanos Rhenum translsse, Caesaris reliquo- 
rumque hiberna oppugnari.' Addunt etiam de Sabim morte ; 
Ambiorigem ostentant fidei faciendae causa. Errare eos dlcunt, 
si quicquam ab iis praesidi sperent qui suls rebus diffidant; 

35 sese tamen hoc esse in Ciceronem populumque Rom ami m 


animo ut nihil nisi hiberna recusent atque hanc inveterascere 
consuetudinem nolint ; licere illis per se incolumibus ex hiber- 
ms discedere et quascumque in partis velint sine metu pro- 
ficisci. Cicero ad haec unum modo respondet : 'Non esse 
consuetudinem popull- Roman! accipere ab hoste armato con- 5 
dicionem ; si ab armis discedere velint, se adiutore utantur 
legatosque ad Caesarem mittant; sperare se pro eius iustitia 
quae petierint impetraturos.' 

The Gauls undertake a siege. 

XLII. Ab hac spe repulsi Nervii valid pedum decem et fossa 
pedum xv hiberna cingunt. Haec et superiorum annorum 10 
consuetudine a nobis cognoverant et quosdam de exercitu nacti 
captivos ab his docebantur ; sed nulla ferramentormn copia 
quae essent ad hunc usura idonea, gladiTs caespites circumci- 
dere, manibus sagulisque terrain exhaurire cogebantur. Qua 
quidem ex re hominum multitudo cognosci potuit ; nam minus 15 
horis tribus mllium passuum trium in circuitu munltionem per- 
fecerunt. Reliquls diebus turns ad altitudinem valli, falcis, 
testudinesque, quas Idem captivi docuerant, parare ac facere 

XLIII. Septimo oppugnationis die maximo coorto vento fer- 20 
ventis fusills ex argilla glandis fundis et fervefacta iacula in 
casas, quae more Gallico stramentis erant tectae, iacere coepe- 
runt. Hae celeriter ignem comprehenderunt et venti magni- 
tudine in omnem locum castrorum distulerunt. Hostes maximo 
clamore, sicuti parta iam atque explorata victoria, turns testu- 25 
dinesque agere et scalis vallum ascendere coeperunt. At tanta 
militum virtus atque ea praesentia animl fuit ut, cum undique 
flamma torrerentur maximaque telorum multitudine premeren- 
tur suaque omnia impedimenta atque omms fortunas confla- 
grare intellegerent, non modo de vallo decederet nem5, sed 30 
paene ne respiceret quidem quisquam, ac turn omnes acerrime 
fortissimeque pugnarent. Hie dies nostris longe gravissimus 
fuit, sed tamen hunc habuit eventum, ut eo die maximus nu- 


meras hostium vulneraretur atque interficeretur, ut se sub ipso 
vallo constfpaverant recessumque primis ultiml non dabant. 
Paulum quidem intermissa flarama et quodam loco turn adacta 
et contingente vallum tertiae cohortis centuriones ex eo quo 
5 stabant loco recesserunt suosque omms removerunt, nutu voci- 
busque hostis, si introlre vellent, vocare coeperunt; quorum 
progredl ausus est nemo. Turn ex omm parte lapidibus con- . 
iectis deturbati turrisque succensa est. 

The rivalry of Pullo and Vorenus. 

XLIV. Erant in ea legione fortissimi viri, centuriones, qui 

10 iam primis ordinibus appropinquarent, T. Pullo et L. Vorenus. 
Hi perpetuas inter se controversias habebant, uter alter! 
anteferretur, omnibusque annis de loco summis simultatibus 
contendebant. Ex his Pullo, cum acerrime ad mumtiones 
pugnaretur, "Quid dubitas," inquit, " Vorene? Aut quern locum 

istuae probandae virtutis exspectas? Hie dies de nostris con- 
troversils iudicabit." Haec cum dixisset, procedit extra mu- 
mtiones, quaeque pars hostium confertissima est visa, inrumpit. 
Ne Vorenus quidem sese turn vallo continet, sed omnium veri- 
tus exlstimationem subsequitur. Mediocrl spatio relicto Pullo 

20 pilum in hostis immittit atque unum ex multitudine procurren- 
tem traicit ; quo percusso et exanimato, hunc scutls protegunt 
hostes, in ilium universl tela coniciunt neque dant progrediendi 
facultatem. Transfigitur scutum PullonI et verutum in balteo 
defigitur. Avertit hie casus vagmam et gladium educere co- 

asnanti dextram moratur manum, impeditumque hostes circum- 
sistunt. Succurrit inimicus ill! Vorenus et laborantl subvenit. 
Ad hunc se confestim a Pullone omnis multitudo convertit ; 
ilium veruto tran'sfixum arbitrantur. Gladio comminus rem 
gerit Vorenus atque uno interfecto reliquos paulum propellit ; 

sodum cupidius Instat, in locum deiectus Inferiorem concidit. 
Huic rursus circumvento subsidium fert Pullo, atque ambo in- 
columes compluribus interfectis summa cum laude sese intra 
mumtiones recipiunt. Sic fortuna in contentione et certamine 


utrumque versavit lit alter alter! inimicus auxilio salutique esset, 
neque diiudicari posset uter utri virtute anteferendus videretur. 

Caesar learns of the danger and hastens to the relief of Cicero. 

XLV. Quanto erat in dies gravior atque asperior oppugnatio, 
et maxime quod magna parte militum confecta vulneribus res 
ad paucitatem defensorum pervenerat, tanto crebriores litterae 5 
nuntiique ad Caesarem mittebantur ; quorum pars deprehensa 
in conspectu nostrorum militum cum cruciatu necabatur. Erat 
unus intus Nervius, nomine Vertico, loco natus honesto, qui a 
prima obsidione ad Ciceronem perfugerat suamque el fidem 
praestiterat. Hie servo spe Hbertatis magmsque persuadetio 
praemiis ut litteras ad Caesarem deferat. Has ille in iaculo 
inligatas effert, et Gallus inter Gallos sine ulla suspicione ver- 
satus ad Caesarem pervenit. Ab eo de perlculis Ciceronis 
legionisque cognoscitur. 

XLVI. Caesar acceptis litteris hora circiter iindecima die! 15 
statim nuntium in Bellovacos ad M. Crassum mittit, cuius 
hiberna aberant ab eo milia passuum xxv ; iubet media nocte 
legionem proficlsci celeriterque ad se venire. Exit cum nuntio 
. Crassus. Alterum ad C. Fabium legatum mittit, ut in Atreba- 
tium finis legionem adducat, qua sibi iter faciendum sciebat. 20 
Scribit Labieno, si rel publicae commodo facere possit, cum 
legione ad finis Nerviorum veniat. Reliquam partem exercitus, 
quod paulo aberat longius, non putat exspectandam ; equites 
circiter cccc ex proximls hlberms cogit. 

XLVII. Hora circiter tertia ab antecursoribus de Grasses 
adventu certior factus eo die milia passuum xx progreditur. 
Crassum Samarobrivae praeficit legionemque el attribuit, quod 
ibi impedimenta exercitus, obsides civitatum, litteras publicas, 
frumentumque omne, quod eo tolerandae hiemis causa de- 
vexerat, relinquebat. Fabius, ut imperatum erat, non ita mul- 30 
turn moratus in itinere cum legione occurrit. Labienus interitu 
Sabmi et caede cohortium cognita, cum omnes ad eum Treve- 
rorum copiae venissent, veritus ne, si ex hibernis fugae similem 


profectionem fecisset, hostium impetum sustinere non posset, 

praesertim quos recent! victoria efferri sciret, litteras Caesarl 

remittit quanto cum periculo legionem ex hiberms educturus 

esset; rem gestam in Eburonibus perscribit; docet omms 
5 equitatus peditatusque copias Treverorum tria milia passuum 

longe ab suis castris consedisse. 

XLVIII. Caesar consilio eius probato, etsi opinione trium 

legionum deiectus ad duas reciderat, tamen iinum commum saluti 

auxiliura in celeritate ponebat. Venit magnis itineribus in Ner- 
xoviorum finis. Ibi ex captlvls cognoscit quae apud Ciceronem 

gerantur quantoque in periculo res sit. Turn cuidam ex equiti- 

bus Gallis magnis praemiis 

persuadet uti ad Ciceronem 

epistulam deferat. Hanc 
15 Graecls conscriptam litteris 

mittit, ne intercepta epistula 

nostra ab hostibus consilia 

cognoscantur. ffi_ adlre non TRAGULA ^ AMEVTUM 

possit, monet ut tragulam cum 
20 epistula ad amentum deligata intra munitiones castrorum abiciat. 

In litteris scribit se cum legionibus profectum celeriter adfore ; 

hortatur ut pristinam virtutem retineat. Gallus periculum veritus, 

ut erat praeceptum, tragulam mittit. Haec casu ad turrim ad- 

haesit, neque a nostris biduo animadversa tertio die a quodam 
25 mllite conspicitur, dempta ad Ciceronem defertur. Ille perlec- 

tam in conventu inilitum recitat maximaque omms laetitia adficit. 

Turn fumi incendiorum procul videbantur; quae res omnem 

dubitationem adventus legionum expulit. 

The Gauls raise the siege and go to meet Caesar. He defeats them. 

XLIX. Galli re cognita per exploratores obsidionem relin- 

soquunt, ad Caesarem omnibus copiis contendunt. Haec erant 

armata circiter milia LX. Cicer5 data facultate Gallum ab 

eodem Verticone quern supra demonstravimus repetit, qui 

litteras ad Caesarem deferat. Hunc admonet iter caute dlligen- 


terque faciat. Perscribit in litteris hostls ab se discessisse 
omnemque ad eum multitudinem convertisse. Quibus litteris 
circiter media nocte Caesar adlatis suds facit certiores eosque 
ad dlmicandum animo confrrmat. Postero die luce prima 
movet castra, et circiter milia passuum quattuor progressus 5 
trans vallera et rivum multitudinem hostium conspicatur. Erat 
magnl periculi res tantulis copils iniquo loco dimicare ; turn, 
quoniam obsidione liberatum Ciceronem sciebat, aequo animo 
remittendum de celeritate existimabat. Considit et quam 
aequissimo potest loco castra communit ; atque haec etsi erant 10 
exigua per se, vix hominum milium septem, praesertim nullls 
cum impedimentis, tamen angustils viarum quammaxime potest 
contrahit eo consilio, ut in summam contemptionem hostibus 
veniat. Interim speculatoribus in o mills partis dimissis ex- 
plorat quo commodissime itinere vallem transire possit. 15 

L. Eo die parvulis equestribus proeliTs ad aquam factis 
utrique sese suo loco continent, Galll, quod ampliores copias, 
quae nondum convenerant, exspectabant ; Caesar, si forte 
timoris simulatione hostls in suum locum elicere posset, ut 
citra vallem pro castris proelio contenderet ; si id efficere non 20 
posset, ut exploratls itineribus minore cum periculo vallem 
rivumque transiret. Prima luce hostium equitatus ad castra 
accedit proeliumque cum nostrls equitibus committit. Caesar 
consulto equites cedere seque in castra recipere iubet ; simul 
ex omnibus partibus castra altiore vallo muniri portasque 25 
obstrul atque in his administrandis rebus quam maxime con- 
cursari et cum simulatione agi timoris iubet. 

LI. Quibus omnibus rebus hostes invitati copias traducunt 
aciemque iniquo loco constituunt, nostrls vero etiam de vallo 
deductis propius accedunt et tela intra munitionem ex omnibus 30 
partibus coniciunt, praeconibusque circummissis pronuntiari 
iubent, seu quis Gallus seu Romanus velit ante horam tertiam 
ad se transire, sine periculo licere ; post id tempus non fore 
potestatem. Ac sic nostros contempserunt ut obstructis in 
speciem portis singulis ordinibus caespitum, quod ea non posse 35 


introrumpere videbantur, alii vallum manu scindere, alii fossas 
complere inciperent. Turn. Caesar omnibus portis eruptione 
fac.ta equitatuque emisso celeriter hostls in fugam dat, sic ut! 
omnino pugnandi causa resisteret nemo, magnumque ex ils 

5 numerum occidit atque omms armis exuit. 


Caesar joins Cicero, and finds that the latter's soldiers have suffered 

severely in the siege. 

LII. Longius prosequi veritus, quod silvae paludesque inter- 
cedebant, omnibus suis incolumibus eodem die ad Ciceronem 
pervenit. Institutes turns, testudines, munltionesque hostium 
admiratur ; producta legione cognoscit non decimum quemque 

10 esse reliquum militem sine vulnere ; ex his omnibus iudicat 
rebus quanto cum periculo et quanta virtute res sint adminis- 
tratae. Ciceronem pro eius merito legionemque conlaudat; 
centuriones singillatim tribunosque militum appellat, quorum 
egregiam fuisse virtutem testimonio Ciceronis cognoverat. De 

iscasu Sabini et Cottae certius ex captivls cognoscit. Postero 
die contione habita rem gestam proponit, milites consolatur et 
confirmat; quod detrimentum culpa et temeritate legati sit 
acceptum, hoc aequiore animo ferendum docet, quod beneficio 
deorum immortalium et virtute eorum expiato incommodo neque 

aohostibus diutina laetitia neque ipsis longior dolor relinquatur. 

The Gauls abandon their intention of attacking the camps of Labienus and 


LIU. Interim ad Labienum per Remos incredibili celeritate 

de victoria Caesaris fama perfertur, ut, cum ab hlberms Ciceronis 

milia passuum abesset circiter LX eoque post horam nonam die! 

Caesar pervenisset, ante mediam noctem ad portas castrorum 

25 clamor oreretur, quo clampre significatio victoriae gratulatioque 


ab Remis Labieno fieret. Hac fama ad Treveros perlata In- 
dutiomarus, qul postero die castra LabienI oppugnare decre- 
verat, noctu profugit copiasque omnis in Treveros reducit. 
Caesar Fabium cum sua legione remittit in hiberna, ipse cum 


tribus legionibus circum Samarobrivam trims hiberms hiemare 
constituit; et quod tanti motus Galliae exstiterant, totam hie- 
mem ipse ad exercitum manere decrevit. Nam illo incommode 
de Sabim morte perlato omnes fere Galliae clvitates de bello 
consultabant, nuntios legationesque in omnls partis dimittebant, 5 
et quid reliqul consili caperent atque unde initium belli'.fieret 
explorabant, nocturnaque in locis desertis concilia habebant. 
Neque ullum fere totius hiemis tempus sine sollicitiidine Cae- 
saris intercessit, t qum aliquem de consilils ac motu Gallorum 
nuntium acciperet. In his ab L. Roscio, quem legion! tertiae ro 
decimae praefecerat, certior factus est magnas Gallorum copias 
earum civitatum quae Aremoricae appellantur oppugnandi sui 
causa convenisse, neque longius milibus passuum octo ab hiber- 
ms suis afuisse, sed nuntio adlato de victoria Caesaris discessisse, 
adeo ut fugae similis discessus videretur. 15 

The Senones expel Cavarinus and disobey Caesar's command. Gaul is in 


LIV. At Caesar principibus cuiusque civitatis ad se evocatis 
alios territando, cum se scire quae fierent denuntiaret, alios 
cohortando magnam partem Galliae in officio tenuit. Tarn en 
Senones, quae est clvitas in primis f Irma et magnae inter Gallos 
auctoritatis, Cavarinum, quem Caesar apud eos regem con- 20 
stituerat, cuius frater Moritasgus adventu in Galliam Caesaris 
cuiusque maiores regnum obtinuerant, interficere publico con- 
silio conati, cum ille praesensisset ac profugisset, usque ad finis 
Insecutl regno domoque expulerunt; et missis ad Caesarem 
satisfaciendi causa legatls, cum is omnem ad se senatum venire 25 
iussisset, dicto audientes non fuerunt. Ac tantum apud homines 
barbaros valuit esse aliquos repertos principes belli inferendi 
tantamque omnibus voluntatum commutationem attulit ut 
praeter Haeduos et Remos, quos praecipuo semper honore 
Caesar habuit, alteros pro vetere ac perpetua erga populumao 
Romanum fide, alteros pro recentibus Gallic! bell! offici!s nulla 
fere clvitas fuerit non suspecta nobis. Idque adeo haud scio 



mirandumne sit, cum compluribus aliis de causis, turn maxime 
quod qui virtute belli omnibus gentibus praeferebantur, tantum 
se eius opinionis deperdidisse ut popull Roman! imperia per- 
ferrent gravissime dolebant. 

Indutiomarus tries to bring about a general uprising, but is defeated by 

Labienus and killed. 

5 LV. Treveri vero atque Indutiomarus totius hiemis nullum 
tempus intermlserunt qum trans Rhenum legates mitterent, 
civitates sollicitarent, pecunias pollicerentur, magna parte exer- 
citus nostri interfecta multo minorem superesse dicerent par- 
tern. Neque tamen ulli civitatl Germanorum persuader! potuit 

10 ut Rhenum transiret, cum se bis expertos dicerent, Ariovist! 
bello et Tencterorum transitu; non esse amplius fortunam 
temptaturos. Hac spe lapsus Indutiomarus nihilo minus co- 
pias cogere, exercere, a f!nitim!s equos parare, exsules damna- 
tosque tota Gallia magnis praemiis ad se adlicere coepit. Ac 

15 tantam sibi iam h!s rebus in Gallia auct5ritatem comparaverat ut 
undique ad eum legationes concurrerent, gratiam atque am!ci- 
tiam publice privatimque peterent. 

LVI. Ubi intellexit ultro ad se vemri, altera ex parte Se- 
nones Carnutesque conscientia facinoris mstigari, altera Nervios 

20 Atuatucosque bellum Romanis parare, neque sibi voluntariorum 
copias defore, si ex finibus suis progred! coepisset, armatum con- 
cilium indicit. Hoc more Gallorum est initium bell! ; quo lege 
commun! omnes puberes armat! convenire coguntur. Qu! ex iis 
novissimus venit, in conspectu multitudinis omnibus cruciatibus 

asadfectus necatur. In eo concilio Cingetongem, alterius prin- 
cipem factionis, generum suum, quern supra demonstravimus 
Caesaris secutum fidem ab eo non discessisse, hostem iudicat ' 
bonaque eius piiblicat. His rebus confe.ct!s in concilio pro- 
nuntiat arcessitum se a Senonibus et Carnutibus ali!sque com- 

30 pluribus Galliae civitatibus ; hue iturum per finis Remorum 
eorumque agros populaturum ac, priusquam id faciat, castra 
Labien! oppugnaturum. Quae fieri velit praecipit. 


LVII. Labienus cum et loci natura et manu munitissimis 
castris sese teneret, de suo ac legionis perlculo nihil timebat, 
ne quam occasionem rel bene gerendae dlmitteret cogitabat. 
Itaque a Cingetorige atque eius propinquls oratione Induti- 
omarl cognita, quam in concilio habuerat, nuntios mittit ad 5 
fmitimas civitates equitesque undique evocat ; his certain diem 
conveniendi dicit. Interim prope cottidie cum omnl equitatu 
, Indutiomarus sub castris eius vagabatur, alias ut situm cas- 
trorum cognosceret, alias conloquendi aut territandi causa; 
equites plerumque omnes tela intra vallum coniciebant. Labi- 10 
enus suos intra mumtionem continebat timorisque opmionem 
quibuscumque poterat rebus augebat. 

LVIII. Cum maiore in dies contemptione Indutiomarus 
ad castra accederet, nocte una intromissis equitibus omnium 
finitimarum civitatum, quos arcessendos curaverat, tanta dili- 15 
gentia omnis suos custodiis intra castra continuit ut nulla 
ratione ea res enuntiari aut ad Treveros perferri posset. In- 
terim ex consuetudine cottldiana Indutiomarus ad castra ac- 
cedit atque ibi magnam partem die! consumit; equites tela 
coniciunt et magna cum contumelia verborum nostros ad 20 
pugnam evocant. Nullo ab nostris dato response, ubi visum 
est, sub vesperum dispersi ac dissipati discedunt. Subito Labi- 
enus duabus portls omnem equitaturn emittit ; praecipit atque 
interdicit perterritis hostibus atque in fugam coniectis (quod 
fore, sicut accidit, videbat) unum omnes petant Indutiomarum, 25 
neu quis quern prius vulneret quam ilium interfectum vlderit, 
quod mora reliquorum spatium nactum ilium effugere nolebat ; 
magna proponit ils qul occlderint praemia ; submittit cohortis 
equitibus subsidio. Comprobat hominis consilium fortuna, et 
cum unum omnes peterent, in ipso fluminis vado deprehensus 30 
Indutiomarus interficitur, caputque eius refertur in castra ; red- 
euntes equites quos possunt consectantur atque occidunt. 
Hac re cognita omnes Eburonum et Nerviorum quae convie- 
nerant copiae discedunt, pauloque habuit post id factum Caesar 
quietiorem Galliam. 35 




Caesar augments his army. 

I. Multis de causis Caesar maiorem Galliae' motum ex- 
spectans per M. Silanum, C. Antistium Regmum, T. Sextium 
legates dilectum habere mstituit ; simul ab Cn. Pompeio pro- 
consule petit, quoniam ipse ad urbem cum imperio rei publicae 

5 causa remaneret, quos ex Cisalpma Gallia consul sacramento 
rogasset ad slgna convemre et ad se proficisci iuberet, magm 
interesse etiam in reliquum tempus ad opmionem Galliae 
existimans tantas videri Italiae facultates ut, si quid esset in 
bello detrimenti acceptum, non modo id brevi tempore sarcm, 

rosed etiam maioribus auger! copiis posset. Quod cum Pom- 
penis et rei publicae et amicitiae tribuisset, celeriter confecto 
per suos dilectu, tribus ante exactam hiemeni et constitutis et 
adductis legionibus duplicatoque earum cohortium numero 
quas cum Q. Titurio amiserat, et celeritate et copiis docuit 

15 quid populi Roman! disciplina atque opes possent. 

Expeditions against several rebellious states. 

II. Interfecto Indutiomaro, ut docuimus, ad eius propin- 
quos a Treveris imperium defertur. 111! finitimos Germanos 
sollicitare et pecuniam polliceri non desistunt. Cum a proxi- 
mis impetrare non possent, ulteriores temptant. Inventls non 

20 nullis civitatibus iure iurando inter se confirmant obsidibusque 
de pecunia cavent; Ambiorigem sibi societate et foedere 
adiungunt. Quibus rebus cognitis Caesar, cum undique bel- 
lum parari videret, Nervios, Atuatucos, Menapios adiunctis 



Cisrhenanls omnibus Germams esse in armis, Senones ad im- 
peratum non venire et. cum Carnutibus fmitimisque civitatibus 
consilia communicare, a Treveris Germanos. crebris legationi- 
bus sollicitari, maturius sibi de bello cogitandum putavit. 

III. Itaque nondum hierne confecta proximis quattuor 5 
coactis legionibus de improvise in finis Nerviorum contendit, 
et priusquam ill! aut convenire aut profugere possent, magno 
pecoris atque hominum numero capto atque ea praeda militi- 
bus concessa vastatisque agris in deditionem venire atque 
obsides sibi dare coegit.. Eo celeriter confecto negotio rursus 10 
in hiberna legiones reduxit. Concilio Galliae primo vere, ut 
instituerat, indicto, cum reliqui praeter Senones, Carnutes, 
Treverosque venissent, initium belli ac defectionis hoc esse 
arbitratus, ut omnia postponere videretur, concilium Lutetiam 
Parisiorum transfert. Confines erant hi Senonibus civitatem- 15 
que patrum memoria coniunxerant, sed ab hoc consilio afuisse 
existimabantur. Hac re pro suggestu pronuntiata eodem die 
cum legionibus in Senones proficlscitur magnisque itineribus 
eo pervenit. 

IV. Cognito eius adventu Acco, quT prmceps eius consill 2 o 
fuerat, iubet in oppida multitudinem convenire. Conantibus, 
priusquam id effici posset, adesse Romanos nuntiatur. Ne- 
cessario sententia desistunt legatosque deprecandl causa ad 
Caesarem mittunt; adeunt per Haeduos, quorum antiquitus 
erat in fide civitas. Libenter Caesar petentibus Haeduls dat 25 
veniam excusationemque accipit, quod aestivum tempus m- 
stantis belli, non quaestionis esse arbitrabatur. Obsidibus im- 
peratis c hos Haeduls custodiendos tradit. Eodem Carnutes 
legates obsidesque mittunt usi deprecatoribus Reims, quorum 
erant in clientela ; eadem ferunt responsa. Peragit cncilium 30 
Caesar equitesque imperat civitatibus. 

Caesar proceeds against the Menapii. 

V. Hac parte Galliae pacata totus et mente et animo in 
bellum Treverorum et Ambiorlgis Insistit. Cavarinum cum 


equitatu Senonura secum proficisci iubet, ne quis aut ex huius 
Iracundia aut ex eo quod meruerat odio civitatis motus exsistat. 
His rebus constitutis, quod pro explorato habebat Ambiorigem 
prcelio non esse contenturum, reliqua eius consilia animo cir- 

5 cumspiciebat. Erant Menapii propinqui Eburonum flnibus, 
perpetuis paludibus silvisque munitl, qui uni ex Gallia de pace 
ad Caesarem legatos numquam miserant. Cum his esse hospi- 
tium Ambiorigl sciebat; item per Treveros venisse Germams 
in amicitiam cognoverat. Haec prius ill! detrahenda auxilia 

10 exlstimabat quam ipsum bello lacesseret, ne desperata salute 
aut se in Menapios abderet aut cum Transrhenams congredi 
cogeretur. Hoc inito consilio totms exercitus impedimenta ad 
Labienum in Treveros mittit duasque ad eum legiones proficisci 
iubet ; ipse cum legionibus expedltis quinque in Menapios pro- 

15 ficlscitur. 111! nulla coacta manu loci praesidio fret! in silvas 
paliidesque confugiunt suaque eodem conferunt. 

VI. Caesar partltis copiis cum C. Fabio legato et M. Crasso 
quaestore celeriterque effectis pontibus adit tripartito, aedificia 
vicosque incendit, magno pecoris atque hominum numero 

sopotitur. Quibus rebus coactl^ Menapii legatos ad eum pacis 
petendae causa mittunt Ille obsidibus acceptis hostium se 
habiturum numero confirmat, si aut Ambiorigem aut eius 
legatos flnibus suls recepissent. His confirmatis rebus Com- 
mium Atrebatem cum equitatu custodis loco in Menapiis re- 

25 linquit ; ipse in Treveros proficiscitur. 

Labienus defeats the Treveri. 

VII. Dum haec a Caesare geruntur, Treveri magnis coactis 
peditatus equitatusque copiis Labienum cum una legione quae 
in eorum flnibus hiemabat adorirl parabant, iamque ab eo non 
longius bidul via aberant, cum duas venisse legiones missii 

SoCaesaris cognoscunt. Positis castrls a mllibus passuum xv 
auxilia Germanorum exspectare constituunt. Labienus hostium 
cognito consilio sperans temeritate eorum fore aliquam dimi- 
candl facultatem, praesidio quinque cohortium impedimentis 


relicto cum xxv cohortibus magnoque equitatu contra hostem 
proficiscitur et mllle passuum intermisso spatio castra com- 
munit. Erat inter Labienum atque hostem difficili transitu 
flumen ripisque praeruptls. Hoc neque ipse transire habebat 
in animo neque hostis transituros exlstimabat. Augebatur 5 
auxiliorum cottidie spes. Loquitur consulto palam, quoniam 
German! appropinquare dicantur, sese suas exercitusque for- 
tunas in dubium non devocaturum et postero die prima luce 
castra moturum. Celeriter haec ad hostis deferuntur, ut ex 
magno Gallorum equitum numero non nullos Gallicls rebus 10 
favere natura cogebat. Labienus nocte tribunis militum pri- 
misque ordinibus convocatis quid sui sit consili proponit, et qu5 
facilius hostibus timoris det suspicionem, maiore strepitu et 
tumultu quam populi Roman! fert consuetudo castra mover! 
iubet. His rebus fugae similem profecti5nem efficit. Haec 15 
quoque per exploratores ante lucem in tanta propinquitate 
castrorum ad hostis deferuntur. 

VIII. Vix agmen novissimum extra munitiones processerat, 
cum Gall! cohortat! inter se ne speratam praedam ex manibus 
dimitterent 'Longum esse perterritis R5man!s Germanorumao 
auxilium exspectare, neque suam pat! dignitatem ut tantis 
copiis tarn exiguam manum, praesertim fugientem atque impe- 
ditam, adoriri non audeant' flumen transire et iniquo loco 
committere proelium non dubitant. Quae fore suspicatus 
Labienus, ut omnis citra flumen eliceret, eadem us us Simula- 25 
tione itineris placide progredrebatur. Turn prae missis paulum 
impedimentis atque in tumu!5 quodam conlocatis, " Habetis," 
inquit, " milites, quam petistis facultatem ; hostem impedito 
atque iniquo loco tenetis. Praestate eandem nobis ducibus 
virtutem quam saepenumero imperatori praestitistis, atque ilium 30 
adesse et haec coram cernere existimate." Simul signa ad 
hostem converti aciemque derig! iubet, et paucis turmis prae- 
sidi5 ad impedimenta dimissis reliquos equites ad latera dis- 
ponit. Celeriter nostri clamore sublato pila in hostis immittunt. 
Illi ubi praeter spem quos fugere credebant infestis signis ad 35 



se ire vidertmt, impetum nostrorum ferre non potuerunt, ac 
primo concursu in fugam coniecti proximas silvas petierunt. 
Quos Labienus equitatu consectatus niagno numero interfecto, 
compluribus captls paucis post diebus civitatem recepit. Nam 
5 GermanI, qui auxilio veniebant, percepta Treverorum fuga sese 
domum contulerunt. Cum his propinqui Indutiomari, qui 
defectionis auctores fuerant, comitati eos ex civitate excesse- 
runt. Cingetorlgi, quern ab initio permansisse in officio 
denionstravimus, principatus atque imperium est traditum. 

Caesar crosses the Rhine a second time. 

10 IX. Caesar postquam ex Menapiis in Treveros venit, duabus 
de causis Rhenum transire constituit. Quarum una erat quod 
German! auxilia contra se Treveris miserant ; altera, ne ad eos 
Ambiorix receptum haberet. His constitutis rebus paulo supra 
eum locum quo ante exercitum traduxerat facere pontem insti- 

15 tuit. Nota atque instituta ratione magno militum studio paucis 
diebus opus efficitur. Firmo in Treveris ad pontem praesidio 
rellcto, ne quis ab his subito motus oreretur, reliquas copias 
equitatumque traducit. Ubii, qui ante obsides dederant atque 
in deditionem venerant, purgandi sui causa ad eum legatos mit- 

20 tunt, qui doceant neque auxilia ex sua civitate in Treveros 
missa neque ab se fidem laesam; petunt atque orant ut sibi 
parcat, ne communi odio Germanorum innocentes pro nocenti- 
bus poenas pendant j si amplius obsidum velit dari, pollicentur. 
Cognita Caesar causa reperit ab Suebis auxilia missa esse ; 

25 Ubiorum satisfactionem accipit, aditus viasque in Suebos per- 

. X. Interim paucis post diebus fit ab Ubils certior Suebos 
omms in unum locum copias cogere, atque ils nationibus quae 
sub eorum sint imperio denuntiare ut auxilia pe'ditatus equita- 

30 tusque mittant. His cognitls rebus rem frumentariam providet, 
castris idoneum locum deligitj Ubils imperat ut pecora dedu- 
cant suaque omnia ex agrls in oppida conferant, sperans bar- 
baros atque imperitos homines inopia cibariorum adductos ad 


imquam pugnandi condicionem posse deduci ; mandat iit cre- 
bros exploratores in Suebos mittant, quaeque apud eos gerantur 
cognoscant. 1111 imperata faciunt et paucis diebus intermissis 
refer unt : ' Suebos omms, posteaquam certiores nuntii de exer- 
citu Romanorum venerint, cum omnibus suis sociortnnque 5 
copiis, quas coegissent, penitus ad extremos finis se recepisse ; 
silvam esse ibi Infimta magnitudine, quae appelletur Bacenis; 
hanc longe introrsus pertinere, et pro nativo muro obiectam 
Cheruscos ab Sueb5rum Suebosque ab Cheruscorum iniuriTs 
incursionibusque prohibere ; ad eius silvae initium . Suebos 10 
adventum Romanorum exspectare constituisse. ' 


Party spirit and parties in Gaul. 

XI. Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, non alienum 
esse videtur de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus et quo differant 
hae nationes inter sese proponere. In Gallia non solum in 
omnibus civitatibus atque in omnibus pagls partibusque sed 15 
paene etiam in singulis domibus factiones sunt, earumque 
factionum prmcipes sunt qui sum mam auctoritatem eorum 
iudicio habere existimantur, quorum ad arbitrium iudiciumque 
summa omnium rerum consiliorumque redeat. Idque eius 
rel causa antiquitus Institutum videtur, ne quis ex plebe contra 20 
potentiorem auxill egeret; suos eni'm quisque opprimi et cir- 
cumvemri non patitur, neque, aliter si faciat, ullam inter suos 
habeat auctoritatem. Haec eadem ratio est in summa totms 
Galliae; namque omnes civitates divisae sunt in duas partis. 

XII. Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, alterius factionis prin- 25 
cipes erant Haedui, alterius Sequam. Hi cum per se minus 
valerent, quod summa auctoritas antiquitus erat in Haeduis 
magnaeque eorum erant clientelae, Germanos atque Ariovistum 
sibi* adiunxerant eosque ad se magms iacturis pollicitationi- 
busque perduxerant. ProeliTs vero compluribus factis secundis 30 
atque omm nobilitate Haeduorum interfecta tantum potentia 


antecesserant ut magnam partem clientium ab Haeduis ad se 
traducerent obsidesque ab his prlncipum filios aeciperent, et 
publice iurare cogerent nihil se contra Sequanos consili initu- 
ros, et partera fmitimi agri per vim occupatam possiderent 
5 Galliaeque totius principatum obtinerent. Qua necessitate 
adductus Dlviciacus auxill petendi causa Romam ad senatum 
profectus mfecta re redierat. Adventu Caesaris facta commu- 
tatione rerum, obsidibus Haeduis redditis, veteribus clientelis 
restitiitis, novis per Caesarem comparatis, quod ii qui se ad 

10 eorum amicitiam adgregaverant meliore condicione atque 
aequiore imperio se iiti videbant, reliquis rebus eorum gratia 
dignitateque amplificata Sequani principatum dimiserant. In 
eorum locum Remi successerant ; quos quod adaequare apud 
Caesarem gratia intellegebatur, ii qui propter veteres inimi- 

15 citias nullo modo cum Haeduis coniungi poterant se Remis in 
clientelam dicabant. Hos illl diligenter tuebantur ; ita et no- 
vam et repente conlectam auctoritatem tenebant. E6 tamen 
statii res erat ut longe principes haberentur Haedui, secundum 
locum dlgnitatis Remi obtinerent. 

The druids. 

20 XIII. In omni Gallia eorum hominum qui aliquo sunt 
numero atque honore genera sunt duo ; nam plebes paene 
servorum habetur loco, quae nihil audet per se, null! adhibetur 
consilio. Plerique, cum aut acre alieno aut magnitudine tribu- 
torum aut iniuria potentiorum premuntur, sese in servitutem 

25 dicant nobilibus ; quibus in hos eadem omnia sunt iura quae 
domims in servos. Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est 
druidum, alterum equitum. Illl rebus divmls intersunt, sacri- 
ficia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur ; 
ad eos magnus adulescentium numerus disciplmae causa con- 

3 ocurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore. Nam fere de 
omnibus controversiis publicls privatlsque constituunt, et si 
quod est admissum facinus, si caedes facta, si de hereditate, de 
fmibus controversia est, Idem decernunt, praemia poenasque 


constituunt ; si qui aut privatus aut populus eorum decreto 
non stetit, sacrifices interdicunt. Haec poena apud eos est 
gravissima. Quibus ita est interdictum, hi numero impiorum 
ac sceleratorum habentur, his omnes decedunt, aditura eorum 
sermonemque defugiunt, ne quid ex contagione incoramodi s 
accipiant, neque ils petentibus ius redditur neque honos ullus 
communicatur. His autem omnibus druidibus praeest unus, 
qui summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. Hoc mortuo aut, 
si qui ex reliqtiis excellit dignitate, succedit aut, si sunt plures 
pares, suffragio druidum, non numquam etiam armis de' princi- 10 
patu contendunt. Hi certo anm tempore in fmibus Carnutum, 
quae regio totms Galliae media habetur, considunt in loco 
consecrate. Hue omnes undique qui controversies habent 
conveniunt eorumque decretls iudiciisque parent. Disciplma 
in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata existima- 15 
tur, et nunc qui diligentius earn rem cognoscere volunt ple- 
rumque illo discendi causa proficiscuntur. 

XIV. Druides a bello abesse consuerunt neque tributa una 
cum reliquls pendunt, militiae vacationem omniumque rerum 
habent immunitatem. Tantis excitati praemiis et sua sponteso 
multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus propinquisque 
mittuntur. Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur. 
Itaque annos non null! vlcenos in disciplma permanent. Neque 
fas esse 'existimant ea. litteris mandare, cum in reliquls fere 
rebus, publicls privatisque rationibus, Graecis litteris utantur. 25 
Id mihi duabus de causis mstituisse videntur, quod neque in 
vulgus disciplinam efferri velint neque eos qui discunt litteris 
conflsos minus memoriae studere, quod fere plerisque accidit 
ut praesidio litterarum diligentiam in perdiscendo ac memo- 
riam remittant. In primis hoc volunt persuadere, nori interire 30 
animas, sed ab aliis post mortem translre ad alios, atque hoc 
maxime ad virtutem excitari putant metu mortis neglecto. 
Multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de mundi ac 
terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum immor- 
talium vi ac potestate disputant et iuventuti tradunt. 35 


The knights. ' 

XV. Alterum genus est equitum. Hi, cum est usus atque 
aliquod bellum incidit (quod fere ante Caesaris adventum quot- 
anms accidere solebat, utl aut ipsi iniurias mferrent aut inlatas 
propulsarent) , omnes in bello versantur, atque eorum ut quis- 

Sque est genere copiisque amplissimus, ita plurimos circum se 
ambactos clientisque habet. Hanc imam gratiam potentiam- 
que noverunt. 

Human sacrifices. 

XVI. Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita religioni- 
bus, atque ob earn causam qui sunt adfecti gravioribus morbis 

loquique in proeliTs periculisque versantur aut pro victimls 
homines iramolant aut se immolaturos vovent, administrisque 
ad ea sacrificia druidibus utuntur, quod pro vita hominis nisi 
horainis vita reddatur, non posse deorum immortalium numen 
placari arbitrantur, publiceque eiusdem generis habent Instituta 

15 sacrificia. Alii imraam magnitudine simulacra habent, quorum 
contexta viminibus membra vlvls hominibus complent ; quibus 
succensis circumvent! flam ma exanimantur homines. Supplicia 
eorum qui in furto aut latrocinio aut aliqua noxia sint compre- 
hensi gratiora dis immortalibus esse arbitrantur ; sed cum 

20 eius generis copia deficit, etiam ad innocentiuin supplicia 

The religion of the Gauls. 

XVII. Deorum maxime Mercurium colunt, huius sunt 
plurima simulacra, hunc omnium inventorem artium ferunt, 
mine viarum atque itinerum ducem, hunc ad quaestus pecuniae 

25 mercaturasque habere vim maximam arbitrantur, post hunc, 
Apollinem et Martem et lovem et Minervam. De his eandem 
fere quam reliquae gentes habent opmi5nem : Apollinem mor- 
bos depellere, Minervam operum atque artificiorum initia tra- 
dere, lovem imperium caelestium tenere, Martem bella regere. 

30 Huic, cum proelio dimicare constituerunt, ea quae bello cepe- 
rint plerumque de vovent. Cum superaverunt, animalia capta 


immolant, reliquas res in unum locum conferunt. Multis in 
civitatibus harum rerum exstructos cumulos locis consecratis 
conspicari licet; neque saepe accidit ut neglecta quispiam 
religione aut capta apud se occultare aut posita tollere auderet, 
gravissimumque el rel supplicium cum cruciatu constitutum est. 5 

Curious customs. 

XVIII. Gall! se omnes ab Dite patre prognatos praedicant 
idque ab druidibus proditum dicunt. Ob earn causam spatia 
omnis temporis non numero dierum, sed noctium finiurit; dies 
natalis et mensium et annorum initia sic observant ut- noctem 
dies subsequatur. In reliquis vltae institutis hoc fere ab reli- 10 
quls differunt, quod suos liberos, nisi cum adoleverunt, ut 
munus militiae sustinere possint, palam ad se adire non pati- 
untur, filiumque puerili aetate in publico in conspectu patris 
adsistere turpe ducunt. 

XIX. Viri quantas pecunias ab uxoribus dotis nomine ac- 15 
ceperunt, tantas ex suls boms aestimatione facta cum dotibus 
communicant. Huius omnis pecuniae coniunctim ratio habe- 
tur fructusque servantur; uter eorum vita superavit, ad eum 
pars utrmsque cum fructibus superi5rum temporum pervenit. 
Viri in uxores sicuti in liberos vltae necisque habent potes-ao 
tatem ; et cum pater familiae inlustriore loco natus decessit, 
eius propinqui conveniunt, et de morte si res in suspicionem 
venit, de uxoribus in servilem modum quaestionem habent, et 

si compertum est, ignl atque omnibus tormentis excruciatas 
interficiunt. Funera sunt pro cultu Gallorum magnifica etas 
sumptuosaj omniaque quae vMs cordi fuisse arbitrantur in 
Ignem inferunt, etiam animalia, ac paulo supra hanc memoriam 
servi et clientes quos ab iis dilectos esse constabat mstls fune- 
bribus confectis una cremabantur. 

XX. Quae civitates commodius suam rem publicam ad- 30 
ministrare existimantur habent legibus sanctum, si quis quid 
de re publica a finitimis rumore ac f ama acceperit, uti ad magis- 
tratum deferat neve cum quo alio communicet ; quod saepe 


homines teraerarios atque imperitos falsis rumoribus terreri et 
ad facinus impelli et de summis rebus consilium capere cog- 
nitum est. Magistrates quae visa sunt occultant, quae esse ex 
usu iudicaverunt multitudim produnt. De re publica nisi per 
5 concilium loqui non conceditur. 

The religion and customs of the Germans. 

XXI. German! multum ab hac consuetudine differunt. 
Nam neque druides habent, qul rebus dlvims praesint, neque 
sacrificiis student. Deorum numero eos solos ducunt quos 
cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et Vulcanum 

io et Lunam ; reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt. Vita omnis 
in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit ; a parvis 
labor! ac duritiae student. Qu! diutissime impuberes perman- 
serunt maximam inter suos ferunt laudem; hoc all staturam, 
al! v!r!s nervosque confirmar! putant. Intra annum vero 

15 vicesimum feminae notitiam habuisse in turpissimis habent 
rebus ; cuius re!' nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in 
fluminibus perluuntur et pellibus aut parvis renonum tegimen- 
tis utuntur magna corporis parte nuda. 

XXII. Agri culturae non stitdent, maiorque pars eorum 
20 v!ctus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit. Neque quisquam agri 

modum certum aut finis habet proprios, sed magistrates ac 
principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque homi- 
num qulque una coierunt quantum et quo loco vlsum est 
agri attribuunt, atque anno post alio transire cogunt. Eius re! 

25 multas adferunt causas : ne adsidua consuetudine capti stu- 
dium belli gerendi agri cultura commutent; ne latos finis 
parare studeant potentiores atque humiliores possessionibus 
expellant ; ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos aedi- 
ficent ; ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas, qua ex re factiones 

30 dissensionesque nascuntur ; ut anim! aequitate plebem con- 
tineant, cum suas quisque opes cum potentissirms aequari videat. 

XXIII. Cfvitatibus maxima laus est quam latissime circum 
se vastatis finibus solitudines habere. Hoc proprium virtutis 


existimant, expulsos agris fmitimos cedere neque quemquam 
prope se audere consistere ; simul hoc se fore tutiores arbi- 
trantur repentmae incursionis timore sublato. Cum bellum 
clvitas aut inlaturn defendit aut Infert, magistrates qui el bello 
praesint et vitae necisque habeant potestatem deliguntur. In 5 
pace nullus est communis magistratus, sed principes regionum 
atque pagorum inter suds ius dicunt controversiasque minuunt. 
Latrocinia nullara habent mfamiara quae extra fmls cuiusqiie 
clvitatis f runt, atque ea iuventutis exercendae ac desidiae minu- 
endae causa fieri praedicant. Atque ubi quis ex principtbus in 10 
concilio dlxit se ducem fore, qui sequi velint profiteantur, con- 
surgunt ii qui et causam et hominera probant suumque auxilium 
pollicentur atque a multitudine conlaudantur ; qm ex his secuti 
non sunt in desertorura ac proditorum numero ducuntur, omni- 
umque his rerum postea fides derogatur. Hospitem violare 15 
fas non putant ; qui quacumque de causa ad eos venerunt ab 
inmria prohibent sanctosque habent, hisque omnium domus 
patent victusque communicatur. 

Gauls and Germans compared. 

XXIV. Ac fuit antea tempus cum Germanos Galli virtute 
superarent, ultro bella mferrent, propter hominum multitu- 20 
dinem agrique inopiam trans Rhenum colonias mitterent. 
Itaque ea quae fertilissima Germaniae sunt loca, circum 
Hercyniam silvam (quam Eratostheni et quibusdam Graecls 
fama notam esse video, quam illl Orcyniam appellant), Volcae 
Tectosages occupaverunt atque ibi consederunt; quae gens 25 
ad hoc tempus his sedibus sese continet summamque habet 
iustitiae et bellicae laudis opmionem. Nunc, quod in 
eadem inopia, egestate, patientia qua ante German! per- 
manent, e5dem victu et cultu corporis utuntur, Gallis autem 
provinciarum propinquitas et transmarinarum rerum notitiaso 
multa ad copiam atque usus largltur, paulatim adsuefactT 
superari multisque victi proeliis ne se quidem ipsi cum illis 
virtute comparand 


The Hercynian Forest and the animals inhabiting it. 

XXV. Huius Hercyniae silvae, quae supra demonstrata est, 
latitude novem dierum iter expedite patet; non enim aliter 
finiri potest, neque mensuras itmerum noverunt. Oritur ab 
Helvetiorum et Nemetum et Rauracorum fmibus, rectaque 

5 fluminis Danuvi regione pertinet ad finis Dacorum et Anar- 

tium ; hinc se flectit sinistrdrsus dlversls a flumine regionibus 

multarumque gentium finis propter magnitudinem attingit; 

neque quisquam est huius Germaniae qul se aut adisse ad 

. initium eius silvae dlcat, cum dierum iter LX processerit, aut 

10 quo ex loco oriatur acceperit ; multaque in ea genera ferarum 

nascl constat quae reliquls in locls visa non sint, ex quibus 

quae maxime differant a ceteris et memoriae prodenda videan- 

tur haec sunt. 

XXVI. Est bos cervl figiira, cuius a media fronte inter 
15 auris unum cornu exsistit excelsius magisque derectum his 

quae nobis nota sunt cornibus. Ab eius summo sicut palmae 
ramique late diffunduntur. Eadern est feminae. marisque na- 
tura, eadem forma magnitudoque cornuum. 

XXVII. Sunt item quae appellantur alces. Harum est 
20 consimilis capris figura et varietas pellium, sed magnitudine 

paulo antecedunt mutilaeque sunt cornibus et crura sine nodls 
articullsque habent, neque quietis causa procumbunt neque, 
si quo adfllctae casu conciderunt, erigere sese ac sublevare 
possunt. His sunt arbores pro cubllibus; ad eas se ap- 

25 plicant atque ita paulum modo reclmatae quietem capiunt. 
Quarum ex vestigils cum est animadversum a venatoribus 
quo se recipere consuerint, omnls eo loco aut ab radlcibus 
subruunt aut accldunt arbores, tantum ut summa species 
earum stantium relinquatur. Hue cum se consuetudine re- 

30 clmaverunt, Inflrmas arbores pondere adfllgunt atque una 
ipsae concidunt. ^ , , - ^A, 

XXVIII. Tertium est genus eorum qul uri appellantur. Hi 
sunt magnitudine paulo Infra elephantos, specie et colore et 
figura taurl. Magna vis eorum est et magna velocitas, neque 


homini neque ferae quam conspexerunt parcunt. Hos studiose 
foveis captos interficiunt. Hoc se labore durant adulescentes 
atque hoc genere venationis exercent, et qui plurimos ex his 
interfecerunt, relatis in publicum cornibus, quae sint testimonio, 
raagnam ferunt laudem. Sed adsuescere ad homines et man- 5 
suefieri ne parvuli quidem except! possunt. Amplitude cor- 
nuum et figura et species multum a nostrorum bourn cornibus 
differt. Haec studiose conquisita ab labris argento circumclu- 
dunt atque in amplissimis epulis pro poculls utuntur. 



Caesar invades the land of the Eburones. Ambiorix escapes. 

XXIX. Caesar postquam per Ubios exploratores comperit 10 
Suebos sese in silvas recepisse, inopiam frumenti veritus, quod, 
ut supra demonstravimus, minime homines German! agri cul- 
turae student, constituit non progred! longius ; sed ne ommno 
metum reditus sui barbaris tolleret, atque ut eorum auxilia 
tardaret, reducto exercitu partem ultimam pontis, quae ripas 15 
Ubiorum contingebat, in longitudinem pedum cc rescindit, 
atque in extremo ponte turrim tabiilatorum quattuor constituit 
praesidiumque cohortium xn pontis tuendi causa ponit mag- 
nisque eum locum mumtionibus firmat. Ei loco praesidioque 
C. Volcacium Tullum adulescentem praeficit. Ipse, cum ma- 20 
turescere frumenta inciperent, ad bellum Ambiongis profectus 
per Arduennam silvam, quae est totius Galliae maxima atque 
ab ripis Rhen! finibusque Treverorum ad Nervios pertinet 
milibusque amplius D in longitudinem patet, L. Miriucium 

10. Caesar: the story is now resumed from Chap. X. 17. tabu- 
latorum quattuor : of four stories . 20. maturescere : cf. matiirus. 
24. D : an exaggeration. 


Basilum cum omm equitatu praemittit, si quid celeritate iti- 
neris atque opportunitate temporis proficere possit ; monet ut 
Ignis in castris fieri prohibeat, ne qua ems adventus procul sig- 
nificatio flat ; sese confestim subsequi dicit. 

5 XXX. Basilus ut imperatum est facit. Celeriter contraque 
omnium opmionem confecto itinere multos in agris inopinantis 
deprehendit ; eorum indicio ad ipsum Ambiorigem contendit, 
quo in loco cum paucis equitibus esse dlcebatur. Multum cum 
in omnibus rebus turn in re mllitarl potest fortuna; nam ut 

.lomagno accidit casu ut in ipsum incautum etiam atque impa- 
ratum incideret, priusque eius adventus ab hominibus videretiir 
quam fama ac nuntius adferretur, sic magnae fuit fortunae omm 
militari mstrumento quod circum se habebat erepto, raedis 
equisque comprehensis ipsum effugere mortem. Sed hoc 

15 factum est, quod aedificio circumdato silva, ut sunt fere do- 
micilia Gallorum, qul vltandi aestus causa plerumque silvarum 
ac fluminum petunt propinquitates, comites familiaresque eius 
angusto in loco paulisper equitum nostrorum vim sustinuerunt. 
His pugnantibus ilium in equum quidam ex suls intulit ; fugi- 

20 entem silvae texerunt. Sic et ad subeundum periculum et ad 
vltandum multum fortuna valuit. 

XXXI. Ambiorix copias suas iudicione non conduxerit, 
quod proelio dimicandum non existimaret, an tempore ex- 
clusus et repentmo equitum adventu prohibitus, cum reliquum 

25 exercitum subsequi crederet, dubium est ; sed certe dimissis 
per agros nuntiis sibi quemque consulere iussit. Quorum pars 
in Arduennam silvam, pars in continentis paludes profugit ; 

I. si quid proficere possit: ( & see) if he can effect anything, 
i.e. to effect something, if he can. 7. indicio : on information. 9. ut : 
as, answered by sic, so also. 10. ipsum: Ambiorix. incautum: off his 
guard. 12. magnae fait fortunae: it was due chiefly to hick that, 
lit. it was (a thing) of great luck. 13. erepto : concessive. raedis : 
wagons. 1 6. aestus -.heat. 17. comites : companions. 22. iudicione: 
iudicio, designedly +-ne, whether. 27. continentis: continuous, wide- 
extended, i 


qui proximi Oceano fuerunt, hi insulis sese occultaverunt quas 
aestus efficere consuerunt ; raulti ex suls fmibus egress! se 
suaque omnia alienissimls crediderunt. Catuvolcus, rex dimi- 
diae partis Eburonum, qui una cum Ambiorige consilium in- 
ierat, aetate iara cdnfectus, cum laborem belli aut fugae ferre 5 
non posset, omnibus precibus detestatus Ambiorigem, qui eius 
consili auctor fuisset, taxo (cuius magna in Gallia Germaniaque 
copia est) se exanimavit. 

One legion is stationed at Atuatuca. Caesar divides the rest of the 

army into three parts. 

XXXII. Segm Condrusique ex gente et numerd Germano- 
rum, qui sunt inter Eburones Treverosque, legates ad Caesa- 10 
rem miserunt oratum ne se in hostium numero duceret, neve 
omnium Germanorum qui essent citra Rhenum unam esse 
causam iudicaret : ' Nihil se de bello cogitavisse, nulla Ambiongl 
auxilia misisse.' Caesar explorata' re quaestione captlvorum, si 
qui ad eos Eburones ex fuga convenissent, ad se ut reduceren- 15 
tur imperavit ; si ita f ecissent, finis eorum se violaturum nega- 
vit. Turn copils in tris partis distributls impedimenta omnium 
legionum Atuatucam contulit. Id castelll nomen est. Hoc 
fere est in medils Eburonum flnibus, ubi Titurius atque Au- 
runculeius hiemandl causa consederant. Hunc cum reliqulszo 
rebus locum probabat, turn quod superioris annl munltiones 
integrae manebant, ut mllitum laborem sublevaret. Praesidio 
impedimentis legionem quartam decimam rellquit, unam ex 
his tribus quas proxime conscrlptas ex Italia traduxerat. El 
legionl castrisque Q. Tullium Ciceronem praef ecit ducentosque 25 
equites el attribuit. 

XXXIII. Partlto exercitu T. Labienum cum legionibus 

I. insulis: slight elevations of land surrounded by water at high tide. 
3. alienissimis : to absohtte strangers. dimidiae partis : of half. 
6. detestatus : cursing. 7. taxo : with yew. The bark and leaves are 
poisonous. 22. sublevaret : he could lighten. 


tribus ad Oceanum versus in eas partis quae Menapios attin- 
gunt proficlscl iubet ; C. Trebonium cum par! legionura nu- 
mero ad earn regionem quae Atuatucis adiacet depopulandam 
mittit ; ipse cum reliquis tribus ad flumen Sabim, quod influit 
Sin Mosam, extremasque Arduennae partis ire constituit, quo 
cum paucls equitibus profectum Ambiorigem audiebat. Dis- 
cedens post diem septimum sese reversurum conflrmat, quam 
ad diem el legion! quae in praesidio relinquebatur frumentum 
deberi sciebat. Labienum Treboniumque hortatur, si rel pub- 
lolicae commodo facere possint, ad earn diem revertantur, ut 
rursus communicato consilio exploratisque hostium rationibus 
aliud initium belli capere possint. 

He invites other Gallic states to plunder the Eburones. 

XXXIV. Erat, ut supra demonstravimus, manus certa nulla, 
non oppidum, non praesidium quod se armls defenderet, sed 

15 in omnls partis dispersa mjultitudo. Ubi cuique aut valles 
abdita aut locus silvestris aut palus impedlta spem praesidi aut 
salutis aliquam offerebat, consederat. Haec loca vlclnitatibus 
erant nota, magnamque res dlligentiam requirebat, non in 
summa exercitus tuenda (nullum enim poterat universis a per- 

aoterritls ac dispersls perlculum accidere), sed in singulls mlliti- 
bus conservandls ; quae tamen ex parte res ad salutem 
exercitus pertinebat. Nam et praedae cupiditas multos 
longius sevocabat et silvae incertls occultisque itineribus con- 
fertos adlre prohibebant. SI negotium conficl stirpemque 

sshominum sceleratorum interfici vellet, dimittendae plures 
manus dlducendlque erant mllites ; si continere ad signa 

I. ad Oceanum versus : toward the ocean. 3. adiacet: lies next. 
10. commodo : abl. 13. manus certa : i.e. of the Eburones. 
17. vicinitatibus : to the neighbors {neighborhoods). 19. summa: the 
whole. 21. ex parte: to some extent. 24. stirpem homimim 
sceleratorum : race (lit. stock) of scoundrels. The loss of his soldiers 
described in the previous book had made Caesar very bitter against the 


manipulos vellet, ut mstituta ratio et consuetude exercitus 
Roman! postulabat, locus ipse erat praesidio barbaris, neque 
ex occulto msidiandi et dispersos circumveniend! singulis 
deerat audacia. Ut in eius modi difficultatibus, quantum dili- 
gentia provider! poterat providebatur, ut potius in nocendo 5 
aliquid praetermitteretur, etsi omnium animi ad ulciscendum 
ardebant, quam cum aliquo militum detrimento noceretur. 
Dimittit ad fmitimas civitates nuntios Caesar omnis evocat 
spe praedae ad dlripiendos Eburones, ut potius in silvis Gallo- 
rum vita quam legionarius miles periclitetur, simul ut magnaio 
multitudine circumfusa pro tali facinore stirps ac nomen civir 
tatis tollatur. Magnus undique numerus celeriter convenit. 

Germans cross the Rhine, induced by the hope of sharing in the plunder. 

XXXV. Haec in omnibus Eburonum partibus gerebantur, 
diesque appetebat septimus, quern ad diem Caesar ad impedi- 
menta legionemque revert! constituerat. Hie quantum in bello-is 
fortuna possit et quantos adferat casus cognosc! potuit. Dissi- 
patis ac perterritis hostibus, ut demonstravimus, manus erat 
nulla quae parvam modo causam timoris adferret. Trans 
Rhenum ad Germanos pervenit fama diripi Eburones atque 
ultr5 omnis ad praedam evocari. C5gunt equitum duo miliazo 
Sugambri, qui sunt proximi Rheno, a quibus receptos ex fuga 
Tencteros atque Usipetes supra docuimus. Transeunt Rhenum 
navibus ratibusque xxx milibus passuum infra eum locum ubi 
pons erat perfectus praesidiumque a Caesare relictum ; primos 
Eburonum finis adeunt; multos ex fuga dispersos excipiunt, 25 
magno pecoris numero, cuius sunt cupidissim! barbari, potiun- 
tur. Invitat! praeda longius procedunt. Non hos paludes 
bello latrociniisque natos, non silvae morantur. Quibus in 

3. ex occulto insidiandi : for making an attack from ambush. 
7. quam: completes the thought of potius, noceretur: harm sho^lld 
be done, sc. barbaris. 10. periclitetur : in pericuhim veniat. 14. ap- 
petebat: appropinquabat. 1 8. modo : even. 20. ultro : more than 
that. 28. latrociniis : for robberies, with natos. 


locis sit Caesar ex captivis quaerunt ; profectum longius re- 
periunt omnemque exercitum discessisse cognoscunt. Atque 
unus ex captivis, " Quid vqs," inquit, " hanc miseram ac 
tenuem sectamim praedam, quibus licet iam esse fortu- 

5 natissimos ? Tribus horis Atuatucam venire potestis ; hue 
orams suas fortunas exercitus Romanorum contulit ; praes.idi 
tantum est ut ne murus quidem cingi possit neque quisquam 
egredi extra munltiones audeat." Hac oblata spe German! 
quam nacti erant praedam in occulto relinquunt ; ipsi 

10 Atuatucam contendunt us! eodem duce cuius haec indicio 

They are diverted from their purpose and attack Cicero's camp at 


XXXVI. Cicero, qui omnls superiores dies praeceptis Caesaris 
summa diligentia milites in castiis continuisset, ac ne calonem 
quidem quemquam extra munitionem egredi passusesset, septimo 

15 die difHdens de numero dierum Caesarem fidem servaturum, quod 
longius progressum audiebat neque ulla de reditu eius fama 
adferebatur, simul eorum permotus vocibus qui illius patientiam 
paene obsessionem appellabant, si quidem ex castiis egredi non 
liceret, nullum eius modi casum exspectans quo novem oppo- 

20 sifis legionibus maxim oque equitatu, dispersis ac paene deletls 
hostibus in milibus passuum tribus offend! posset, qumque 
cohortis frumentatum in proximas segetes mittit, qnas inter et 
castra unus omnmo collis intererat. Complures erant in cas- 
tris ex legionibus aegri relict! ; ex quibus qu! hoc spatio dierum 

25 convaluerant, circiter ccc, sub vexillo una mittuntur. Magna 

I. prof eGtum : sc. eum esse. 4. sectamini: sector, -art, derived 
from sequor. 7. tantum : so little. 15. diffidens : feeling doubtful. 
18. obsessionem: siege. 19. liceret: this is the thought of those 
who complained. quo offendi posset : whereby a disaster could be 
suffered. oppositis: opposing (the enemy). The nine legions were 
those off on expeditions, as told in Chap. XXXIII. 22. segetes : grain- 
Jields. 24. aegri: ill. .25. convaluerant : cf. Eng. ' convalescent.' 


praeterea multitude calonum, magna vis iumentorum, quae in 
castris subsederat, facta potestate sequitur. 

XXXVII. Hoc ipso tempore casu German! equites inter- 
veniunt, protinusque eodem illo quo venerant cursu ab decu- 
mana porta in castra inrumpere conantur, nee prius sunt visl 5 
obiectls ab ea parte silvis quam castris appropinquarent, usque 
eo ut qui sub val!5 tenderent mercatores recipiendi sui faculta- 
tem non haberent. InopTnantes nostii re nova perturbantur, ac 
vix primum impetum cohors in statione sustinet. Circumfun- 
duntur hostes ex reliquis partibus, si quern aditum reperire I D 
possint. Aegre portas nostri tuentur, reliquos aditus locus ipse 
per se mumtioque defendit. Tods trepidatur castris, atque alius 
ex alio causam tumultus quaerit ; neque quo signa ferantur 
neque quam in partem quisque conveniat provident. Alius 
castra iam capta pronuntiat, alius deleto exercitu atque impera- 15 
tore victores barbaros venisse contendit ; plerlque novas sibi ex 
loco religiones fingunt Cottaeque et Tituri calamitatem, qui in 
eodem occiderint castello, ante oculos ponunt. Tall timore 
omnibus perterritis confirmatur opinio barbaris, ut ex captivo 
audierant, nullum esse intus praesidium. Perrumpere nituntur 20 
seque ipsi adhortantur ne tantam fortunam ex manibus dimit- 

XXXVIII. Erat aeger in praesidio relictus P. Sextius Baculus, 
qui primum pilum apud Caesarem duxerat, cuius mentionem 
superioribus proeliis f ecimus, ac diem iam qumtum cibo 25 
caruerat. Hie difflsus suae atque omnium saliiti inermis ex 
tabernaculo proditj videt imminere hostis atque in summo 
rem esse discrlmine ; capit arma a proximls atque in porta con- 

2. subsederat: had stayed behind. 4. protinus :. straight forward, 

6. usque eo : even to this extent^ i.e. and so completely was this the case. 

7. tenderent: had booths (tentorid}. 12. trepidatur: impersonal. 
17. religiones: superstitious fears. 24. primum pilum duxerat : 
he had been chief centurion of a legion, and was probably at this time 
an evocatiis.. 25. cibo caruerat: had eaten nothing. 27. imminere: 
threaten. 28. discrimine : peril. 



sistit. Consequuntur hunc centuriones eius cohortis quae in 

statione eratj paulisper una proelium sustinent. Relinquit 
animus Sextium gravibus acceptis vulneribus ; aegre per manus 
traditus servatur. Hoc spatio interposito reliqui sese confir- 
5 mant tantum ut in mumtionibus consistere audeant speciemque 
defensorum praebeant. 

XXXIX. Interim confecta frumentatione milites nostri cla- 
morem exaudiunt ; praecurrunt equites, quanto res sit in 
periculo cognoscunt. Hie vero nulla mumtio est quae perter- 

10 ritos recipiat ; modo conscript! atque usus militaris imperitl ad 
tribunum militum centurionesque ora convertunt, quid ab his 
praecipiatur exspectant. Nemo est tarn fortis qum rei novi- 
tate perturbetur. Barbari signa procul conspicati oppugnatione 
desistunt ; redisse primo legiones credunt, quas longius disces- 

15 sisse ex captlvls cognoverant ; postea despecta paucitate ex 
omnibus partibus impetum faciunt. 

They are repulsed, but the Romans lose many men. Caesar arrives at the 



XL. Calones in proximum tumulum procurrunt ; hinc cele- 
riter deiecti se in signa manipulosque coniciunt, eo magis 
timidos perterrent mllites. Alii cuneo facto ut celeriter per- 

20 rumpant censent : ' Quoniam tarn propinqua sint castra, etsi pars 
aliqua circumventa ceciderit, at reliquos servarl posse; ' alii ut in 
iugo consistant atque eundem omnes ferant casum. Hoc 
veteres non probant mllites, quos sub vexillo una profectos 
docuimus. Itaque inter se cohortati duce C. Trebonio, equite 

25 Romano, qui iis erat praepositus, per medios hostis perrumpunt 
incolumesque ad unum omnes in castra perveniunt. Hos sub- 
secuti calones equitesque eodem impetu militum virtute servan- 
tur. At ii qui in iugo constiterant niillo etiam nunc usu rei 
militaris percepto neque in eo quod probaverant consilio per- 

3. animus: consciousness, per manus : from hand to hand. 18. Be 
coniciunt : for safety. 19. cuneo : a -wedge. 28. nullo usu percepto : 

having gained no experience. 


manere, ut se loco superiore defenderent, neque earn quam 
profuisse aliis vim celeritatemque viderant imitari potuerunt, 
sed se in castra recipere conati inlquura in locum demiserant. 
Centuriones, quorum non null! ex mferioribus ordinibus reliqua- 
rum legionum virtutis causa in superiores erant ordines huius 5 
legionis traducti, ne ante partam rel militaris laudem amit- 
terent, fortissime pugnantes conciderunt. Militum pars horum 
virtute submotis hostibus praeter spem incolumis in castra per- 
venit, pars a barbarls circumventa periit. 

XLI. German! desperata expugnatione castrorum, quodio 
nostros iam constitisse in mumtionibus videbant, cum ea praeda 
quam in silvis deposuerant trans Rhenum sese receperunt. Ac 
tantus fuit etiam post discessum hostium terror ut ea nocte, 
cum C. Volusenus missus cum equitatu in castra venisset, 
fidem non faceret adesse cum incolumi Caesarem exercitu. 15 
Sic omnium animos timor occupaverat ut paene alienata 
mente deletis omnibus copiis equitatum se ex fuga recepisse 
dicerent, neque incolumi exercitu Germanos castra oppugna- 
turos fuisse contenderent. Quern tim5rem Caesaris adventus 
sustulit. 20 

XLIL Reversus ille, eventus belli non ignorans, unum, quod 
cohortes ex statione et praesidio essent emissae, questus (' Ne 
minimum quidem casui locum relinqul debuisse ') multum 
fortunam in repentino hostium adventu potuisse iudicavit, 
multo etiam amplius quod paene ab ipso vallo portisque cas-25 
trorum barbaros avertisset. Quarum omnium rerum maxime 
admlrandum videbatur quod GermanT, quT eo consilio Rhenum 
transierant, ut Ambiorigis finis depopularentur, ad castra 
Romanorum delati optatissimum Ambiorigl beneficium obtu- 
lerant. . 3 o 

2. profuisse : to have helped. 6. partam : won: 15. fidem non 
faceret: i.e. he was not believed. 16. alienata mente: deprived of 
reason; an abl. abs. 18. oppugnaturos fuisse: in direct discourse 
oppugnavissent ; incolumi exercitu forms its protasis. 26. avertisset: 
the subject \s fortuna. 29. optatissimum: most welcome. 


Renewed operations against the Eburones. Ambiorix again escapes. 
The army is placed in winter quarters. 

XLIII. Caesar rursus ad vexandos hostis profectus magno 
equitum coacto numero ex fmitimis civitatibus in omms partis 
dimittit. Omnes vicl atque omnia aedificia quae quisque con- 
spexerat incendebantur ; praeda ex omnibus locis agebatur ; 

sfrumenta non solum a tanta multitudine iumentorum atque 
hominum consumebantur sed etiam anm tempore atque 
imbribus procubuerant, ut si qui etiam in praesentia se 
occultassent, tamen his deducto exercitu rerum omnium 
inopia pereundum videretur. Ac saepe in eum locum ventum 

xoest, tanto in omms partis dimisso equitatu, ut modo visum 
ab se Ambiorigem in fuga circumspicerent captivl, nee plane 
etiam abisse ex conspectu contenderent j ut spe consequendi 
inlata atque infimto labore suscepto qui se summam a 
Caesare gratiam inituros putarent paene naturam studio 

isvincerent, semperque paulum ad summam felicitatem de- 
fuisse videretur, atque ille latebris aut saltibus se eriperet, 
et noctu occultatus alias regiones partisque peteret non 
maiore equitum praesidio quam quattuor, quibus soils vitam 
suam committere audebat. 

20 XLIV. Tali modo vastatis regionibus exercitum Caesar dua- 
rum cohortium damno Durocortorum Remorum deducit, con- 
cilioque in eum locum Galliae indicto de coniuratione Seno- 
num et Carnutum quaestionem habere instituit, et de Accone, 
qui prlnceps eius consili fuerat, graviore sententia pronuntiata 

25 more maiorum supplicium sumpsit. Non nulll iudicium ve- 

7. procubuerant: had become lodged {on the groimd}. 10. modo: 
only an instant before. 1 1. circumspicerent: looked round in search 
of. nec plane : and... not entirely. 13. inlata: being inspired (in 
theni). 16. latebris aut saltibus: by (iising) hiding-places or wooded 
glens. 21. damno: -with the loss. 22. indicto : having been convoked. 
23. quaestionem: investigation. 25. more maiorum: the "good old- 
fashioned Roman mode " was to flog the traitor to death and then cut off 
his head. 


ritl profugerunt. Quibus cum aqua atque igni interdixisset, 
duas legiones ad finis Treverorum, duas in Lingonibus, sex re- 
liquas in Senonum f inibus Agedinci in hibernis conlocavit ; 
frumentoque exercitui proviso, ut instituerat, in Italiam ad con- 
ventus agendos profectus est. 

I. Quibus . . . interdixisset : and when he had cut these off from fire 
and water, the regular formula for banishment and outlawry. 

111 31 811 HI t Oil Illl Qli /III ill! III! (III III Hi! (Ill till III 1 Oil !RI Wilt III! Ilii HI IIS III) till 1 (III HI III III III III III III HI III HI 111 III J te 


(A modern statue) 




The Carnutes revolt. 

1. Quieta Gallia Caesar, ut constituerat, in Italiam ad con- 
ventus agendos proficiscitur. Ibi cognoscit de P. ClodT caede ; 
de senatusque consulto certior factus, ut omnes iuniores Italiae 
coniurarent, dilectum tota provincia habere mstituit. Eae res 
in Galliam Transalpmam celeriter perferuntur. Addunt ipsi 5 
et adfingunt rumoribus Galli, quod res poscere videbatur, reti- 
neri urbano motu Caesarem neque in tantis dissensi5nibus ad 
exercitum venire posse. Hac impulsl occasione qui iam ante se 
populi Roman! imperio subiectds dolerent liberius atque auda- 
cius de bello consilia imre incipiunt. Indictis inter se princi- 10 
pies Galliae conciliis silvestribus ac remotis locis queruntur de 
Acconis morte ; posse hunc casum ad ipsos recidere demon- 
strant; miserantur communem Galliae fortunam ; omnibus polli- 
citationibus ac praemiis deposcunt qui belli initium faciant et 
sul capitis periculo Galliam in libertatem vindicent. In primis 15 
rationem esse habendam dicunt, priusquam eorum clandestina 
consilia efferantur, ut Caesar ab exercitu intercludatur ; id 
esse facile, quod neque legion es audeant absente imperatore ex 
hlberms egredi neque imperator sine praesidio ad legiones 
pervemre possit ; postremo, in acie praestare interfici quam 20 

2. Clodi : the rioting which followed the death of Clodius reached al- 
most the proportions of a civil war. 3. consulto: decree. iuniores: 
i.e. the men of military age. 4. coniurarent : should take the military 
oath. 6. adfingunt: make up. 12. recidere: with ad, befall, come 
home to. 15. in libertatem vindicent : claim for freedom, i e. declare 
to be free. 17. efferantur: are made known. 



non veterem belli gloriam Hbertatemque quam a maioribus ac- 
ceperint recuperare. 

II. His rebus agitatis profitentur Carnutes se nullum pericu- 
lum commiinis salutis causa recusare principesque ex omnibus 

5 bellum facturos pollicentur, et quoniam in praesentia obsidibus 
cavere inter se non possint, ne res efferatur, at iure iurando ac 
fide sanciatur petunt conlatls mllitaribus sigms, quo more eorum 
gravissima caerimonia continetur, ne facto initio belli ab reli- 
quis deserantur. Turn conlaudatis Carnutibus, dato iure iu- 

icrando ab omnibus qui aderant, tempore eius rei constituto a 
concilio disceditur. 

III. Ubi ea dies venit, Carnutes Cotuato et Conconnetodumno 
ducibus, desperatis hominibus, Cenabum signo dato concurrunt, 
civisque Romanes qui negotiandl causa ibi constiterant, in his 

15 C. Fufium Citam, honestum equitem Romanum, qui rei fru- 
mentariae iussu Caesaris praeerat, interficiunt bonaque eorum 
diripiunt. Celeriter ad ornnis Galliae civitates fama perfertur. 
Nam ubi quae maior atque inlustrior incidit res, clamore per 
agros regionesque significant; hunc alii deinceps excipiunt et 

aoproximis tradunt, ut turn accidit Nam quae Cenabi oriente 
sole gesta essent ante primam confectam vigiliam in finibus 
Arvernorum audita sunt, quod spatium est milium passuum 
circiter CLX. 

The Arverni, led by Vercingetorix, revolt, and are joined by many other 


IV. Simill ratione ibi Vercingetorix, Celtilli filius, Arvernus, 
assummae potentiae adulescens, cuius pater principatum totlus 

Galliae obtinuerat et ob earn causam, quod regnum appetebat, 

3. agitatis : having been discussed. 6. cavere inter se : to take 
precautions against one another. 7. sanciatur : that assurance be given. 
8. caerimonia: rite. 14. civis: citizens. negotiandi: the business 
was chiefly lending money, trading in grain and slaves, and farming the 
revenues. 16. iussu: by order. 18. quae: any. 19. deinceps: in 


a civitate erat interfectus, convocatis suls clientibus facile in- 
cendit. Cognito eius consilio ad arraa concurritur. Prohibetur 

a Gobannitione, patruo suo, re- 
liquisque principibus, qui hanc 
temptandam fortunam non ex- 5 
istimabant, expellitur ex oppido 

A COIN OF VERCINGETORIX Gergovia ; non desistit tamen 

atque in agris habet dilectum 

egentium ac perditorum. Hac coacta manu quoscumque adit 
ex civitate ad suam sententiam perducit; hortatur ut communis 10 
Hbertatis causa arraa capiant, magnisque coactis copiis adver- 
saries suos, a quibus paulo ante erat eiectus, expellit ex civitate. 
Rex ab suls appellatur. Dimittit quoqueversus legationes ; 
obtestatur ut in fide maneant. Celeriter sibi Senones, Parisios, 
Pictones, Cadurcos, Turonos, Aulercos, Lemovices, Andos, 15 
reliquosque omms qui Oceanum attingunt adiungit; omnium 
consensu ad eum defertur imperium. Qua oblata potestate 
omnibus his civitatibus obsides imperat, certum numerum mili- 
tum ad se celeriter adducl iubet, armoram quantum quaeque 
civitas doml quodque ante tempus efficiat constituit ; in primis 20 
equitatui studet. Summae diligentiae summam imperi seve- 
ritatem addit ; magnitudine supplici dubitantis cogit. Nam 
maiore commisso delict5 Igni atque omnibus tormentis necat ', 
leviore de causa auribus desectis aut singulis effossis oculis 
domum remittit, ut sint reliquis documento et magnitudine 25 
poenae perterreant alios. 

V. His suppliciis celeriter coacto exercitu Lucterium Cadur- 
cum, summae hominem audaciae, cum parte copiarum in 
Rutenos mittit; ipse in Bituriges proficiscitur. Eius adventii 
Bituriges ad Haeduos, quorum erant in fide, legates mittuntso 

3. patruo: uncle (father's brother}. 9. egentium: part, of egeo,to 
be in -want. 13. quoqueversus: in all directions. 14. obtestatur: 
he implores. 20. quod : an interrogative agreeing with tempus. 23. de- 
licto : crime. 24. desectis : cut off. effossis : torn out. 25. do- 
cumento : a warning. 


subsidium rogatum, quo facilius hostium copias sustinere possint. 
Haedui de consilio legatorum quos Caesar ad exercitum reli- 
querat copias equitatus peditatusque subsidio Biturlgibus mit- 
tunt. Qui cum ad flumen Ligerira venissent, quod Bituriges ab 
5 Haeduls dividit, paucos dies ibi morati neque flumen transire 
ausl domum revertuntur, legatisque nostris renuntiant se Bitu- 
rigum perfidiam veritos revertisse, quibus id consili fuisse cog- 
noverint, ut, si flumen translssent, una ex parte ipsT, altera 
Arverni se circumsisterent. Id eane de causa quam legatis 
10 pronuntiarint an perfidia adducti fecerint, quod nihil nobis 
constat, non videtur pro certo esse ponendum. Bituriges 
eorum discessu statim se cum Arvernls coniungunt. 

Caesar hastens from Italy, repels a threatened attack on the province, 
and himself threatens the Arverni. 

VI. His rebus in Italiam Caesar! nuntiatis, cum iam ille 
urbanas res virtute Cn. Pompei commodiorem in statum per- 

isvenisse intellegeret, in TransalpTnam Galliam profectus est. 
Eo cum venisset, magna difficultate adficiebatur qua ratione ad 
exercitum pervemre posset. Nam si legiones in provinciam 
arcesseret, se absente in itinere proelio dlmicaturas intellegebat ; 
si ipse ad exercitum contenderet, ne iis quidem e5 tempore 

aoqul quiet! viderentur suam salutem recte committi videbat. 

VII. Interim Lucterius Cadurcus in Rutenos missus earn 
civitatem Arvernls conciliat. Progressus in Nitiobroges et 
Gabalos ab utrlsque obsides accipit, et magna coacta manu in 
provinciam Narbonem versus inruptionem facere contendit. 

25 Qua re nuntiata Caesar omnibus consilils antevertendum exls- 
timavit ut Narbonem proficisceretur. Eo cum venisset, timen- 
tls confirmat, praesidia in Rutenls provincialibus, Volcis 

10. nihil constat : it is by no means clear. 14. Cn. : Gnaei, gen. of 
Gnaeus. 20. recte : well, or safely. 22. conciliat : wins over. 
24. Narbonem versus: towards Narbo. 25. antevertendum: 

ought to take precedence of; its subject is ut Narbonem proficisceretur. 
27. provincialibus: of the province. 



Arecomicis, Tolosatibus, circumque Narbonem, quae.loca hos- 
tibus erant finitiraa, constituit, partem copiarum ex provincial 
supplementumque, quod ex Italia adduxerat, in Helvios, qui 
finis Arvernorum contingunt, convenire iubet. 

VIII. His rebus comparatls, represso iam Lucterio et re- 5 
motc^quod intrare intra praesidia periculosum putabat, in 
Helvios proficiscitur. Etsi mons Cebenna, qui Arvernos ab 
Helviis discludit, durissimo tempore anm altissima nive iter 
impediebat, tamen discussa nive in altitudinem pedum sex 
atque ita viis patefactis summo militum labore ad finis 10 
Arvernorum pervenit. Quibus oppressis inopmantibus, quod 
se Cebenna ut muro munltos existimabant, ac ne singular! 
quidem umquam homim eo tempore anm semitae patuerant, 
equitibus imperat ut quam latissime possint vagentur et 
quam maximum hostibus terrorem mferant. Celeriter haec 15 
fama ac nuntii ad Vercingetorigem perferuntur ; quern per- 
territi omnes Arverm circumsistunt atque obsecrant ut suls 
fortunls consulat, neu se ab hostibus dm pi patiatur, prae- 
sertim cum videat omne ad se bellum translatum. Quorum 
ille precibus permotus castra ex Biturigibus movet in Arver- 20 
nos versus. 

He starts to the relief of Gorgobina, a town of the Boii, which Vercinget- 

orix has attacked. 

IX. At Caesar biduum in his locis moratus, quod haec de 
Vercingetorige usii ventura opinione praeceperat, per causam 
supplement! equitatusque cogendi ab exercitu discedit, Brutum 
adulescentem his copiis praeficit hunc monet ut in omnis 25 
partis equites quam latissime pervagentur : ' Daturum se operam 
ne longius triduo a castris absit.' His constitutis rebus, suls 

3. supplementum : reinforcements. 8. durissimo tempore : it 
was the depth of winter. nive: snow. 9. discussa: having been 
cleared away. 13. semitae patuerant : paths had been open. 17. ob- 
secrant : beg. 23. usu ventura : would come to pass. opinione 
praeceperat: had anticipated. per causam: on the pretext. 


inoplnantibus quara maximls potest itineribus Viennam per- 
venit. Ibi nactus recentem equitatum, quern multis ante die- 
bus eo praemiserat, neque diurno neque nocturne itinere inter- 
misso per finis Haeduorum in Lingones contendit, ubi duae 
5 legiones hiemabant, ut si quid etiam de sua salute ab Haeduls 
imretur consili, celeritate praecurreret. Eo cum pervenisset, 
ad reliquas legiones mittit, priusque omnls in unum locum 
cogit quam de eius adventu Arverms nuntiari posset. Hac re 
cognita Vercingetorix riirsus in Bituriges exercitum reducit, 

joatque inde profectus Gorgobinam, B5i5rum oppidum, quos ibi 
Helvetico proelio victos Caesar conlocaverat Haedulsque 
attribuerat, oppugnare mstituit. 

X. Magnam haec res Caesarl difficultatem ad consilium 
capiendum adferebat : si reliquam partem hiemis uno loco 

15 legiones contineret, ne stipendiariis Haeduorum expugnatis 
cuncta Gallia deficeret, quod nullum amlcis in eo praesidium 
positum videret ; si matiirius ex hlberms educeret, ne ab re 
frumentaria duns subvectionibus laboraret. Praestare visum. 
est tamen omnls difficultates perpeti quam tanta contumelia 

20 accepta omnium suorum voluntates alienare. Itaque cohorta- 
tus Haeduos de supportando commeatu praemittit ad Boios 
qui de suo adventu doceant hortenturque ut in fide maneant 
atque hostium impetum magno ammo sustineant. Duabus 
AgedincT legionibus atque impedimentis totlus exercitus relictis 

25 ad Boios proficiscitur. 

On the way he takes Vellaunodunum, Cenabum, and Nqviodunum. Ver- 
cingetorix raises the siege of Gorgobina. 

XL Altero die cum ad oppidum Senonum Vellaunodunum 

. venisset, ne quern post se hostem relinqueret et quo expedi- 

tiore re frumentaria uteretur, oppugnare mstituit eoque biduo 

2. recentem: fresh; a predicate adj. 15. stipendiariis: depend- 
ents. 1 6. quod . . . videret: seeing that there was in him no protection 
for friends. 1 8. subvectionibus: transportation. 19. perpeti: 
per + pati. 27. quo., .uteretur: that he might Jind provisioning an 
easier matter. 


circumvallavit ; tertio die missis ex oppido legatis de deditione 
arma conferri, iumenta produci, se,scentds obsides dari iubet. 
Ea qui conficeret, C. Trebonium legatum relinquit; ipse, ut 
quam primum iter conficeret, Cenabum Carnutum proficiscitur. 
Qui turn primum adlato rmntio de oppugnatione Vellaunoduni, 5 
cum longius earn rem ductum Iri exlstimarent, praesidium 
CenabI tuendi causa, quod eo mitterent, comparabant. Hue 
blduo pervenit. Castris ante oppidum positis diel tempore 
exclusus in posterum oppugnationem differt, quaeque ad earn 
rem usui sint militibus imperat ; et quod oppidum Cenabum 10 
pons fluminis Ligeris contingebat, veritus ne noctu ex oppido 
profugerent, duas legiones in armis excubare iubet. Cena- 
benses paulo ante mediam noctem silentio ex oppido egress! 
flumen transire coeperunt. Qua re per exploratores nuntiata 
Caesar legiones, quas expedltas esse iusserat, portis incensis 15 
intromittit atque oppido potitur perpaucls ex hostium numero 
desideratis qum cuncti caperentur, quod pontis atque itinerum 
angustiae multitudini fugam intercluserant. Oppidum diripit 
atque incendit, praedam militibus donat, exercitum Ligerim 
traducit atque in Biturigum finis pervenit. 20 

XII. Vercingetoiix, ubi de Caesaris adventu cognovit, 
oppugnatione desistit atque obviam Caesari proficiscitur. Ille 
oppidum Biturigum positum in via, Noviodunum, oppugnare 
instituerat. Quo ex oppido cum legati ad eum venissent ora- 
tum ut sibi ignosceret suaeque vltae consuleret, ut celeritateas 
reliquas res conficeret qua pleraque erat consecutus, arma con- 
ferri, equos produci, obsides dari iubet. Parte iam obsidum 
tradita, cum reliqua administrarentur, centurionibus et paucls 
militibus intromissis, qui arma iumentaque conqulrerent, equita- 
tus hostium procul vlsus est, qui agmen Vercingetorigis ante- 30 

9. posterum: sc. diem. 12. excubare: bivouac outside the camp. 
1 6. perpaucis . . . caperentur: i.e. all the enemy were taken except a 
very few. 17. desideratis. being lacking. 19. praedam: no doubt the 
people themselves as well as their effects. 22. obviam proficiscitur: 
starts to meet. 


cesserat. Quern simul atque oppidan! conspexerunt atque 
in spem auxili venerunt, clamore sublato arma capere, portas 
claudere, murum complere coeperunt. Centuriones in oppido, 
cum ex significatione Gallorum novl aliquid ab ils iniri consili 
5 intellexissent, gladiis destrictis portas occupaverunt suosque 
omms incolurms receperunt. 

XIII. Caesar ex castris equitatum educl iubet proeliumque 
equestre committit ; laborantibus iam suis Germanos equites 
circiter cccc submittit, quos ab initio secum habere Institu- 

10 erat. Eorura impetum Galli sustinere non potuerunt atque in 

fugara coniecti multis amissis se ad agmen receperunt. Quibus 

profllgatls rursus oppidan! perterriti comprehensos eos quorum 

opera plebem concitatam exlstimabant ad Caesarem perdux- 

. erunt seseque el dediderunt. Quibus rebus confectis Caesar 

15 ad oppidum Avaricum, quod erat maximum nmnitissimuinque 
in flnibus Biturigum atque agri fertilissima regione, profectus 
est, quod eo oppido recepto civitatem Biturigum se in potesta- 
tem redacturum confidebat. 

The Gauls change their plan of action. The towns of the Bituriges 
are burned, except Avaricum. 

XIV. Vercingetorix tot continuls incommodis Vellauno- 
soduni, Cenabi, Novioduni acceptis suos ad concilium convocat. 

Docet longe alia ratione esse bellum gerendum atque antea 
gestum sit. Omnibus modis huic rei studendum, ut pabulati- 
one et commeatu Roman! prohibeantur. Id esse facile, quod 
equitatu ips! abundent et quod anm tempore subleventur. 
25 Pabulum secari non posse, necessario disperses hostis ex aedi- 
ficiis petere ; hos omms cottidie ab equitibus deleri posse. 
Praeterea salutis causa re! familiaris commoda neglegenda; 
vicos atque aedificia incend! oportere hoc spatio' quoqueversus 

4. significatione: behavior. 16. agri fertilissima regione: in 

the most productive part of their domain. 21. atque: than, after alia. 
22. studendum: their efforts must be directed. 25. secari: be cut. 
28. hoc. . . quo: as far (lit. within this distance) in every direction as. 




quo pabulandl causa adire posse videantur. Harum ipsis rerum 
copiam suppetere, quod quorum in fmibus bellum geratur, 
eorum opibus subleventur; Romanes aut inopiara non laturos 
aut magno cum periculo longius a castris processuros, neque 

_V LsS 

mteresse ipsosne interficiant an impedlmentis exuant, quibus 5 

Cross section 

of the 
Roman - 


amissis bellum gerl non possit. Praeterea oppida incendi opor- 
tere quae non mumtione et loci natura ab omm sint periculo 
tuta, ne suls sint ad detractandam militiam receptacula neu 
Romanis proposita ad copiam commeatus praedamque tollen- 

5. ipsosne : -ne, -whether ; the indirect question is the subject of inter- 
esse* 8, cletractandam : evading. receptacula : places of refuge. 


cesserat. Quern simul atque oppidan! conspexerunt atque 
in speni auxili venerunt, clamore sublato arma capere, portas 
claudere, murum complere coeperunt. Centuriones in oppido, 
cum ex significatione Gallorum novi aliquid ab ils inirl consill 
5 intellexissent, gladiis destrictis portas occupaverunt suosque 
omms incolumis receperunt. 

XIII. Caesar ex castris equitatum educi iubet proeliumque 
equestre committit ; laborantibus iam suls Germanos eqtiites 
circiter cccc submittit, quos ab initio secum habere Tnstitn- 

10 erat. Eorum impetum Gall! sustinere non potuerunt atque in 
fugam coniecti multls amissls se ad agmen receperunt. Quibus 
profligatls rursus oppidan! perterriti comprehensos eos quorum 
opera plebem concitatam existimabant ad Caesarem perdux- 
erunt seseque el dediderunt. Quibus rebus confectis Caesar 

15 ad oppidum Avaricum, quod erat maximum munitissimumque 
in fmibus Bitungum atque agri fertilissima regione, profectus 
est, quod eo oppido recepto civitatem Bitungum se in potesta- 
tem redacturum confidebat. 

The Gauls change their plan of action. The towns of the Bituriges 
are burned, except Avaricum. 

XIV. Vercingetorlx tot continuis incommodls Vellauno- 
sodunl, Cenabl, Novioduni acceptis suos ad concilium convocat. 

Docet longe alia ratione esse bellum gerendum atque antea 
gestum sit. Omnibus modls huic rel studendum, ut pabulati- 
one et commeatu RomanI prohibeantur. Id esse facile, quod 
equitatu ipsi abundent et quod anm tempore subleventur. 
25 Pabulum secarl non posse, necessario disperses hostls ex aedi- 
ficiis petere ; hos omms cottidie ab equitibus deleri posse. 
Praeterea salutis causa rel familiaris commoda neglegenda; 
vicos atque aedificia incendi oportere hoc spatio' quoqueversus 

4. significatione: behavior. 16. agri fertilissima regione: in 

the most productive part of tJieir domain. 21. atque: than, after alia. 
22. studendum : their efforts imist be directed. 25. secari: be cut. 
28. hoc. . . quo: as far (lit. within this distance) in every direction as. 




quo pabulandi causa adlre posse videantur. Harum ipsis rerum 
copiam suppetere, quod quorum in fmibus bellum geratur, 
eorum opibus subleventur; Romanos aut inopiarn non laturos 
aut magno cum periculo longius a castrls processuros, neque 
interesse ipsosne interficiant an impediments exuant, quibus 5 

Cross section 

of the 


amissis bellum gerl non possit. Praeterea oppida incendl opor- 
tere quae non munition e et loci natura ab omm sint periculo 
tuta, ne suls sint ad detractandam mllitiam receptacula neu 
Romams proposita ad copiam commeatus praedamque tollen- 

5. ipsosne: -ne, whether ; the indirect question is the subject of i 
8. Detractandam : evading, receptacula : places of refuge. 


dam. Haec si gravia aut acerba videantur, multo ilia gravius 
aestimari debere, Hberos, coniuges in servitutem abstrahi, 
ipsos interficT, quae sit necesse accidere victis. 

XV. Omnium consensu hac sententia probata uno die am- 
5 pirns xx urbes Biturigum incenduntur. Hoc idem fit in reli- 

quis civitatibus. In omnibus partibus incendia conspiciuntur ; 
quae etsi magno cum dolore omnes ferebant, tamen hoc sibi 
solaci proponebant, quod se prope explorata victoria celeriter 
amissa recuperaturos confldebant. DelTberatur de Avaricot 

10 in communi concilio, incendl placeat an defend!. Procumbunt 
omnibus Gallis ad pedes Bituriges, ne pulcherrimam prope to- 
tms Galliae urbem, quae et praesidio et ornamerito sit civitatT, 
suis manibus succendere cogantur ; facile se loci natura defen- 
suros dfcunt, quod prope ex omnibus partibus flumine et palude 

iScircumdata unum habeat et perangustum aditum. Datur pe- 
tentibus venia dissuadente primo Vercingetorige, post conce- 
dente et precibus ipsorum et misericordia vulgi. Defensores 
oppido idonei deliguntur. 

XVI. Vercingetorix minoribus Caesarem itineribus subsequi- 
2ot\ir et locum castrls deligit paludibus silvlsque mumtum ab 

Avarico longe milia passuum xvi. Ibi per certos exploratores 
in singula die! tempora quae ad Avaricum gererentur cognosce- 
bat, et quid fieri vellet imperabat. Omms nostras pabulationes 
frumentationesque observabat, dispersosque, cum longius ne- 
25 cessario procederent, adoriebatur magnoque incommodo adfi- 
ciebat, etsi quantum ratione provider! poterat ab nostris 
occurrebatur, ut incertis temporibus diversisque itineribus 

I. acerba: bitter. 2. coniuges: wives. 8. solaci: solatium, 
comfort. 10. incendi: sc. -ne. n. pulcherriraam : most beautiful. 
15. Datur . . . venia: the favor is granted. 17. vulgi: subjective gen. 
The other members of the council are meant. 21. certos : trust- 
worthy. 22. in . . . tempora.: from time to time during the day. 24. ne- 
cessario : the adverb. 27. ut . . . iretur : a result clause, almost 
equivalent to an abl. of means with occurrebatur, i.e. our men met the 
emergency by going, etc. 




Caesar lays siege to Avaricum. He fails in an attempt to surprise the 
enemy's camp while Vercingetorix is absent. 

XVII. Castris ad earn partem oppidi positis Caesar quae in- 
termissa flumine et palude aditum, lit supra diximus, angustum 
habebat, aggerem apparare, vineas agere, turns duas constituere 
coepit ; nain circumvallare loci natura prohibebat. De re fru- 


mentaria Boios atque Haeduos adhortari non destitit j quorum s. 
alter!, quod nullo studio agebant, non multum adiuvabant, 
alter! non magnis facultatibus, quod clvitas erat exigua etln- 
firma, celeriter quod habuerunt consumpserunt. Summa dif- 
ficultate rei frumentariae adfecto exercitiS tenuitate Boiorum, 
indiligentia Haeduorura, incendiis aedificiorum, usque eo ut 10 

I . intermissa : free from, not shut in by. 
ready. 9. tenuitate: by reason of the poverty. 

3. apparare : make 


dam. Haec si gravia aut acerba videantur, mult5 ilia gravius 
aestimari debere, liberos, coniuges in servitutem abstrahi, 
ipsos interfici, quae sit necesse accidere victis. 

XV. Omnium consensii hac sententia probata uno die am- 
splius xx urbes BiturTgum incenduntur. Hoc idem fit in reli- 

quis civitatibus. In omnibus partibus incendia conspiciuntur ; 
quae etsi magno cum dolore omnes ferebant, tamen hoc sibi 
solaci proponebant, quod se prope explorata victoria celeriter 
amissa recuperatiiros confldebant. DelTberatur de Avarico 

10 in commum concilio, incendi placeat an defend!. Procumbunt 
omnibus Gallis ad pedes BiturTges, ne pulcherrimam prope to- 
tlus Galliae urbem, quae et praesidio et ornamento sit civitatl, 
suis manibus succendere cogantur ; facile se loci natura defen- 
suros dicunt, quod prope ex omnibus partibus flumine et palude 

15 circumdata iinum habeat et perangustum aditum. Datur pe- 
tentibus venia dissuadente primo Vercingetorige, post conce- 
dente et precibus ipsorum et misericorclia vulgl. Defensores 
oppido idonei deliguntur. 

XVI. Vercingetorlx minoribus Caesarem itineribus subsequi- 
zotur et locum castiis deligit paliidibus silvlsqne munltum ab 

Avarico longe milia passuum xvi. Ibi per certos exploratores 
in singula diel tempora quae ad Avaricum gererentur cognosce- 
bat, et quid fieri vellet imperabat. OmnTs nostras pabulationes 
fnlmentationesque observabat, dispersosque, cum longius ne- 
25 cessario procederent, adoriebatur magnoque incommodS adfi- 
ciebat, etsi quantum ratione provider! poterat ab nostris 
occurrebatur, ut incertis temporibus diversisque itineribus 

i. acerba: bitter. 2. coniuges: wives. 8. solaci: solatium, 
comfort. 10. incendi: sc. -ne. II. pulcherrimam: most bemitiful. 
15. Datur . . . veiiia: the favor is granted. 17. vulgi : subjective gen. 
The other members of the council are meant. 21. certos : trust- 
worthy. 22. ill ... tempora: from time to time during the day. 24. ne- 
cessario : the adverb. 27. ut . . . iretur: a result clause, almost 
equivalent to an abl. of means with occurrebatur, i.e. our men met the 
emergency by going, etc. 




Caesar lays siege to Avaricum. He fails in an attempt to surprise the 
enemy's camp while Vercingetorix is absent. 

XVII. CastrTs ad earn partem oppidi positis Caesar quae in- 
termissa flumine et paliide aditum, ut supra diximus, angustum 
habebat, aggerem apparare, vineas agere, turns duas constituere 
coepit ; nain circumvallare loci natiira prohibebat. De re fru- 


mentaria Boi5s atque Haeduos adhortari non destitit ; quorum 5 
alteri, quod nullo studio agebant, non multum adiuvabant, 
alterl non magms facultatibus, quod civitas erat exigua et Tn- 
firma, celeriter quod habuerunt consumpserunt. Summa dif- 
ficultate rei frumentariae adfecto exercitii tenuitate Boiorum, 
indiligentia Haeduorum, incendils aedificiorum, usque e5 ut 10 

I. intermissa : free from, not shut in by. 3. apparare : make 
ready. 9. tenuitate: by reason of the poverty. 


compluris dies' frumento milites caruerint et pecore ex longin- 
quioribus vlcis adacto extremam famem sustentarint, nulla 
tamen vox est ab iis audita popull Roman! maiestate et superi- 
oribus victoriis indlgna. Qum etiam Caesar cum in opere 
5 singulas legiones appellaret, et si acerbius inopiam ferrent, se 
dimissurum oppugnationem diceret, universi ab eo ne id faceret 
petebant : ' Sic se compluris annos illo imperante meruisse ut 
nullam ignominiam acciperent, numquam Infecta re discede- 
rent; hoc se ignominiae laturos loco, si inceptam oppugnatio- 

10 nem reliquissent ; praestare omnis perferre acerbitates quam 
non civibus Romanls qui CenabI perfidia Gallorum interissent 
parentarent.' Haec eadem centurionibus tribumsque militum 
mandabant, ut per eos ad Caesarem deferrentur. 

XVIII. Cum iam miiro turres appropinquassent, ex captivls 

15 Caesar cognovit Vercingetorigem consumpto pabulo castra 
movisse propius Avaricum, atque ipsum cum equitatu expecli- 
tisque, qui inter equites proeliari consuessent, insidiandi causa 
eo profectum quo nostros postero die pabulatum ventures arbi- 
traretur. Quibus rebus cognitls media nocte silenti5 profectus 

20 ad hostium castra mane' pervenit. 111! celeriter per explorato- 
res adventu Caesaris cognito carros impedimentaque sua in 
artiores silvas abdiderunt, copias omnis in loco edito atque 
aperto instruxerunt. Qua re nuntiata Caesar celeriter sarcinas 
conferri, arma expediri iussit. 

25 XIX. Collis erat leniter ab mfimo accllvis. Hunc ex omni- 
bus fere partibus palus difficilis atque impedita cingebat non 
latior pedibus L. Hoc se colle interruptis pontibus Galli 
fiducia loci continebant, generatimque distributi omnia vada 
eius paludis obtinebant, sic animo parati ut, si earn paludem 

30 Romam perrumpere conarentur, haesitantis premerent ex loco 
superiore; ut qui propinquitatem loci videret paratos prope 

5. acerbius : gravius. 7. meruisse : had served. 8. infecta : 
in-, not -\-facta. 12. parentarent: avenge. 22. artiores: denser. 
28. generatim : by tribes. 30. haesitantis : impeditos. 31. ut : with 


aequo Marte ad dimicandum existimaret, qui inlquitatem 
condicionis perspiceret inani simulatione sese' ostentare cognos- 
ceret. Indlgnantis milites Gaesar-~ quod conspectum suum 
hostes ferrq possent tantulo spatio interiectS et slgnum proell 
exposcent!s"edocet quanto detriments et quot virorum fortium 5 
morte necesse sit constare victoriam : 'Quos cum sic animo pa- 
ratos videat ut nullum pro sua laude perlculum recusent, sum- 
mae se iniquitatis condemnari debere nisi eorum vitam laude 
sua habeat cariorem.' Sic milites consolatus eodem die reducit 
in castra, reliquaque quae ad oppugnationem oppidi pertinebant 10 
administrare mstituit. 

Vercingetorix, being accused of treason by his people, defends himself. 

XX. Vercingetorix cum ad suos redlsset, proditionis Insimu- 
latus, quod castra propius Romanes movisset, quod cum omm 
equitatu discessisset, quod sine imperio tantas copias reli- 
quisset, quod eius discessu Romam tanta opportunitate etis 
celeritate venissent : ' Non haec omnia fortuito aut sine 
consilio accidere potuissej regnum ilium Galliae malle 
Caesaris concessu quam ipsorum habere beneficio'- talimodo 
accusatus ad haec respondit : ' Quod castra movisset, factum 
inopia pabuli etiam ipsis hortantibus ; quod propius Romanes 20 
accessisset, persuasum loci opportunitate, qui se ipse sine 
mumtione defenderet; equitum vero operam neque in loco 
palustri deslderarl debuisse et illlc fuisse utilem quo sint pro- 
fecti. Summam imperi se consulto null! discedentem tradi- 
disse, ne is multitudinis studio ad dimicandum impelleretur ; 25 
cui rei propter animi mollitiem studere omnis videret, quod 

i. aequo Marte: on equal terms. 2. inani simulatione : in an 
empty pretense. ostentare: sc. G alias as subject. 5. quot: how 
many. 6. constare: cost, with abl. of price. 12. proditionis insi- 
mulatus : accused -of treason. 14. sine imperio : i.e. sine imperatore. 
16. fortuito: accidentally. 19. Quod castra movisset: subject of 
factum (esse}. 23. palustri: cf. palus. 24. consul to: on purpose. 
26. mollitiem : cf. mollis, soft. 


diutius laborem ferre non possent. Roman! si casu inter- 


venerint, fortiinae, si alicuius indicio vocati, huic habendam 
gratiam, quod et paucitatem eorum ex loco superiore cognos- 
cere et virtutem despicere potuerint, qul dimicare non ausi 
Sturpiter se in castra receperint. Imperium se a Caesare per 
proditionem nullum deslderare, quod habere victoria posset, 
quae iam esset sibi atque omnibus Gallls explorata ; quin etiam 
ipsls remittere, si sibi magis honorem tribuere quam ab se 
saliitem accipere videantur.' " Haec ut intellegatis," inquit, 
10 "a me sincere pronuntiari, audite Romanes milites." Prodiicit 
servos, quos in pabulatione paucls ante diebus exceperat et 
fame vinculisque excruciaverat. Hi iam ante edocti quae inter- 
rogati pronuntiarent milites se esse legionarios dicunt ; fame 
atque inopia adductos clam ex castris exisse, si quid frumentl 
15 aut pecoris in agrls reperire possent ; simill omnem exercitum 
inopia preml, nee iam vliis sufficere cuiusquam nee ferre operis 
laborem posse j itaque statuisse imperatorem, si nihil in op- 
pugnatione oppidl profecisset, triduo exercitum deducere. 
"Haec," inquit, "a me beneficia habetis, quern proditionis 
20 Insimulatis, cuius opera sine vestro sanguine tantum exercitum 
victorem fame paene consumptum videtis; quern turpiter se 
ex hac fuga recipientem ne qua civitas suls finibus recipiat, a 
me provlsum est." 

XXI. Conclamat omnis multitudo et suo more armls con- 
as crepat, quod facere in eo consuerunt cuius orationem appro- 
bant : 'Summum esse Vercingetorigem ducem, nee de eius fide 
dubitandum, nee maiore ratione bellum administrari posse.' 
Statuunt ut decem milia hominum delecta ex omnibus copils 
in oppidum submittantur, nee soils Biturigibus communem 
30 saliitem committendam censent, quod paene in eo, si id oppi- 
dum retinuissent, summam victoriae constare intellegebant. 

2. fortunae: dat. 7. quin etiam: on the contrary. 8. remit- 
tere: reddere. IO. sincere: honestly. 1 6. sufficere : be adequate. 
20. sanguine: blood. 24. concrepat: make a clatter. 31. constare: 



The garrison of Avaricum offers a stubborn resistance. 

XXII. Singular! militum nostrorum virtuti consilia cuiusque 
modi Gallorum occurrebant, ut est summae genus sollertiae 
atque ad omnia imitanda et efficierida quae a quoque traduntur 
aptissimum. Nam et laqueis falcis avertebant, quas cum desti- 
naverant, tormentis introrsus reducebant, et aggerem cumculis 5 
subtrahebant, eo scientius quod apud eos magnae sunt ferrariae, 
atque omne genus cumculorum notum atque usitatum est. 
Totum autem murum ex omni parte turribus contabulaverant 
atque has coriis intexerant. Turn cr^bris diurms nocturmsque 
eruptionibus aut agger! Ignem mferebant aut milites occupatos 10 
in opere adoriebantur ; et nostrarum turrium altitudinem, 
quantum has cottidianus agger expresserat, commissis suarum 
turrium mllTs adaequabant; et apertos cuniculos praeusta et 
praeacuta materia et pice fervefacta et maxim! ponderis saxis 
morabantur moenibusque appropinquare prohibebant. 15 

A description of Gallic walls. 

XXIII. Muri autem omnes Gallic! hac fere forma sunt. 
Trabes derectae perpetuae in longitudinem paribus intervallls 
distantes inter se bmos pedes in solo conlocantur. Hae revin- 
ciuntur introrsus et multo aggere vestiuntur; ea autem quae 
diximus intervalla grandibus in fronte saxis effarciuntur. His 20 

i. consilia cuiusque modi: all sorts of devices, z. sollertiae: 
dexterity. 4. laqueis: with nooses. 5. tormentis: -with windlasses. 
6. ferrariae : iron-mines. 7. usitatum : familiar. 8. contabula- 
verant: had built -up in stories. At frequent intervals were placed 
towers several stories in height. 9. coriis: with hides. 12. cottidia- 
nus agger: the daily (increase in the height of the} agger. com- 
missis malis: the upright timbers having been joined together, i.e. 
fresh lengths were added. 13. apertos cuniculos morabantur: 
probably equivalent to cuniculos aperiebani et morabantur. 14. pice 
fervefacta: boiling pitch. 17. derectae: at right angles (to the direc- 
tion, of the wall} . perpetuae in longitudinem : along the whole 
length. 19. vestiuntur: cf. vestis, clothing. 20. effarciuntur: are 
filled in. 4 

2I 4 



conlocatis et coagmentatis alius insuper ordo additur, ut idem 
illud intervallum servetur neque inter se contingant trabes, sed 
paribus intermissis spatiis singulae singulls saxls interiectis arte 
contineantur. Sic deinceps omne opus contexitur, dum iusta 
muri altitude expleatur. Hoc cum in speciem varietatemque 


opus deforme non est alterms trabibus ac saxis, quae rectis llneis 
suos ordines servant, turn ad utilitatem et defensionem urbium 
summam habet opportunitatem, quod et ab incendio lapis et 
ab ariete materia defendit, quae perpetuis trabibus pedum 
10 quadragerium plerumque introrsus revincta neque perrumpi 
neque distrahi potest. 

The bravery of the Gauls. 

XXIV. His tot rebus impedita oppugnatione milites, cum 
toto tempore frigore et adsiduis imbribus tardarentur, tamen 
continenti labore omnia haec superaverunt, et diebus xxv 

I. coagmentatis: joined together. 3. arte: tightly. 6. rectis 
lineis: in straight lines. 9. perpetuis trabibus: these were laid 
lengthwise of the wall. 10. quadragenum : gen. of the distributive 
numeral, forty. 


aggerem latum pedes cccxxx, altum pedes LXXX exstrux- 
erunt. Cum is murum hostium paene contingeret, et Caesar 
ad opus consuetudine excubaret, militesque hortaretur ne quod 
omnmo tempus ab opere intermitteretur, paulo ante tertiam 
vigiliam est animadversum fumare aggerem, quern cumculo 5 
hostes succenderant, eodemque tempore toto muro clamore 
sublato duabus portls ab utroque latere turrium eruptio fiebat. 
Alii faces atque aridam materiam de muro in aggerem eminus 
iaciebant, picem reliquasque res quibus Ignis excitari potest fun- 
debant, ut qu5 primum occurreretur aut cui rei ferretur auxilium 10 
vix ratio iniri posset. Tamen quod Institute Caesaris duae 
semper legiones pro castrls excubabant, pluresque partltis tem- 
poribus erant in opere, celeriter factum est ut alii eruptionibus 
resisterent, alii turns reducerent aggeremque interscinderent, 
omm's vero ex castris multitudo ad restinguendum concurreret. 15 

XXV. Cum in omnibus locis consumpta iam reliqua parte 
noctis pugnaretur, semperque hostibus spes victoriae redinte- 
graretur, eo magis quod deustos pluteos turrium videbant nee 
facile adire apertos ad auxiliandum animadvertebant, semperque 
ipsi recentes defessis succederent, omnemque Galliae salutemso 
in illo vestlgio temporis positam arbitrarentur, accidit Inspec- 
tantibus nobls quod dignum memoria visum praetereundum non 
existimavimus. Quidam ante portam oppidi Gallus per manus 
sebl ac picis traditas glaebas in ignem e regione turris proicie- 
bat ; scorpione ab latere dextro traiectus exanimatusque con- 25 
cidit. Hunc ex proximls unus iacentem transgressus eodem 
4\lo munere fungebatur eadem ratione ictii scorpionis exani- 
mato altero successit tertius et tertio qtiartus, nee prius ille est 
a propugnatoribus vacuus relictus locus quam restmcto aggere 
atque omni parte submotis hostibus finis est pugnandi factus. 3 

8. faces: firebrands. eminus: from a distance. 18. deustos: 
burned. pluteos: mantelets. 19. apertos: sc. nostros. 22. dignum: 
worthy. 24. sebi : of tallow. glaebas : lumps. e regione : directly 
in front of. 25. scorpione: by a missile from a scorpion. 27. funge- 
batur: performed. . 


Avaricum is finally taken and its inhabitants are mercilessly slaughtered. 

XXVI. Ornnia expert! Galli, quod res nulla successerat, pos- 
tero die consilium ceperunt ex oppido profugere hortante et 
iubente Vercingetorige. Id silentio noctis conati non magna 
iactura suorum sese effecturos sperabant, propterea quod neque 

slonge ab oppido castra Vercingetorigis aberant et palus per- 
petua quae intercedebat Romanes ad insequendum tardabat. 
lamque hoc facere noctu apparabant, cum matres familiae 
repente in publicum procurrerunt, flentesque proiectae ad 
pedes suorum omnibus precibus petierunt ne se et communis 

loliberos hostibus ad supplicium dederent, qu5s ad capiendam 
fugam naturae et vlrium infirmitas impedlret. Ubi eos in sen- 
tentia perstare viderunt, quod plerumque in sum mo periculo 
timor misericordiam non recipit, conclamare et significare de 
fuga Romams coeperunt. Quo timore perterriti Galli, ne ab 

15 equitatu Romanomm viae praeoccuparentur, consilio destite- 

XXVII. Postero die Caesar promota turn derectlsque operi- 
bus quae facere Instituerat, magno coorto imbri non inutilem 
hanc ad capiendum consilium tempestatem arbitratus, quod 

zopaulo incautius custodies in muro dispositas videbat, suos 
quoque languidius in opere versari iussit et quid fieri vellet 
ostendit ; legionibusque in occulto expedltis cohortatus ut ali- 
quando pro tantis laboribus fructum victoriae perciperent, iis 
qui primi murum ascendissent praemia proposuit militibusque 

ssslgnum dedit. 111! subito ex omnibus partibus evolaverunt 
miirumque celeriter compleverunt. 

XXVIII. Hostes re nova perterriti, muro turribusque deiectl 
in foro ac locls patentioribus cuneatim constiterunt hoc animo, 
ut si qua ex parte obviam vemretur, acie mstructa depugna- 

4. iactura: loss. 5. perpetua: without a break. 12. perstare: 
persist. 13. non recipit: does not admit of. 17. derectis: straight- 
ened out; set in" order and directed toward the points where they would 
be most effective. 22. aliquando : at last. 28. foro : the market-place. 
cuneatim : in compact (wedge-shaped ') formation. 


rent. Ubi neminem in aequum locum, sese demittere, sed 
toto undique muro circumfundl vlderunt, veriti ne omnmo spes 
fugae tolleretur, abiectls armis ultimas oppidl partis continent! 
impetu petlverunt, parsque ibi, cum angust5 exitu portarum se 
ipsi premerent, a militibus, pars iam egressa portis ab equitibus 5 
est interfecta. Nee fuit quisquam qul praedae studeret. Sic 
et Cenabensi caede et labore operis incitati non aetate confectis, 
non mulieribus, n5n mfantibus pepercerunt. Denique ex omni 
nuraero, qul fuit circiter milium XL, vix DCCC, qul pnmo cla- 
more audlto se ex oppido eiecerant, incolumes ad Vercingetori- 10 
gem pervenerunt. Quos ille multa iam nocte silentio ex fuga 
excepit, et veritus ne qua in castris ex eorum concursu et 
misericordia vulgl seditio oreretur, procul in via dispositis 
familiaribus suis prmcipibusque clvitatum disparandos dedu- 
cendosque ad suos curavit, quae cuique civitati pars castrorum 15 
ab initio obvenerat. 

Vercingetorix inspires the Gauls to continue the war with renewed vigor. 

XXIX. Postero die concilio convocato consolatus cohortatus- 
que est ne se admodum animo demitterent neve perturbarentur 
incommode: ' N5n virtute neque in acie vlcisse Romanes, sed 
artificio quodam et scientia oppugnationis, emus rel fuerint ipsiao 
imperti. Errare, si qul in bello omnls secundos rerum pro- 
ventus exspectent. Sibi numquam placuisse Avaricum defend!, 
cuius re! testis ipsos haberet, sed factum imprudentia Biturigum 
et nimia obsequentia reliqu5rum ut! hoc incommodum acci- 
peretur. Id tamen se celeriter maioribus commodis sanaturum. 25 
Nam quae ab reliquis Gallis c!vitates dissentirent, has sua dili- 
gentia adiuncturum atque unum consilium totms Galliae effec- 
turum, cuius consensu! ne orbis quidem terrarnm possit obsistere ; 
idque se prope iam effectum habere. Interea aequum esse ab 

3. continent! impetu : in a steady rus/i. 7. Cenabensi : at 
Cenabum. 8. pepercerunt : spared. 14. disparandos : separandos. 
1 6. obvenerat : had been assigned. 24. nimia obsequentia : the too 
ready compliance. 25. sanaturum : cf. sanus, sound. 


iis communis salutis causa impetrari ut castra mumre mstitue- 

rent, quo facilius repentmos hostium impetus sustinere possent.' 

XXX. Fuit haec oratio non ingrata Gallis, et maxime quod 

ipse ammo non defecerat tanto accepto incommodd, neque se 

5 in occultum abdiderat et conspectum multitudinis fugerat ; 

plusque animo providere et praesentlre existimabatur, quod re 

integra primo incendendum Avaricum, post deserendum cen- 

suerat. Itaque ut reliquorum imperatorum res adversae aucto- 

ritatem minuunt, sic huius ex contrario dignitas incommodo 

10 accepto in dies augebatur. Simul in spem veniebant eius 
adfirmatione de reliquis adiungendls civitatibus, primumque eo 
tempore Gall! castra mumre mstituerunt ; et sic erant animo 
j consternati homines insueti laboris ut omnia quae imperarentur 
sibi patienda exlstimarent. 

15 XXXI. Nee minus quam est pollicitus Vercingetorix animo 
laborabat ut reliquas clvitates adiungeret, atque earum prm- 
cipes doms pollicitationibusque adliciebat. Huic rei idoneos 
homines deligebat, quorum quisque aut oratione subdola aut 
amlcitia facillime capere posset. Qui Avarico expugnato re- 

aofugerant armandos vestiendosque ciirat; simul, ut deminutae 
copiae redintegrarentur, imperat certum numerum rmlitum ci- 
vitatibus, quern et quam ante diem in castra adducl velit, sagit- 
tariosque omms, quorum erat permagnus in Gallia numerus, 
conquirl et ad ' se mitti iubet. His rebus celeriter id quod 

ssAvarici deperierat expletur. Interim Teutomatus, Olloviconis 
filius, rex Nitiobrogum, cuius pater ab senatu nostro amicus 
erat appellatus, cum magno numero equitum suorum et quos ex 
Aquitania conduxerat ad eum pervenit. 

Caesar settles a dispute among the Haedui. 

XXXII. Caesar Avarici compluris dies commoratus summ'am- 
30 que ibi copiam frumenti et reliqui commeatus nactus exerci- 

4. animo defecerat.: had lost courage. 13. consternati : thor- 
oughly frightened. insueti laboris: unused to labor. 17. adlicie- 
bat: tempted. 18. subdola: mbtle. 19. capere: win over. 


turn ex labore atque inopia reficit. lam prope hieme confecta, 
cum ipso anrii tempore ad gerendum bellum vocaretur et ad 
hostem proficisci constituisset, sive eum ex paludibus silvlsque 
elicere sive obsidione premere posset, legati ad eum prmcipes 
Haeduorum veniunt oratum ut maxime necessario tempore cT- 5 
vitati subveniat : 'Summo esse in periculo rem, quod cum singuli 
magistrates antiquitus creari atque regiam potestatem annum 
obtinere consuessent, duo magistratum gerant et se uterque 
eorum legibus creatum dicat. Horum esse alterum Convicto- 
litavem, florentem et inlustrem adulescentem ; alteram Cotum, 10 
antiquissima familia natum atque ipsum hominem summae po- 
tentiae et magnae cognationis, cuius frater Valetiacus prox- 
imo anno eundem magistratum gesserit. Civitatem esse omnem 
in armis, divisum senatum, divlsum populum, suas cuiusque 
eorum clientelas. Quod si diutius alatur controversia, fore uti 15 
pars cum parte civitatis confligat. Id ne accidat positum in 
eius diligentia atque auctoritate.' 

XXXIII. Caesar etsi a bello atque hoste discedere detrimen- 
tosum esse existimabat, tamen non ignorans quanta ex dissen- 
sionibus incommoda orm consuessent, ne tanta et tarn coniuncta 20 
populo Romano civitas, quam ipse semper aluisset omnibus- 
que rebus ornasset, ad vim atque arma descenderet, atque ea 
pars quae minus sibi confideret auxilia a Vercingetorlge ar- 
cesseret, huic rei praevertendum exlsthnavit ; et quod legibus 
Haeduorum iis qui summum magistratum obtinerent excedere 25 
ex finibus non liceret, ne quid de iure aut de legibus eSrum de- 
minuisse videretur, ipse in Haeduos proficisci statuit, senatum- 
que omnem et quos inter controversia esset ad se Decetiam 
evocavit. Cum prope omnis civitas eo convenisset, doceretur- 
que paucis clam convocatis alio loco, alio tempore atque opor-3 
tuerit fratrem a fratre renuntiatum, cum leges duo ex una 

4. elicere: draw otit. 12. cognationis : connections. 18. detri- 
mentosum: cf. detrimentum. 22. ornasset: had honored. 24. huic 
rei praevertendum : this matter nmst be first attended to. 28. quoa 
inter: i.e. eos inter quos. 29. doceretur: sc. Caesar. 31. renunti- 


familia vivo utroque non solum magistrates creari vetarent sed 
etiam in senatu esse prohiberent, Cotum imperium deponere 
coegit, Convictolitavem, qul per sacerdotes more civitatis inter- 
missis magistratibus esset creatus, potestatem obtinere iussit. 

Caesar sends Labienus northward with a part of the army ; he himself 

marches against Gergovia. 

5 XXXIV. Hoc decreto interposito cohortatus Haeduos ut 
controversiarum ac dissensionis obliviscerentur atque omnibus 
omissis rebus huic bello servirent, eaque quae meruissent praemia 
ab se devicta Gallia exspectarent, equitatumque omnem et pedi- 
tum milia decem sibi celeriter mitterent, quae in praesidils rel 

10 frumentariae causa disponeret, exercitum in duas partis divisit : 
quattuor legiones in Senones Parisiosque Labi end ducendas 
dedit, sex ipse in Arvernos ad oppidum Gergoviam secundum 
flumen Elaver duxit; equitatus partem ill! attribuit, partera 
sibi reliquit. Qua re cognita Vercingetorix omnibus interrupts 

i5eius fluminis pontibus ab altera fluminis parte iter facere coepit. 

XXXV. Cum uterque utrimque exisset exercitus, in con- 

spectu fereque e regione Caesaris castra ponebat dispositis ex- 

ploratoribus, necubi effecto ponte Roman! cop i as traducerent. 

Erat in magnis Caesari difficultatibus res, ne maiorem aestatis 

20 partem flurnine impediretur, quod non fere ante autumnum 
Elaver vado transiri solet. Itaque, ne id accideret, silvestri loco 
castris positls e regione umus eorum pontium quos Vercingeto- 
rix rescindendos curaverat, postero die cum duabus legionibus 
in occulto restitit ; reliquas copias cum omnibus impedimentis, 

25 ut consuerat, misit carptis quibusdam cohortibus, ut numerus 
legionum constare videretur. His quam longissime possent 
progredl iussis, cum iam ex diel tempore coniecturam caperet 

atum : sc. esse, had been declared elected. Valetiacus held the election at 
which Cotus was declared elected. As this election was illegal, there was 
a vacancy in the magistracy, which was filled by the priests. 3. interrnis- 
sis magistratibus: i.e. since there was an interregnum. 18. necubi: 
tJiat nowhere. 25. carptis : divided. 26. constare : to be complete. 


in castra perventum, isdem sublicis, quarum pars Inferior inte- 
gra remanebat, pontem reficere coepit. Celeriter effectd opere 
legionibusque traductis et loco castris idoneo delecto reliquas 
copias revocavit. Vercingetorix re cognita, ne contra suam 
voluntatem dimicare cogeretur, magnis itineribus antecessit. 5 

XXXVI. Caesar ex eo locoqulntis castris Gergoviam pervenit, 
equestrique eo die proelio lev! facto, perspecto urbis situ, quae 
posita in altissimo monte oranis aditus difficills habebat, de op- 
pugnatione desperavit ; de obsessione non prius agendum con- 
stituit quam rein frumentariam expedisset. At Vercingetorix 10 
castris prope oppidum in monte positis, mediocribus circum se 
intervallis separatim singularum civitatum copias conlocaverat. 
atque omnibus eius iugi collibus occupatis qua dispici poterat 
horribilem speciem praebebat; prmcipesque earum civitatum, 
qu5s sibi ad consilium capiendum delegerat, prima luce cottidie 15 
ad se convemre iubebat, seu quid communicandum seu quid 
administrandum videretur, neque ullum fere diem intermittebat 
quln equestii proelio interiectls sagittarils quid in quoque esset 
animi ac virtutis suorum periclitaretur. Erat e regione oppidi 
collis sub ipsis radicibus montis, egregie munitus atque ex 20 
omm parte circumcisus ; quern si tenerent nostri, et aquae 
magna parte et pabulatione libera prohibituri hostis videbantur. 
Sed is locus praesidio ab his non mflrmo tenebatur. Tamen 
silentio noctis Caesar ex castris egressus, priusquam subsidio 
ex oppido veniri .posset, deiecto praesidi5 potltus loco duasas 
ibi legiones conlocavit fossamque duplicem duodenum pedum 

a maioribus castris ad minora perduxit, ut tuto ab repentino 
hostium incursu etiam singull commeare possent. 

Some of the Haedui plan a revolt. 

XXXVII. Dum haec ad Gergoviam geruntur, Convictolitavis 
Haeduus, cui magistratum adiudicatum a Caesare demon- 30 

6. quintis castris : i.e. in Jive days, since camp was pitched at the 
end of every day's march. 21. circumcisus: steep. 26. duodenum 
pedum : of t"i.velve feet each. 28. incursu : attack. 


stravimus, sollicitatus ab Arverms peciinia cum quibusdam 
adulescentibus conloquitur, quorum erat prmceps Litaviccus 
atque eius fratres, amplissima familia nati adulescentes. Cum 
his praemium communicat, hortaturque ut se liberos et imperio 
Snatos meminerint : 'Unam esse Haeduorum clvitatem quae 
certissimam Galliae victoriam distineatj eius auctoritate reli- 
quas continerij qua traducta locum consistendi Romanis in 
Gallia non fore. Esse non nullo se Caesaris beneficio adfectum, 
sic tamen ut iustissimam apud eum causam obtinuerit ; sed 

10 plus commum libertati tribuere. Cur enim potius Haedui de 
suo iure et de legibus ad Caesarem disceptatorem quam 
Roman! ad Haeduos veniant?' Celeriter adulescentibus et 
oratione magistratus et praemio deductls, cum se vel principes 
eius consili fore profiterentur, ratio perficiendi quaerebatur, 

15 quod cTvitatem temere ad suscipiendum bellum adducl posse 
non conf idebant. Placuit ut Litaviccus decem illls mTlibus 
quae Caesari ad bellum mitterentur praeficeretur atque ea 
ducenda curaret, fratresque eius ad Caesarem praecurrerent. 
Reliqua qua ratione agi placeat constituunt. 

20 XXXVIII. Litaviccus accepto exercitu, cum milia passuum 
circiter xxx a Gergovia abesset, convocatis subito mllitibus 
lacrimans, "Quo proficiscimur," inquit, "mllites? Omnis 
noster equitatus, omnis nobilitas interiit ; principes civitatis, 
Eporedorix et Viridomarus, Insimulati proditionis ab Romanis 

25 indicia causa interfecti sunt. Haec ab his cognoscite, qui ex 
ipsa caede effugerunt ; nam ego fratribus atque omnibus meis 
propinquis interfectis dolore prohibeor quae gesta sunt pro- 
nuntiare." Producuntur il quos ille edocuerat quae did vellet, 
atque eadem quae Litaviccus pronuntiaverat multitudim 

30 exponunt : ' Omnis equites Haeduorum interfectos, quod con- 
lociiti cum Arvernis dlcerentur ; ipsos se inter multitudinem 
mllitum occultasse atque ex media caede effugisse.' Con- 

6. distineat: hinders. 9. obtinuerit: maintained. II. discep- 
tatorem: -umpire. 25. indicta causa: without a hearing. 


clamant Haedui et Litaviccum obsecrant ut sibi consulat. 
" Quasi vero," inquit ille, " consili sit res ac non necesse sit 
nobis Gergoviam contendere et cum Arverms nosmet con- 
iungere. An dubitamus qum nefario facinore admisso Roman! 
iam ad nos interficiendos concurrant? Proinde, si quid in 5 
nobis animi est, persequamur eorura mortem qui indignissime 
interierunt, atque hos latrones interficiamus." Ostendit civis 
Romanes qui eius praesidi fiducia una erant. Continuo 
magnum numerum frumenti commeatusque diripit, ipsos 
crudeliter excruciates interficit. Nuntios tota civitate Haedu- 10 
orum dimittit, eodem mendacio de caede equitum et prin- 
cipum permovet ; hortatur ut simili ratione atque ipse fecerit 
suas iniurias persequantur. 

Caesar prevents the contingent of the Haedui from going over to the 


XXXIX. Eporedorix Haeduus, summo loco natus adulescens 
et summae domi potentiae, et una Viridomarus, par! aetate et 15 
gratia, sed genere dispari, quern Caesar ab Dlviciaco sibi traditum 
ex humili loco ad summam dignitatem perduxerat, in equitum 
numero convenerant nominatim ab eo evocati. His erat inter 
se de principatu contentio, et in ilia magistratuum controversia 
alter pro Convictolitave, alter pro Goto summis opibus pugna- 20 
verant. Ex his Eporedorix cognito Litavicci consilio media fere 
nocte rem ad Caesarem defert; orat ne patiatur civitatem 
pravls adulescentium consiliis ab amicitia populi Roman! de- 
ficere, quod futurum provideat, si se tot hominum mllia cum 
hostibus coniiinxerint, quorum salutem neque propinqui25 
neglegere neque civitas lev! momento aestimare possit. 

XL. Magna adfectus sollicitudine hoc mlntio Caesar, quod 
semper Haeduorum civitati praecipue indulserat, nulla inter- 

2. Quasi vero: jiist as if, indeed. 3. nosmet: ourselves, nos + 
-met. 4. nefario: heinoiis. 5. Proinde: so. 8. fiducia: through 
confidence. 1 1., mendacio : falsehood. 23. pravis: wicked. 25. pro- 
pinqui neglegere : sc. possint. 


posita dubitatione legiones expeditas quattuor equitatumque 
omnem ex castris educit; nee fuit spatium tall tempore ad 
contrahenda castra, quod res posita in celeritate videbatur. 
C. Fabium legatum cum legionibus duabus castris praesidio re- 
5 linquit. Fratres Litavicci cum coraprehendl iussisset, paulo ante 
reperit ad hostis profugisse. Adhqrtatus milites ne necessario 
tempore itineris labore permoveantur, cupidissimis omnibus 
progressus milia passuum xxv agmen Haeduorum conspica- 
tur immisso equitatu iter eorum moratur atque impedit, inter- 

lodicitque omnibus ne quemquam interficiant. Eporedorlgem 
et Viridomarum, quos ill! interfectos existimabant, inter equites 
versari suosque appellare iubet. His cognitis et Litavicci fraude 
perspecta Haedui manus tendere et deditionem significare et 
proiectis arrais mortem deprecari incipiunt. Litaviccus cum 

i5suis clientibus, quibus more Gallorum nefas est etiam in ex- 
trema fortuna deserere patronos, Gergoviam profugit. 

XLI. Caesar niintiis ad clvitatem Haeduorum missis, qui suo 
beneficio conservatos docerent quos iure belli interficere potuis- 
set, tribusque horis exercitui ad quietem datis castra ad Ger- 

20 goviam movet. Medio fere itinere equites a Fabio missi quanto 
res in perlculo fuerit exponunt. Summis copiis castra oppug- 
nata demonstrant, cum crebro integri defessls succederent 
nostrosque adsiduo labore defatigarent, quibus propter magni- 
tudinem castrorum perpetuo esset isdem in vallo permanendum ; 

25 multitudine sagittarum atque omni genere telorum multos vul- 
neratos ad haec sustinenda magno usui fuisse tormenta ; Fa- 
bium discessu eorum duabus rellctis portis obstruere ceteras 
pluteosque vallo addere et se in posterum diem similemque 
casum apparare. His rebus cognitis Caesar summo studio mili- 

3 o turn ante ortum solis in castra pervenit. 

. 2. ad contrahenda castra: that it might be defended more easily 
by the soldiers who remained. 16. patronos : protectors. 22. crebro : 
repeatedly. 23. quibus isdem: dative with permanendum. 28. plu- 
teos : parapets. 30. in castra pervenit : the army had marched about 
fifty miles in less than thirty hours. 


Further acts of unfaithfulness among the Haedui. 

XLII. Dum haec ad Gergoviam geruntur, Haedui primis 
nuntiis ab Litavicco acceptis nullum sibi ad cognoscendum 
spatium relinquunt. Impellit alios avaritia, alios iracundia et 
temeritas, quae maxime ill! hominum generl est innata, ut lev em 
auditionem habeant pro re comperta. Bona civium Romano- 5 
rum dlripiunt, caedis faciunt, in servitutem abstrahunt. Adiuvat 
rem proclmatam Convictolitavis plebemque ad furorem impel- 
lit, ut facinore admisso ad sanitatem revert! pudeat. M. Aris- 
tium, tribunum militum, iter ad legiones facientem fide data ex 
oppido Cavillono educunt ; idem facere cogunt eos qul negoti- 10 
and! causa ibi constiterant. Hos continuo in itinere adorti 
omnibus impedimentis exuunt; repugnantls diem noctemque 
obsident; multis utrimque interfectls maiorem multitudinem 
ad arma concitant. 

XLIII. Interim nuntiS adlato omms eorum milites in po-is 
testate Caesaris teneri concurrunt ad Aristium, nihil publico 
factum consilio demonstrant ; quaestionem de boms direptis 
decernunt, LitaviccI fratrumque bona publicant, legates ad Cae- 
sarem purgandl sui gratia mittunt. Haec faciunt recuperando- 
rum suorum causa ; sed contaminatl facinore et capti compendio 20 
ex direptis boms, quod ea res ad multos pertinebat, et timore 
poenae exterriti consilia clam de bello inire incipiunt civita- 
tesque reliquas legationibus sollicitant. Quae tametsi Caesar 
intellegebat, tamen quam mitissime potest legates appellat : 
( Nihil se propter Inscientiam levitatemque vulgl gravius de clvi- 25 
tate iudicare neque de sua in Haeduos benevolentia deminuere.' 
Ipse maiorem Galliae motum exspectans, ne ab omnibus civita- 
tibus circumsisteretur, consilia inlbat, quern ad modum a Ger- 

3. iracundia: quickness of temper. 7. proclinatam: already started. 
8. pudeat: impersonal verb, it may shame (theni), i.e. they may be 
ashamed, ir. continuo: at once. 17. quaestionem: investigation. 
18. publicant: confiscate. 19. gratia: equivalent to causa. 20. con- 
taminati : corrupted. compendio : gain. 24. mitissime : most 



govia discederet ac rursus omnem exer'citum contraheret, ne 
profectio nata ab timore defectionis similisque fugae videretur. 

Caesar perceives a chance of gaining some advantage at Gergovia. 

XLIV. Haec cogitantl accidere visa est facultas bene geren- 
dae rei. Nam cum in minora castra operis perspiciendl causa 

. Svenisset, animadvertit collem, qui ab hostibus tenebatur, nuda- 
tum hominibus, qui superioribus diebus vix prae multitudine 
cerm poterat. Admiratus quaerit ex perfugis causam, quorum 
magnus ad eum cottidie numerus confluebat. Constabat inter 
omnis, quod iam ipse Caesar per exploratores cognoverat, dor- 

10 sum esse eius iugi prope aequum, sed silvestre et angustum, 
qua esset aditus ad alteram partem oppidi ; vehementer huic 
illos loco timere nee iam aliter sentire r uno colle ab Romams 
occupat5, si alterum amisissent, qum paene circumvallatl atque 
omm exitu et pabulatione interclusi viderentur ; ad hune muni- 

15 endum locum omms a Vercingetorige evocatos. 

XLV. Hac re cognita Caesar mittit complurls equitum tur- 
mas eo de media nocte ; imperat ut paulo tumultuosius omnibus 
locis pervagentur. Prima luce magnum numerum impedimento- 
rum ex castrls mulorumque produci deque his stramenta de- 

sotrahl, mulionesque cum cassidibus equitum specie ac simula- 
tione collibus .circumvehi iubet. His paucos addit equites, qui 
latius ostentationis causa vagentur. Longo circuitu easdem 
omms iubet petere regiones. Haec procul ex oppido videban- 
tur, ut erat a Gergovia despectus in castra, neque tan to spatio 

sscerti quid esset exploran poterat. Legionem decimam eodem 
luce mittit et paulum progressam inferiore constituit loco sil- 
vlsque occultat. Augetur Gallis 'suspicio, atque omnes illo ad 
munltionem copiae traducuntur. Vacua castra hostium Caesar 
conspicatus tectls insignibus suorum occultatisque signis mili- 

8. confluebat: flocked. 9. dorsum: ridge. 18. impedimen- 
torum: beasts of burden. 19. mulomm : mules. str amenta: pack- 
saddles. 20. muliones : mule-drivers. cassidibus : helmets. 
21. circumvehi: to ride around. 


taribus raros milites, ne ex oppido aniraadverterentur, ex maio- 
ribus castris in minora traducit, legatlsque, quos singulls 
legionibus praefecerat, quid fieri velit ostendit ; in primis monet 
ut contineant mllites, ne studio pugnandl aut spe praedae longius 
progrediantur ; quid imquitas loci habeat incommodl proponit : 5 
'Hoc una celeritate posse vitari; occasionis esse rem, non 
proeli.' His rebus expositis 'slgnum dat et ab dextra parte alio 
ascensu eodem terapore Haeduos mittit. 

XLVI. Murus oppidi a planitie atque initio ascensus recta 
regione, si nullus anfractus intercederet, MCC passus aberat ; 10 
quicquid hue circuitus ad molliendum clivum accesserat, id 
spatium itineris augebat. A medio fere colle in longitudinemj 
ut natura montis ferebat, ex grandibus saxis sex pedum murum, 
qul nostrorum impetura tardaret, praeduxerant Galli, atque m- 
feriore omni spatio vacuo relicto superiorem partem collis usque 15 
ad murum oppidi densissimis castris compleverant. Milites dato 
signo celeriter ad mumtionem perveniunt eamque transgressl 
trims castris potiuntur ; ac tanta fuit in castris capiendls celeritas 
ut Teutomatus, rex Nitiobrogum, subito in tabernaculo op- 
pressus, ut meridie conquieverat, superiore parte corporis nuda, 20 
vulnerato equo vix se ex manibus praedantium milituin eriperet. 

After a slight success he sounds the retreat, but the soldiers continue to 

push forward. 

XLVII. Consecutus .id quod animo proposuerat Caesar 
receptui cam iussit, legionisque decimae, quacum erat, continuo 
signa constiterunt. At reliquarum legionum milites non audito 
sono tubae, quod satis magna yalles intercedebat, tamen a 25 
tribums militum legatlsque, ut erat a Caesare praeceptum, 
retinebantur. Sed elatl spe celeris victoriae et hostium fuga et 
superiorum temporum secundls proelils nihil adeo arduum sibi 

9. recta regione : in a straight line, 10. anfractus : turn. n. ad 
molliendum clivum: to ease the ascent. 18. trinis: distributive, used 
instead of tria because castra here is plural in meaning. 23. cani: to 
be sounded, i.e. the signal to be given. 




existimabant quod non virtute consequi possent, neque f mem 
prius sequendi fecerunt quam muro oppidi portlsque appropin- 
quarunt. Turn vero ex omnibus urbis partibus orto clamore, 
quT longius aberant repentmo tumultu perterritl, cum hostem 
5 intra portas esse existimarent, se ex oppido eiecerunt. Matres 
familiae de miiro vestem argentumque iactabant, et pectore 
nudo prominentes passls manibus obtestabantur Romanos ut 


sibi parcerent, neu, sicut Avarici fecissent, ne a mulieribus 
quidem atque infantibus abstinerent ; non nullae de muro 

10 per manus demissae sese militibus tradebant. L. Fabius, cen- 
turio legionis octavae, quern inter suos eo die dixisse constabat 
excitarl se Avaricensibus praemils neque commissurum ut prius 
quisquam murum ascenderet, tris suos nactus manipularls atque 
ab ils sublevatus murum ascendit ; hos ipse rursus singulos 

15 exceptans in murum extulit. 

6. vestem : clothing. argentum : silver. pectore : breast, 
7. prominentes: leaning forward. 13. manipularis : comrades (in 
a maniple). 15. exceptans: helping tip. 


XLVIII. Interim ii qui ad alteram partem oppidT, lit supra 
demonstravimus, mumtionis causa convenerant, primo exaudito 
clamore, inde etiam crebris nuntiis incitati oppidum a Romams 
tenieri, praemissis equitibus magno cursu eo contenderunt. 
Eorum ut quisque primus venerat, sub muro consistebat suorum- 5 
que pugnantium numerum augebat. Quorum cum magna 
multitude convenisset, matres familiae, quae paulo ante Ro- 
mams de muro manus tendebant, suos obtestarl et more Gallico 
passum capillum ostentare liberosque in conspectum proferre 
coeperunt. Erat RomanTs nee loco nee numero aequa con- 10 
tentio; simul et cursu et spatio pugnae defatigati non facile 
recentis atque integros sustinebant. 

The Romans are driven back with considerable loss. 

XLIX. Caesar cum iniquo loco pugnari hostiumque copias 
augerl videret, praemetuens suis ad T. Sextium legatum, quem 
minoribus castrls praesidio reliquerat, misit ut cohortis ex castris 15 
celeriter educeret et sub Tnfimo colle ab dextro latere hostium 
constitueret, ut, si nostros loco depulsos vidisset, quominus 
Hbere hostes Insequerentur terreret. Ipse paulum ex eo loco 
cum legione progressus ubi constiterat eventum pugnae exspec- 
tabat. 20 

L. Cum acerrime comminus pugnaretur, hostes loco et nu- 
mero, nostri virtute confiderent, subito sunt Haedui vlsl ab latere 
nostris aperto, quos Caesar ab dextra parte alio ascensu manus 
distinendae causa mlserat. Hi similitudine armorum vehemen- 
ter nostros perterruerunt, ac tametsT dextris umerls exsertis 25 
animadvertebantur, quod Inslgne pactum esse consuerat, tamen 
id ipsum sul fallendl causa mllites ab hostibus factum existima- 
bant. Eodem tempore L. Fabius centurio quique una murum 
ascenderant circumvent! atque interfectl de muro praecipita- 
bantur. M. Petr5nius, eiusdem legionis centurio, cum portasso 

25. dextris umeris exsertis : to have their right shoulders bare. 
26. pactum : agreed upon. 




existimabant quod non virtute consequi possent, neque f mem 
prius sequendi fecerunt quam muro oppidi portlsque appropin- 
quarunt. Turn vero ex omnibus urbis partibus ort5 clamore, 
qui longius aberant repentlno tumultu perterriti, cum hostem 
5 intra portas esse existimarent, se ex oppido eiecerunt. Matres 
familiae de muro vestem argentumque iactabant, et pectore 
nudo prominentes passis manibus obtestabantur Romanos ut 

Ancient lake 


tins, 1st position ^"y^ < -^ 
naL L * .^?^ 

ler campT"}/ ^' 


Smaller cam 

BIT Larger camp 



sibi parcerent, nen, sicut AvaricI fecissent, ne a mulieribus 
quidem atque Infantibus abstinerent ; non nullae de muro 

jo per manus demissae sese militibus tradebant. L. Fabius, cen- 
turio legionis octavae, quern inter suos eo die dixisse constabat 
excitari se Avaricensibus praemiis neque commissurum ut prius 
quisquam murum ascenderet, tns suos nactus manipularis atque 
ab Ms sublevatus murum ascendit ; hos ipse rursus singulos 

15 exceptans in murum extulit. 

6. vestem : clothing. argentum : silver. pectore : breast. 
7. prominentes: leaning forward. 13. manipularis: comrades (in 
a maniple). 15. exceptans: helping i(p. 


XLVIII. Interim il quT ad alteram partem oppidi, ut supra 
demonstravimus, mumtionis causa convenerant, primo exaudito 
clamore, inde etiam crebris nun tils incitati oppidum a Romania 
teneri, praemissls equitibus magno cursu eo contenderunt. 
Eorum ut quisque primus venerat, sub muro consistebat suorum- 5 
que pugnantium numerum augebat. Quorum cum magna 
multitude convenisset, matres familiae, quae paulo ante Ro- 
mams de muro manus tendebant, suos obtestari et more Gallico 
passum capillum ostentare liberosque in conspectum proferre 
coeperunt. Erat Romams nee loco nee numero aequa con- 10 
tentio j simul et cursu et spatio pugnae defatlgatl non facile 
recentis atque integros sustinebant. 

The Romans are driven back with considerable loss. 

XLIX. Caesar cum iniquo loco pugnari hostiumque copias 
auger! videret, praemetuens sms ad T. Sextium legatum, quern 
minoribus castrls praesidio rellquerat, misit ut cohortis ex castris 15 
celeriter ediiceret et sub Infimo colle ab dextro latere hostium 
constitueret, ut, si nostros loco depulsos vldisset, quominus 
Hbere hostes Tnsequerentur terreret. Ipse paulum ex eo loco 
cum legione progressus ubi constiterat eventum pugnae exspec- 
tabat. 20 

L. Cum acerrime comminus pugnaretur, hostes loco et nu- 
mero, nostrl virtute confiderent, subitosunt Haedul vis! ab latere 
nostrls aperto, quos Caesar ab dextra parte alio ascensii manus 
distinendae causa miserat. HI similitiidine armorum vehemen- 
ter nostros perterruerunt, ac tametsT dextris urn ens exsertis 25 
animadvertebantur, quod in sign e pactum esse consuerat, tamen 
id ipsum sul fallendi causa milites ab hostibus factum existima- 
bant. Eodem tempore L. Fabius centurio quique tina murum 
ascenderant circumvent! atque interfectl de muro praecipita- 
bantur. M. Petronius, eiusdem legionis centurio, cum portasso 

25. dextris umeris exsertis: to have their right shoulders bare. 
26. pactum : agreed upon. 


excidere conatus esset, a multitudine oppressus ac sibi desperans 
multis iarn vulneribus acceptis, manipularibus suis, qul ilium 
secutierant, "Quoniam," inquit, " me una vobiscum servare n5n 
possum, vestrae quidem certe vltae prospiciam, quos cupiditate 
5 gloriae adductus in periculum deduxi. Vos data facilitate vobis 
consulite." Simul in medios hostis inrupit duobusque interfec- 
tis reliquos a porta paulum submovit. Conantibus auxiliarl suis, 
"Frustra," inquit, " meae vltae subvemre conamim, quern iam 
sanguis viresque deficiunt. Proinde abite, dum est facultas, 

10 vosque ad legionem recipite." Ita pugnans post paulum con- 
cidit ac suis saluti fuit. 

LI. Nostri cum undique premerentur, XLVI centurionibus 
amissis deiectl sunt loco. Sed intolerantius Gallos msequentls 
legio decima tardavit, quae pro subsidio paulo aequiore loco 

15 constiterat. Hanc rursus tertiae decimae legionis cohortes 
exceperunt, quae ex castrls minoribus eductae cum T. Sextio 
legato ceperant locum superiorem. Legiones ubi prlmum 
planitiem attigerunt, Infestis contra hostem sigms constiterunt. 
Vercingetorix ab radicibus collis suos intra mumtiones reduxit. 

20 Eo die milites sunt paulo minus DCC desiderati. 

Caesar raises the siege and sets out to join Labienus. 

LII. Postero die Caesar contione advocata temeritatem cu- 
piditatemque militum reprehendit, quod sibi ipsi iudicavissent 
quo procedendum aut quid agendum videretur, neque signo re- 
cipiendi dato constitissent, neque a tribums militum legatisque 

25 retineri potuissent. Exposuit quid imquitas loci posset, quod 
ipse ad Avaricum sensisset, cum sine duce et sine equitatu de- 
prehensls hostibus exploratam victoriam dimisisset, ne parvum 
modo detrimentum in contentione propter iniquitatem loci 
accideret * Quantopere eorum animi magnitudinem admira- 

aoretur, quos non castrorum mumtiones, non altitude mentis, non 

13. intolerantius: too impatiently, 18. infestis: hostile; infestia 
signis, in battle array. 


murus oppidi tardare potuisset, tantopere licentiam adrogan- 
tiamque reprehendere, quod plus se quam imperatorera de vic- 
toria atque exitu rerum sentire existimarent ; nee minus se a 
milite modestiam et continentiam quam virtutem atque animl 
magnitudinera desiderare.' 5 

LIIL Hac habita contione et ad extremum confirmatls mi- 
litibus, ne ob hanc causam ammo permoverentur, neu quod 
imquitas loci attulisset, id virtuti hostium tribuerent, eadem de 
profectione cogitans quae ante senserat legiones ex castris 
eduxit aciemque idoneo loco constituit. Cum Vercingetorix 10 
nihilo magis in aequum locum descenderet, levl facto equestri 
proelio, atque eo secundo, in castra exercitum reduxit. Cum 
hoc idem postero die fecisset, satis ad Gallicam ostentationem 
minuendam mllitumque animos confirmandos factum existimans 
in Haeduos movit castra. Ne turn quidem Insecutis hostibus 15 
tertio die ad flumen Elaver venit ; pontem refecit exercitum- 
que traduxit. 

The Haedui burn Noviodunum and destroy the Roman stores there. 

LIV. Ibi a Viridomaro atque Eporedorige Haeduls appel- 
latus discit cum omni equitatu Litaviccum ad sollicitandos 
Haeduos profectum : 'Opus esse ipsos antecedere ad con- 20 
firmandam civitatem.' Etsi multis iam rebus perfidiam Hae- 
duorum perspectam habebat atque horum discessu maturari 
defectionem civitatis existimabat, tamen eos retinendos non 
censuit, ne aut Inferre iniuriam videretur aut daret timoris 
aliquam suspicionem. Discedentibus iis breviter sua in Hae-2$ 
duos merita exposuit, quos et quam humilis accepisset, 
compulsos in oppida, multatos agris, omnibus ereptls socils, 
imposito stipendio, obsidibus summa cum contumelia extortis, 
et quam in fortunam quamque in amplitudinem duxisset, ut 
non solum in pristinum statum redlssent, sed omnium tern- 30 
porum dignitatem et gratiam antecessisse viderentur. His 
datis mandatis eos ab se dimlsit. 

27. multatos: deprived (mulcted}. 


LV. Noviodiinum erat oppidum Haeduorum ad ripas Ligeris 
opportune loco positum. Hue Caesar omms obsides Galliae, 
frumentum, pecuniam publicam, suorum atque exercitus im- 
pedlmentorum magnam partem contulerat; hue magnum nu- 
5 merum equorum huius belli causa in Italia atque Hispania 
coemptum miserat. Eo cum Eporedorlx Viridomarusque ve- 
nissent et de statu civitatis cognovissent, Litaviccum Bibracte 
ab Haeduis receptum, quod est oppidum apud eos maximae 
auctoritatis, Convictolitavem magistratum magnamque partem 

losenatus ad eum convenisse, legatos ad Vercingetorigem de 
pace et amicitia concilianda publice missos, non praeter- 
mittendum tantum commodum existimaverunt. Itaque inter- 
fectis Noviodum custodibus qulque eo negotiandT causa 
convenerant pecuniam atque equos inter se partltl sunt, 

15 obsides civitatum Bibracte ad magistratum deducendos cura- 
verunt, oppidum, quod a -se teneri non posse iudicabant, 
ne cui esset usul Romanis, incenderunt, frumenti quod subito 
potuerunt navibus avexerunt, reliquum flumine atque incendio. 
corruperunt ; ipsi ex fmitimis regionibus copias cogere, prae- 

sosidia custodiasque ad ripas Ligeris disponere, equitatumque 
omnibus locis iniciendi timoris causa ostentare coeperunt, si 
ab re frumentaria Romanos excludere aut adductos inopia in 
provinciam expeliere possent. Quam ad spem multum eos 
adiuvabat quod Liger ex nivibus creverat, ut omnmo vado 

25 non posse translri videretur. 

Caesar crosses the Liger and continues his march northward. 

LYI. Quibus rebus cognitls Caesar maturandum sibi censuit, 
si esset in perficiendls pontibus periclitandum, ut priusquam 
essent maiores eo coactae copiae dimicaret. Nam ne commu- 
tato consilio iter in provinciam converteret, ut non nemo turn 
soquidem necessario faciendum existimabat, cum Infamia atque 
mdlgnitas rei et oppositus mons Cebenna viarumque difficultas 

24. nivibus: snows. 27. si ... periclitandum : in case he had 
to risk a battle -while building bridges. 


impediebat, turn maxime quod abiuncto Labieno atque iis 
legionibus quas una mlserat vehementer timebat. Itaque ad- 
modum magnls diurms nocturmsque itineribus confectis contra 
omnium opmionem ad Ligerim venit, vadoque per equites in- 
vento pro rei necessitate opportune, ut bracchia modo atque 5 
umerl ad sustinenda arma liberi ab aqua esse possent, disposito 
equitatu, qui vim fluminis refringeret, atque hostibus primo as- 
pectu perturbatis incolumem exercitum traduxit ; frumentumque 
in agris et pecoris copiam nactus repleto his rebus exercitu iter 
in Senones facere Instituit. 10 

Meanwhile Labienus, after some opposition, reaches Lutetia. 

LVII. Dum haec apud Caesarem geruntur, Labienus eo sup- 
plements quod nuper ex Italia venerat rellcto Agedinci, ut esset 
impedlmentis praesidio, cum quattuor legionibus Lutetiam pro- 
jficiscitur. Id est oppidum Parisiorum positum in Insula flumi- 
nis Sequanae. Cuius adventu ab hostibus cognito magnae ex 15 
fmitimls clvitatibus copiae convenerunt. Sura ma imperi tradi- 
tur Camulogeno Aulerco, qui prope confectus aetate tamen 
propter singularem scientiam rei militaris ad eum est honorem 
evocatus. Is cum animadvertisset perpetuam esse paludem 
quae mflueret in Sequanam atque ilium omnein locum magno- 20 
pere impedlret, hie consedit nostrosque transitu prohibere 

LVIII. Labienus primo vineas agere, cratibus atque aggere 
paludem explere atque iter munlre -conabatur. Postquam id 
difficilius fieri animadvertit, silentio e castris tertia vigilia egres-25 
sus eodem quo venerat itinere Metiosedum pervenit. Id est 
oppidum Senonum in Insula Sequanae positum, ut paulo ante 
de Lutetia diximus. Deprehensls navibus circiter L celeriter- 
que coniunctis atque eo militibus impositis et rei novitate per- 
territls oppidams, quorum magna pars erat ad bellum evocata, 30 
sine contentione oppido potitur. Refecto ponte, quern superi- 

9. repleto: cf. Eng. 'replete.' 19. perpetuam: continuous. 23. 
aggere : earth. 24. munire : btiild. 




oribus diebus hostes resciderant, exercitum Iraducit et secundo 
fliimine ad Lutetiam iter facere coepit. Hostes re cognita ab 
iis qui Metiosedo profugerant Lutetiam incendl pontisque eius 

""''''' BORUAY :ENe'."C(>V:' ViV. 


oppidT rescind! iubent ; ipsl profecti a palude in ripa Sequanae 
5 e regione Lutetiae contra LabienI castra considtmt. 

I. secundo flumine: down-stream. 


Hearing of Caesar's failure at Gergovia, he returns to Agedincum 

and rejoins Caesar. 

LIX. lam Caesar a Gergovia discessisse audiebatur, iam de 
Haeduorum defectione et secundo Galliae motu rumores ad- 
ferebantur, Gallique in conloquiis interclusum itinere et Ligeri 
Caesarem inopia frumenti coactum in provinciam contendisse 
confirmabant. BellovacI autem defectione Haeduorum cog- 5 
nita, qul iam ante erant per se Infideles, manus cogere atque 
aperte bellum parare coeperunt. Turn Labienus tanta rerum 
commutatione longe aliud sibi capiendum consilium atque 
antea senserat intellegebat, neque iam ut aliquid adqulreret 
proelioque hostis lacesseret, sed ut incolumem exercitum Age- 10 
dincum reduceret cogitabat. Namque altera ex parte Bello- 
vaci, quae civitas in Gallia maximam habet oplnionem virtutis, 
Instabant, alteram Camulogenus parato atque Instracto exer- 
citu tenebat; turn legiones a praesidio atque impedimentis 
interclusas maximum flumen distinebat. Tantis subito diffi-is 
cultatibus obiectis ab animi virtute auxilium petendum vide- 

LX. Itaque sub vesperum consilio convocato cohortatus ut 
ea quae imperasset dlligenter industrieque administrarent, navis 
quas Metiosedo deduxerat singulas equitibus Romanls attribuit, 20 
et prima confecta vigilia quattuor milia passuum secundo flu- 
mine silentio progredi ibique se exspectare iubet Quinque 
cohortis quas minime firmas ad dimicandum esse existimabat 
castris praesidio relinquit; quinque eiusdem legionis reliquas 
de media nocte cum omnibus impedimentis adverse flumine2s 
magno tumultu proficisci imperat. Conquirit etiam lintris ; has 
magno sonitu remorum incitatas in eandem partem imttit. Ipse 
post paulo silentio egressus cum tribus legionibus eum locum 
petit quo navis appelli iusserat. 

LXI. Eo cum esset ventum, exploratores hostium, ut omnlso 
fluminis parte erant dispositi, inoplnantes, quod magna subito 

25. adverse flumine : the opposite of secundo flumine. 27. sonitu: 




oribus diebus hostes resciderant, exercitum traducit et secundo 
flumine ad Lutetiam iter facere coepit. Hostes re cognita ab 
iis qui Metiosedo profugerant Lutetiam incendl pontisque eius 

/Camp of Labienus 


oppidT rescindi iubent ; ips! profecti a palude in npa Seqnanae 
5 e regione Lutetiae contra Labieni castra considunt. 

r. secundo flumine: down-stream. 


Hearing of Caesar's failure at Gergovia, he returns to Agedincum 

and rejoins Caesar. 

LIX. lam Caesar a Gergovia discessisse audiebatur, iam de 
Haeduorum defectione et secundo Galliae motu rumores ad- 
ferebantur, Gallique in conloquils interclusum itinere et Ligeri 
Caesarem inopia frumenti coactum in provinciam contendisse 
conffrmabant. Bellovaci autem defectione Haeduorum cog- 5 
nita, qui iam ante erant per se mfideles, manus cogere atque 
aperte bellum parare coeperunt. Turn Labienus tanta rerum 
commutatione longe aliud sibi capiendum consilium atque 
antea senserat intellegebat, neque iam ut aliquid adquireret 
proelioque hostis lacesseret, sed ut incolumem exercitum Age- 10 
dincum reduceret cogitabat. Namque altera ex parte Bello- 
vaci, quae civitas in Gallia maximam habet oplnionem virtutis, 
instabant, alteram Camulogenus parato atque Instructo exer- 
citu tenebat; turn legiones a praesidio atque impedimentis 
interclusas maximum flumen distinebat. Tantis subito diffi- 15 
cultatibus obiectls ab animi virtute auxilium petendum vide- 

LX. Itaque sub vesperum consilio convocat5 cohortatus ut 
ea quae imperasset diligenter industrieque administrarent, navis 
quas Metiosedo deduxerat singulas equitibus Romanis attribuit, 20 
et prima confecta vigilia quattnor mllia passim m secundo flu- 
mine silentio progredl ibique se exspectare iubet Quinque 
cohortis quas minime firmas ad dimicandum esse existimabat 
castris praesidio relinquit ; quinque eiusdem legionis reliquas 
de media nocte cum omnibus impedimentis adverse flumine 25 
magno tumultii proficisci imperat. Conquirit etiam lintris ; has 
magno sonitii remorum incitatas in eanclem partem mittit. Ipse 
post paulo silentio egressus cum tribus legionibus eum locum 
petit quo navis appelli iusserat. 

LXI. Eo cum esset ventum, exploratores hostium, ut omniso 
fluminis parte erant dispositi, inoplnantes, quod magna subito 

25. adverse flumine : the opposite of secundo flumine. 27. sonitu: 


erat coorta tempestas, a nostris opprimuntur ; exercitus equi- 
tatusque equitibus Roraanis adrainistrantibus quos el negotio 
praefecerat celeriter transmittitur. Uno fere tempore sub 
lucem hostibus nuntiatur in castris Romanorum praeter con- 
Ssuetudinem tumultuari, et magnum Ire agmen adverse flu- 
mine, sonitumque remorum in eadem parte exaudm, et paulo 
infra milites navibus transporter!. Quibus rebus anditis, quod 
exlstimabant tribus locis transire legiones atque omms pertur- 
batos defectione Haeduorum fugam parare, suas quoque copias 

10 in tris partis distribuerunt. Nam praesidio e regione castro- 
rum rellcto et parva manu Metiosedum versus ' missa, quae tan- 
tum progrederetur quantum naves processissent, reliquas copias 
contra Labienum duxerunt. 

LXII. Prima luce et nostri omnes erant transportati et hos- 

i5tium acies cernebatur. Labienus milites cohortatus ut suae 
pristinae virtutis et tot secundissimorum proeliorum retinerent 
memoriam, atque ipsum Caesarem, cuius ductii saepenumero 
hostls superassent, praesentem adesse existimarent, dat slgnum 
proeli. Prlmo concursu ab dextro cornu, ubi septima legio 

20 constiterat, hostes pelluntur atque in fugam coniciuntur ; ab 
sinistro, quern locum duodecima legio tenebat, cum primi 
ordines hostium transfix! pills concidissent, tamen acerrime 
reliqui resistebant, nee dabat suspicionem fugae quisquam. 
Ipse dux hostium Camulogenus suis ad erat atque eos cohorta- 

25 batur. At incerto etiam nunc exitu victoriae, cum septimae 
legionis tribums esset nuntiatum quae in sinistro cornu gereren- 
tur, post tergum hostium legionem ostenderunt signaque intu- 
lerunt. Ne eo quidem tempore quisquam loco cessit, sed 
circumvent! omnes interfectique sunt. Eandem fortunam tulit 

30 Camulogenus. At i! qui in praesidio contra castra Labieni 
erant relict!, cum proelium commissum aud!ssent, subsidio suis 
ierunt collemque ceperunt, neque nostrorum militum victorum 
impetum sustinere potuerunt. Sic cum suis fugientibus per- 
mixt! quos non silvae montesque texerunt ab equitatu sunt in- 

35 terfecti. Hoc negotio confecto Labienus revertitur Agedincum, 


ubi impedimenta totius exercitus relicta erant ; inde cum omni- 
bus copiis ad Caesarem pervenit. 

The insurrection now becomes general. Vercingetorix is chosen commander- 
in-chief. He adopts energetic measures. 

LXIIL Defectione Haeduorum cognita bellum augetur. 
Legationes in omnis partis circummittuntur ; quantum gratia, 
auctoritate, pecunia valent ad sollicitandas civitates utuntur; 5 
nacti obsides quos Caesar apud eos deposuerat horum sup- 
plicio dubitantis territant. Petunt a Vercingetorige Haedul 
ut ad se veniat rationesque belli gerendi communicet. Re im- 
petrata contendunt ut ipsls summa imperi tradatur, et re in 
controversiam deducta totius Galliae concilium Bibracte indicitur. ro 
Conveniunt undique frequentes. Multitudinis suffragiTs res 
permittitur; ad unum omnes Vercingetorigem probant im- 
peratorem. Ab hoc concilio Remi, Lingeries, Treveri afuerunt, 
illi, quod amicitiam Romanorum sequebantur; Treveri, quod 
aberant longius et a Germanis premebantur, quae fuit causa 15 
quare toto abessent bello et neutrls auxilia mitterent. Magno 
dolore Haedul ferunt se deiectos principatu, queruntur fortunae 
commutationem et Caesaris in se indulgentiam requirunt, 
neque tamen suscepto bello suum consilium ab reliquls 
separare audent. Invltl summae spel adulescentes Eporedorix 20 
et Viridomarus Vercingetorigl parent. 

LXIV. Ille imperat reliquis clvitatibus obsides diemque 
el rel constituit. OmnTs equites, xv milia numero, celeriter 
convemre iubet. Peditatu quern ante habuerit se fore con- 
tentum dicit neque fortunam temptaturum aut acie dimi-25 
caturum; sed quoniam abundet equitatu, perfacile esse factu 
frumentationibus pabulationibusque Romanes prohibere, aequo 
modo animo sua ipsi frumenta corrumpant aedificiaque incen- 
dant, qua rel familiaris iactura perpetuum imperium Hbertatem- 
que se consequi videant. His constitutls rebus Haeduisso 
Segusiavisque, quT sunt finitimi provinciae, decem milia 

ii. suffragiis: to the decision (votes). 18. requirunt: miss. 


peditum imperat ; hue addit equites pccc. His praeficit 
fratrem Eporedorigis bellumque inferre Allobrogibus iubet. 
Altera ex parte Gabalos proximosque pagos Arvernorum in 
Helvios, item Rutenos Cadurcosque ad finis Volcarum Are- 
Scomicorum depopulandos mittit. Nihilo minus clandestmls 
nuntils legationibusque Allobroges sollicitat, quorum mentis 
nondum ab superiore bello resedisse sperabat. Horum prin- 
cipibus pecunias, civitatl autem imperium totius provinciae 

Caesar secures cavalry from Germany. 

10 LXV. Ad hos omms casus provisa erant praesidia cohortium 
duarum et xx, quae ex ipsa coacta provincia ab L. Caesare 
legato ad omms partis opponebantur. Helvii sua sponte cum 
fmitimis proelio congress! pelluntur, et C. Valerio Domnotauro, 
Caburl filio, prmcipe civitatis, compluribusque alils interfectis 

i5intra oppida murosque compelluntur. Allobroges crebris ad 
Rhodanum dispositis praesidiis magna cum cura et diligentia 
suos finis tuentur. Caesar quod hostls equitatu superiores 
esse intellegebat, et interclusis omnibus itineribus nulla re 
ex provincia atque Italia sublevari poterat, trans Rhenum 

20 in Germaniam mittit ad eas civitates quas superioribus annis 
pacaverat, equitesque ab his arcessit et levis armaturae pe- 
dites qui inter eos pfoeliari consuerant. Eorum adventu, 
quod minus idoneis equis utebantur, a tribunis militum 
reliquisque equitibus Romams atque evocatls equos sumit 

25 Germanisque distribuit. 

The cavalry of the Gauls attacks him, but is defeated. 

LXVI. Interea, dum haec geruntur, hostium copiae ex 
Arvernis equitesque qui toti Galliae erant imperati conveniunt. 
Magno horum coacto numero, cum Caesar in Sequanos per 
extremos Lingonum finis iter faceret, quo facilius subsidium 

7. resedisse : had become calm, 24. evocatis : veterans, who 
having served their time had reeniisted on invitation of the general. 


provinciae f erre posset, circiter imlia passuum decem ab Romams 
trims castris Vercingetorix consedit, convocatisque ad consilium 
praefectls equitum venisse terapus victoriae demonstrat: 'Fugere 
in provmciam Romanes Galliaque excedere. Id sibi ad prae- 
sentem obtinendam Hbertatem satis esse ; ad reliqui temporis 5 
pacem atque otium parum proficl, maioribus enim coactis copils 
reversuros neque finem bellandl facturos. Proinde in agmine 
impedltos adoriantur. Si pedites suls auxilium ferant" atque in 
eo morentur, iter facere non posse ; si, id quod magis futurum 
confldat, relictis impedimentis suae saluti consulant, et usu 10 
rerum necessariarnm et dignitate spoliatum in. Nam de equiti- 
bus hostium, quln nemo eorum. progredi modo extra agmen 
audeat, ne ipsos qiiidem debere dubitare. Id quo rnaiore 
faciant animo, copias se omnls pro castris habiturum et terror! 
hostibus futurum.' Conclamant equites sanctissimo iure iurando 15 
confirmarl oportere ne tecto recipiatur, ne ad Hberos, ne ad 
parentis, ne ad uxorem aditum habeat, qui non bis per agmen 
hostium perequitarit. 

LXVII. Probata re atque omnibus ad ius iurandum adactis, 
postero die in tris partis distributo equitatu duae se acies ab 20 
duobus lateribus ostendunt, una a primo agmine iter impedire 
coepit. Qua re nuntiata Caesar suum quoque equitatum tripar- 
tito divisum contra hostem Ire iubet. Pugnatur una omnibus 
in partibus. Consistit agmen ; impedimenta inter legiones reci- 
piuntur. SI qua in parte nostri laborare aut gravius premi25 
videbantur, eo slgna Inferri Caesar aciemque convert! iubebat ; 
quae res et hostls ad Insequendum tardabat et nostros spe 
auxili conflrmabat. Tandem German! ab dextro latere summum 
iugum nactl hostls loco depellunt ; fugientls usque ad flumen, 
ubi Vercingetorix cum pedestribus copils consederat, perse- 30 
quuntur complurisque interficiunt. Qua re animadversa reliqui, 
ne circumvemrentur veriti, se fugae mandant. Omnibus locls 
fit caedes. Tres nobilissimi Haedui capti ad Caesarem per- 
ducuntur, Cotus, praefectus equitum, qui controversiam cum 

6. otium: quiet. profici: advantage was gained. 




Convictolitave proximis comitiis habuerat, et Cavarillus, qui 
post defectionem Litavicci pedestribus copiis praefuerat, et 
Eporedorix, quo duce ante adventum Caesaris Haedui cum 
Sequams bello contenderant. 

Vercingetorix withdraws into Alesia. Caesar follows him to the town. 

$ LXVIII. Fugato omm equitatu Vercingetorix copias suas, ut 
pro castris conlocaverat, reduxit protinusque Alesiam, quod est 
oppidum Mandubiorum, iter facere coepit, celeriterque impedi- 


' ' v ' : ' . . '' ' '' ! 

ps and lines of intrenchment ; 
of the Romans i 

Roman castella : 

Caesar's position in the final struggle; 



menta ex castris educi et se subsequT iussit. Caesar impedl- 
mentls in proximum collem ductls, duabus legionibus praesidio 
lorellctTs seciitus hostis quantum die! tempus est passum, circiter 
tribus milibus ex novissimo agmine interfectis altero die ad 
Alesiam castra fecit. Perspecto urbis situ perterritisque hosti- 
bus, quod equitatu, qua maxime parte exercitus confidebant, 
erant pulsl, adhortatus ad laborem milites Alesiam circumvallare 

15 Instituit. 

i. comitiis: election. 


LXIX. Ipsum erat oppidum in colle summo, admodum edito 
loco, ut nisi obsididne expugnari non posse videretur; cuius 
collis radices duo duabus ex partibus flumina subluebant. Ante 
oppidum planities circiter milia passuum tria in longitudinem 
patebat; reliquis ex omnibus partibus colles mediocr! interiecto 5 
spatio par! altitudinis fastigio oppidum cingebant. Sub muro, 
quae pars collis ad orientem solem spectabat, hunc omnem 
locum copiae Gallorum compleverant fossamque et maceriam 
in altitudinem sex pedum praeduxerant. Eius mumtionis quae 
ab Romams instituebatur circuitus xi milia passuum tenebat. 10 
Castra opportunis locis erant posita octo castellaque xxm 
facta, quibus in castellls interdiu stationes ponebantur, ne qua 
subito eruptio fieret ; haec eadem noctu excubitoribus ac f irmls 
praesidiis tenebantur. 

A cavalry battle is fought, in which the Gauls are again defeated. Vercin- 
getorix sends away his cavalry to seek aid. 

LXX. Opere institute fit equestre proelium in ea planitie 15 
quam intermissam collibus tria milia passuum in longitudinem 
patere supra deinonstravirnus. Summa vT ab utrisque con- 
tenditur. Laborantibus nostrls Caesar Germanos submittit 
legionesque pro castris constituit, ne qua subito inruptio ab 
hostium peditatu flat. Praesidio legionum addito nostrls animus 20 
augetur; hostes in fugam coniecti se ipsi multitudine impediunt 
atque angustioribus portis relictis coartantur. German! acrius 
usque ad mumtiones sequuntur. Fit magna caedes; non 
nulll relictis equls fossam transire et maceriam transcendere 
conantur. Paulum legiones Caesar quas pro vallo constituerat 25 
promoveri iubet. Non minus qui intra mumtiones erant Galli 
perturbantur , venm ad se confestim existimantes ad arma 
conclamant j non nulll perterriti in oppidum inrumpunt. Ver- 
cingetorix iubet portas claudi, ne castra nudentur. Multis 
interfectis, compluribus equls captls German! sese recipiunt. 30 

6. pari altitudinis fastigio : with s^tmm^ts of equal height. 8. ma- 
ceriam: wall. 13: excubitoribus: pickets. 




Convictolitave proximis comiths habuerat, et Cavarillus., qui 
post defectionem Litavicci pedestribus copils praefuerat, et 
Eporedorix, quo duce ante adventum Caesaris Haedui cum 
Sequams bello contenderant. 

Vercingetorix withdraws into Alesia. Caesar follows him to the town. 

$ LXVIIL Fugato omm equitatu Vercingetorix copias suas, ut 
pro castris conlocaverat, reduxit protinusque Alesiam, quod est 
oppidum Mandubiorum, iter facere coepit, celeriterque impedi- 

Iloman castella. 
+> Caesar's position in the final struggle 


menta ex castris educi et se subsequT iussit. Caesar impedi- 
mentls in proximnm collem ductTs, duabus legionibus praesidio 
10 relictls secutus hostls quantum diel tempus est passum, circiter 
tribus milibus ex novissimo agmine interfectis altero die ad 
Alesiam castra fecit. Perspecto urbis situ perterritlsque hosti- 
bus, quod equitatu, qua maxime parte exercitus confidebant, 
erant pulsi, adhortatus ad laborem mTlites Alesiam circumvallare 

15 instituit. 

I. comitiis: election. 


LXIX. Ipsum erat oppidum in colle sum mo, admodum edito 
loco, ut nisi obsidione expugnarl non posse videretur ; cuius 
collis radices duo duabus ex partibus flumina subluebant Ante 
oppidum planities circiter milia passuum tria in longitudinem 
patebat ; reliquls ex omnibus partibus colles mediocri interiecto 5 
spatio pan altitudinis fastigio oppidum cingebant. Sub muro, 
quae pars collis ad orientem solem spectabat, hunc omnem 
locum copiae Gallorum compleverant fossamque et maceriam 
in altitudinem sex pedum praeduxerant. Eius munltionis quae 
ab Romams Tnstituebatur circuitus xi milia passuum tenebat. 10 
Castra opportunis locis erant posita octo castellaque xxm 
facta, quibus in castellls interdiu stationes ponebantur, ne qua 
subito eruptio fieret ; haec eadem noctu excubitoribus ac f irmis 
praesidils tenebantur. 

A cavalry battle is fought, in which the Gauls are again defeated. Vercin- 
getorix sends away his cavalry to seek aid. 

LXX. Opere Institute fit equestre proelium in ea planitie 15 
quam intermissam collibus tria milia passuum in longitudinem 
patere supra demonstravimus. Summa vl ab utrisque con- 
tenditur. Laborantibus nostrls Caesar Germanos submittit 
legionesque pro castris constituit, ne qua subito inruptio ab 
hostium peditatu flat. Praesidio legionum addito nostrls animus 20 
augetur; hostes in fugam coniectl se ipsi multitudine impediunt 
atque angustioribus portls rellctls coartantur. German! acrius 
usque ad mumtiones seqmmtur. Fit magna caedes ; non 
nulll rellctls equls fossam translre et maceriam transcendere 
conantur. Paulum legiones Caesar quas pro vallo constituerat 25 
promoverl iubet. Non minus qul intra mumtiones erant Galll 
perturbantur , venlri ad se confestim exlstimantes ad arma 
conclamant ; non nulll perterriti in oppidum inrumpunt. Ver- 
cingetorix iubet portas claudi, ne castra nudentur. Multls 
interfectls, compluribus equls captls GermanI sese recipiunt. 30 

6. pari altitudinis fastigio : with summits of equal height. 8. ma- 
ceriam: -wall. 13: excubitoribus: pickets, 


LXXI. Vercingetorix, priusquam mumtiones ab Romams 
perficiantur, consilium capit omnem ab se equitattim noctu 
diraittere. Discedentibus mandat ut suam quisque eorum 
civitatem adeat omnisque qul per aetatem arma ferre possint 
Sad bellum cogant; sua in illos merita proponit obtestaturque 
ut suae salutis rationem habeant, neu se optime de commum 
libertate meritum hostibus in cruciatum dedant. ~ Quod si 
indiligentiores fuerint, milia hominum delecta LXXX una secum 
interitiira demonstrat. ' Ratione inita frumentum se exigue 

lodierum xxx habere, sed paulo etiam longius tolerari posse 
parcendo.' His datls mandatis qua erat nostrum opus inter- 
missum secunda vigilia silentio equitatum dimittit. Frumentum 
omne ad se referrl iubet ; capitis poenam ils qul non paruerint 
constituit ; pecus, cuius magna erat copia a Mandubiis com- 

15 pulsa, viritim distribuit ; frumentum parce et paulatim metlri 
Instituit ; copias omms quas pro oppido conlocaverat in oppidum 
recipit. His rationibus auxilia Galliae exspectare et bellum 
administrare parat. 

Description of Caesar's works. 


LXXII. Quibus rebus cognitls ex perfugls et captivis Caesar 
20 haec genera munitionis Instituit. Fossam pedum xx derectis 
lateribus duxit, ut eius fossae solum tantundem pateret quantum 
summa labra distarent j reliquas omms mumtiones ab ea fossa 
pedes cccc reduxit hoc consilio, quoniam tantum esset neces- 
sario spatium complexus, nee facile totum opus corona militum 
25 cingeretur, ne de improviso aut noctu ad mumtiones multitude 
hostium advolaret aut interdiu tela in nostros open destinatos 
conicere possent. Hoc intermisso spatio duas fossas xv pedes 
latas eadem altitudine perduxit ; quarum interiorem campestri- 
bus ac demissis locis aqua ex flumine derivata complevit Post 

13. capitis: \ 20. derectis : perpendicular. 21. solum: 
bottom. tantundem : just as muck, i.e. the trench was as wide at the 
bottom as at the top. 22. labra: edges (lips'). 24. corona: by a ring 
(crown). 26. destinatos: detailed. 




eas aggerem ac vallum xn pedum exstruxit ; huic loncam pin- 
nasque adiecit grandibus cervis eminentibus ad commissuras plu- 
teorum atque aggeris, qui ascensum hostium tardarent, et turris 
toto opere circumdedit, quae pedes LXXX inter se distarent. 

LXXIII. Erat eodem tempore et materiari et frumentari et 5 
tantas mumtiones fieri necesse deminutls nostris copils, quae 


longius a castris progrediebantur ; ac non numquam opera nostra 
Galll temptare atque eruptionem ex oppido pluribus portis 
sumtna vi facere conabantur. Quare ad haec rursus opera ad- 
dendum Caesar putavit, quo minore numero militum rnunitiones 10 
defend! possent. Itaque truncls arborum aut admodum firmls 
ramis absclsis atque horum delibratis ac praeacutis caciimini- 

i. loricam pinnasque: a parapet and battlements. 2. cervis: 
forked branches or tops of trees (lit. stags, from the resemblance to their 
antlers). pluteorum : i.e. the shields, or squares, of wattlework forming 
the lorica. 12. delibratis: stripped of bark. cacuminibus : tops. 


LXXI. Vercingetorlx, priusquam mumtiones ab Romanis 
perficiantur, consilium capit omnera ab se equitattim noctu 
dimittere. Discedentibus mandat ut suam quisque eorum 
civitatem ad eat omnlsque qul per aetatem arm a ferre possint 
Sad bellum cogant ; sua in illos merita proponit obtestaturque 
ut suae salutis ration em habeant, neu se optime de communi 
libertate meritum hostibus in cruciatum dedant. Quod si 
indiligentiores fuerint, milia hominum delecta LXXX una secum 
interitura demonstrat. ' Ratione inita frumentum se exigue 
lodierum xxx habere, sed paulo etiam longius tolerari posse 
parcendo.' His datis raandatis qua erat nostrum opus inter- 
missum secunda vigilia silentio equitatum dlmittit. Frumentum 
omne ad se referri iubet ; capitis poenam ils qm non paruerint 
constituit ; pecus, cuius magna erat copia a Mandubiis corn- 
is pulsa, virltim distribuit ; frumentum parce et panlatim metlri 
instituit ; copias omms quas pro oppido conlocaverat in oppidum 
recipit. His rationibus auxilia Galliae exspectare et bellum 
administrare parat. 

Description of Caesar's works. 

LXXI I. Quibus rebus cognitis ex perfugls et captivis Caesar 
20 haec genera mumtionis instituit. Fossam pedum xx derectis 
lateribus duxit, ut eius fossae solum tantundem pateret quantum 
summa labra distarent ; reliquas omnis miinitiones ab ea fossa 
pedes cccc reduxit hoc consilio, quoniam tantum esset neces- 
sario spatium complexus, nee facile totum opus corona militum 
25 cingeretur, ne de improviso ant noctu ad mumtiones multitudo 
hostium advolaret aut interdiu tela in nostros open destinatos 
conicere possent. Hoc intermisso spatio duas fossas xv pedes 
latas eadem altitiidine perduxit ; quarum interiorem campestri- 
bus ac demissls locis aqua ex flumine derivata complevit. Post 

13. capitis: i.e. capital. 20. derectis : perpendicular. 21. solum: 
bottom. tantundem: just as muck, i.e. the trench was as wide at the 
bottom as at the top. 22. labra: edges (lips}. 24. corona: by a ring 
(crown} . 26. destinatos : detailed. 




eas aggerem ac vallum xn pedum exstruxit ; huic loricam pin- 
nasque adiecit grandibus cervis eminentibus ad commissuras plu- 
teorum atque aggeris, qui ascensum hostium tardarent, et turns 
toto opere circumdedit, quae pedes LXXX inter se distarent. 

LXXIII. Erat eodem tempore et materiarl et frumentari et 5 
tantas mumtiones fieri necesse deminutls nostris copiis, quae 


longius a castris progrediebantur ; ac non numquam opera nostra 
Galll temptare atque eruptionem ex oppido pluribus portls 
summa vi facere conabantur. Quare ad haec riirsus opera ad- 
dendum Caesar putavit, quo minore numero mllitum munitiones 10 
defend! possent. Itaque truncls arborum aut admodum flrmls 
ramis absclsls atque horum delibratis ac praeacutis caciimini- 

I. loricam pinnasque: a parapet and battlements. 2. cervis: 
forked branches or tops of trees (lit. stags, from the resemblance to their 
antlers). pluteorum: i.e. the shields, or squares, of wattlework forming 
the lorica. 12. delibratis: stripped of bark. cacuminibus : tops. 


bus perpetuae fossae qumos pedes altae ducebantur. Hue illi 
stlpites demissi et ab infimo revincti, ne revelll possent, ab ramis 
eminebant. Quim erant ordines, coniuncti inter se atque im- 
plicati ; quo qul intraverant se ipsi acutissimls valhs Induebant. 
5 Hos cippos appellabant. Ante hos obliquis ordinibus in quin- 
cimcem dispositls scrobes in altitudinem trium pedum fpdieban- 
tur paulatim angustiore ad mfimum fastlgio. Hue teretes stlpites 
feminis crassitudine ab summo praeacuti et praeusti demitteban- 
tur, ita ut non amplius digitis quattuor ex terra erninerent ; 

losimul confirmandi et stabiliendl causa singuli ab Infimo solo 
pedes terra exculcabantur, reliqua pars scrobis ad occultandas 
Insidias vlrainibus ac virgultis integebatur. Hiiius generis octoni 
ordines ductl ternos inter se pedes distabant. Id ex similitudine 
floris lilium appellabant. Ante haec taleae pedem longae ferrels 

15 hamis Infixis totae in terrain Infodiebantur mediocribusque 
intermissis spatiis omnibus locis disserebantur ; quos stimulos 

LXXIV. His rebus perfectis regiones secutus quam potuit 
aequissimas pro loci natura, xini milia passuum complexus 

20 pans eiusdem generis munitiones, drversas ab his, contra ex- 
teriorem hostem perfecit, ut ne magna quidem multitudine 
munitionum praesidia circumfundi possent ; ne autem cum pe- 
riculo ex castris egredi cogatur, dierum xxx pabulum fru- 
mentumque habere omms convectum iubet. 

2. stipites: tree-trunks. ab ramis: -with their branches (only). 
4. vallis: stakes. induebant: impaled. 5. cippos: gravestones, 
or perhaps boimdary-posts. quinctmcem : the quincunx is an arrange- 
ment like that of the jive of cards or dice. 6. scrobes -.pits. 7. fastigio: 
slope. The sides were sloping, so that the bottom of the pits was smaller 
than the top. teretes : round. 8. feminis : of a thigh. praeusti : 
charred at the end. 10. singuli . . . exculcabantur : at the bottom 
of each pit a foot was filled in with earth trampled solid (around the 
stake). 12. octoni: eight in each place (where needed). 14. floris : 
of the flower. lilium: a lily. taleae -.blocks. 15. hamis: hooks, or 
barbed spikes. 16. disserebantur: were scattered (sowti) here and 
there. stimulos : goads. 20. diversas : facing in the opposite direction. 


A Gallic army starts to the relief of Alesia. . 

LXXV. Dum haec ad Alesiam geruntur, Galll concilio prin- 
cipum indicto non omnis qui arma ferre possent, ut censuit 
Vercingetorix, convocandos statuunt, sed certum numerum 
cuique civitati imperandum, ne tanta multitudine confusa nee 
moderari nee discernere suos nee frumentandi rationem habere 5 
possent. Imperant Haeduis atque eorum clientibus, Segusiavis, 
Ambivaretls, Aulercis Brannovicibus, milia xxxv; parem nu- 
merum Arverms, adiunctis Eleutetis, Cadurcls, Gabalis,VellaviIs, 
qui sub imperio Arvernorum esse consuerunt; Sequanis, Se- 
nonibus, Biturigibus, Santonis, RutenTs, Carnutibus duodena 10 
milia ; Bellovacis x ; totidem Lemovicibus ; octona Pictonibus 
et TuronTs et Parlsiis et Helvetils; sena Andibus, Ambiams, 
Mediomatricis, Petrocoriis, Nerviis, Morinis, Nitiobrogibus ; v 
milia Aulercis Cenomams ; totidem Atrebatibus ; mi Velio- 
cassis; Aulercis Eburovicibus in; Rauracis et Boils bma; xi$ 
universis civitatibus quae Oceanum attingunt quaeque eorum 
consuetudine Arernoricae appellantur, quo sunt in numero Co- 
riosolites, Redones, Ambibarii, Caletes, OsismI, Veneti, Lexovii, 
Venelli. Ex his Bellovaci suum numerum non contulerunt, 
quod se suo nomine atque arbitrio cum RomanTs bellum gestu- 20 
ros dicerent neque cuiusquam imperio obtemperaturos ; rogati 
tamen a Commio pr5 eius hospitio duo milia miserunt. 

LXXVI. Huius opera Comrni, ut antea demonstravimus, 
fidell atque utili superioribus annls erat usus in Britannia Caesar ; 
pro quibus meritls civitatem. eius immunem esse iusserat, iuraas 
legesque reddiderat, atque ipsi Morinos attribuerat. Tanta 
tamen universae Galliae consensio fuit libertatis vindicandae et 
pristinae belli laudis recuperandae ut neque beneficiis neque 
amicitiae memoria moveretur, omnesque et animo et opibus in 
id bellum incumberent. Coactls equitum milibus octo et pe- 30 
ditum circiter CCL, haec in Haeduorum -finibus recensebantur 

5. discernere: distinguish. 21. obtemperaturos: would obey. 
25. immunem: free from tribute. 31. recensebantur: were re- 


numerusque inlbatur, praefectl constituebantur ; Commio Atre- 
bati, Viridomaro et Eporedorigl Haeduis, Vercassivellauno 
Arverno, consobrino Vercingetorigis, summa imperi traditur. 
His delect! ex clvitatibus attribuuntur, quorum consilio bellum 
5 administraretur. Omnes alacres et fiduciae pleni ad Alesiam 
proficlscuntur, neque erat omnium quisquam qui aspectum 
modo tantae multitudinis sustineri posse arbitraretur, praesertim 
ancipiti proelio, cum ex oppido eruptione pugnaretur, foris 
tantae copiae equitatus peditatusque cernerentur. 

A council of war is held in Alesia. The cruel proposal of Critognatus. 

10 LXXVII. At ii qui Alesiae obsidebantur praeterita die qua 
auxilia suorum exspectaverant, consumpto omni friimento 
inscil quid in Haeduis gereretur concilio coacto de exitu suarum 
fortunarum consultabant. Ac variis dictis sententiis, quarum 
pars deditionem, pars, dum vires suppeterent, eruptionem cen- 

15 sebat, non praetereunda oratio Critognati videtur propter eius 
singularem et nefariam criidelitatem. Hie summo in Arvernis 
ortus loco et magnae habitus auctoritatis, " Nihil," inquit, "de 
eorum sententia dicturus sum qui turpissimam servitutem dedi- 
tionis nomine appellant, neque hos habendos civium loco neque 

20 ad concilium adhibendos censeo. Cum his mihi res est qui 
eruptionem probant ; quorum in consilio omnium vestrum con- 
sensu pristinae residere virtutis memoria videtur. Animi est 
ista mollitia, non virtus, paulisper inopiam ferre non posse. 
Qui se ultro mortl offerant facilius reperiuntur quam qui dolorem 

25 patienter ferant. Atque ego hanc sententiam probarem (tan- 
turn apud me dignitas potest), si nullam praeterquam vitae nos- 
trae iacturam fieri viderem ; sed in consilio capiendo omiiem 
Galliam respiciamus, quam ad nostrum auxilium concitavimus. 
Quid hominum milibus LXXX uno loco interfectis propinquls 

30 consanguinelsque nostrls animl fore exlstimatis, slpaene in ipsls 

3. consobrino : cousin. 8. foris : outside. 22. residere : to linger. 
26. praeterquam: except. 


cadaveribus proelio .decertare cogentur? Nolite hos vestro 
auxilio exspoliare, qui vestrae salutis causa suum periculum neg- 
lexerunt, nee stultitia ac temeritate vestra aut animl imbecil- 
litate omnem Galliam prosternere et perpetuae servituti 
subicere. An quod ad diem ndn venerunt, de eorum fide 5 
constantiaque dubitatis ? Quid ergo ? Romanes in illis ulteri- 
oribus mumtionibus animine causa cottldie exerceri putatis ? Si 
illorum nuntiis confirmari non potestis omni aditu praesaepto, 
his utimini testibus appropinquare eorum adventum ; cuius rei 
timore exterriti diem noctemque in opere versantur. Quid ergo 10 
mei consili est? Facere quod nostrl maiores nequaquam par! 
bello Cimbrorum Teutonumque f ecerunt ; qui in oppida com- 
pulsi ac simili inopia subacti eorum corporibus qui aetate ad 
bellum inutiles videbantur vitam toleraverunt neque se hostibus 
tradiderunt. Cuius rei si exemplum non haberemus, tamen 15 
libertatis causa InstituI et posteris prodi pulcherrimum iudi- 
carem. Nam quid ill! simile bello fuit? Depopulata Gallia 
Cimbri magnaque inlata calamitate fmibus quidem nostris ali- 
quando excesserunt atque alias terras petierunt, iura, leges, 
agros, libertatem nobis reliquerunt. Roman! vero quid petunt 20 
aliud aut quid volunt, nisi invidia adducti, quos fama nobilis 
potentisque bello cognoverunt, horum in agris civitatibusque 
consldere atque his aeternam iniungere servitutem? Neque 
enim umquam alia condicione bella gesserunt. Quod si ea quae 
in longinquls nationibus geruntur ignoratis, respicite finitimam 25 
Galliam, quae in provinciam redacta, iure et legibus commutatls, 
securibus subiecta perpetua premitur servitute." 

LXXVIII. Sententils dictls constituunt ut ii qui valetudine 
aut aetate inutiles sint bello oppido excedant, atque omnia 
prius experiantur quam ad Critognati sententiam descendant ; 30 
illo tamen potius utendum consilio, si res cogat atque auxilia 
morentur, quam aut deditionis aut pads subeundam condi- 

7. animi causa: for amusement. 8. praesaepto: blocked up. 
27. securibus: to the axes (of the lictors, symbols of Roman power). 
31. utendum: sc. esse; translate as if oportere ttti. 


cionera. Mandubil, qui eos oppido receperant, cum llberis at- 
que uxoribus exfre coguntur. Hi cum ad mumtiones Roma- 
norum accessissent, flentes omnibus precibus orabant ut se in 
servitutem receptos cibo iuvarent. At Caesar dispositis in vallo 
5 custodiis recipl prohibebat. 

Arrival of the army of relief. Caesar repulses an attack upon his works. 

LXXIX. Interea Commius reliqulque duces quibus summa 
imperi permissa erat cum omnibus copiis ad Alesiam perveni- 
unt, et colle exteriore occupato non longius mille passibus a 
nostris mumtionibus consldunt. Postero die equitatu ex castrls 

xoeducto omnem earn planitiem quam in longitudinem mllia 
passuum tria patere demonstravimus complent, pedestrlsque 
copias paulum ab e5 loco abductas in locls stiperioribus consti- 
tuunt. Erat ex oppido Alesia despectus in campum. Concur- 
runt his auxiliis visis ; fit gratulatio inter eos, atque omnium 

isanimi ad laetitiam excitantur. Itaque productis copiis ante 
oppidum consistunt, et proximam fossam cratibus integunt 
atque aggere explent, seque ad eruptionem atque omms casus 

LXXX. Caesar omm exercitu ad utramque partem mumtio- 

20 num disposito, ut si usus veniat, suum quisque locum teneat et 
noverit, equitatum ex castrls educi et proelium committi iubet. 
Erat ex omnibus castris, quae summum undique iugum tene- 
bant, despectus, atque omnes mllites intentl pugnae proventum 
exspectabant. Galli inter equites raros sagittarios expeditos- 

asque levis armaturae interiecerant, qui suis cedentibus auxilio 
succurrerent et nostrorum equitum impetus sustinerent. Ab 
his complures de improviso vulneratT proelio excedebant. Cum 
suos pugna superiores esse Galli confiderent et nostros multi- 
tudine premi viderent, ex omnibus partibus et ii qui mumtioni- 

30 bus continebantur et ii qui ad auxilium convenerant clamore et 
ululatu suorum animos confirmabant. Quod in conspectu om- 

31. ululatu: yell. 


nium res gerebatur neque recte aut turpiter factum celari 
poterat, utrosque et laudis cupiditas -et timor ignominiae ad 
virtutem excitabat. Cum a meridie prope ad soils occasum 
dubia victoria pugnaretur, German! una in parte confertls tur- 
mis in hostls impetum lecerunt eosque propulerunt; quibus in 5 
fugam coniectis sagittarii circumvent! interfectique sunt. Item 
ex reliqms partibus nostrl cedentis usque ad castra Insecuti sul 
conligendi facultatem non dederunt. At ii qui Alesia processe- 
rant, maesti prope victoria desperata se in oppidum receperunt. 

A second attack also is repulsed. 

LXXXI. Uno die intermisso Galll atque hoc spatio magno 10 
cratium, scalarum, harpagonum numero effecto media nocte si- 
lentio ex castris egress! ad campestris mumtiones accedunt. 
Subito clamore si\blato, qua s!gnificatione qui in oppido obside- 
bantur de suo adventu cognoscere possent, cratis proicere, 
fundis, sagittis, lapidibus nostros de vallo proturbare, reliqua- 15 
que quae ad oppugnationem pertinent parant administrare. 
Eodem tempore clamore exaudito dat tuba signum suis Ver- 
cingetorix atque ex oppido educit. Nostrl, ut superioribus 
diebus suus cuique erat locus attributus, ad mumtiones acce- 
dunt ; fundis librilibus sudibusque, quas in opere disposuerant, 20 
ac glandibus Gallos proterrent. Prospectu tenebris adempto 
multa utrimque vulnera accipiuntur ; complura tormentis tela 
coniciuntur. At M. Antonius et C. Trebonius legati, quibus 
hae partes ad defendendum obvenerant, qua ex parte nostros 
premi intellexerant, his auxilio ex ulterioribus castellis deduct5s 25 

LXXXII. Dum longius a mumtione aberant Galll, plus mul- 
titudine telorum proficiebant ; posteaquam propius successe- 

9. maesti: sorrowful. n. scalarum: ladders. harpagonum: 
hooks, like grappling-irons, for tearing clown walls. 20. fundis librilibus 
sudibusque : with slings throwing stones of a pound -weight and with 
stakes'^ 21. glandibus: leaden slugs (also thrown with slings). tene- 
bris : by darkness. 


runt, aut se stimulis inopmantes induebant aut in scrobis delati 
transfodiebantur aut ex vallo ac turribus traiectl pills muralibus 
interibant. Multis undique vulneribus acceptls, nulla munitione 
perrupta, cum lux appeteret, veriti ne ab latere aperto ex supe- 

5 rioribus castris eruptione circumvenirentur, se ad suos recepe- 
runt. At interiores dum ea quae a Vercingetorige ad eruptio- 
nem praeparata erant proferunt, priores fossas explent, diutius 
in his rebus administrandis morati prius suos discessisse cogno- 
verunt quam mumtionibus appropinquarent. Ita re mfecta in 

10 oppidum reverterunt. 

Once more an attempt is made to break through Caesar's lines. 

1 LXXXIII. Bis magno cum detrimento repulsi Galli quid 
agant consulunt ; locorum peritos adhibent, ex his superiorum 
castrorum situs munitionesque cognoscunt. Erat a septemtrio- 
m'bus collis quem propter magnitudinem circuitus opere cir- 

iscumplecti non potuerant nostri, necessarioque paene imquo 
loco et leniter declM castra fecerant. Haec C. Antistius Re- 
ginus et C. Canmius Rebilus legati cum duabus legionibus ob- 
tinebant. Cognitis per exploratores regionibus duces hostium 
LX mllia ex omm numero deligunt, earum civitatum quae max- 

20 imam virtutis opinionem habebant; quid quoque pacto agi 
placeat occulte inter se constituunt ; adeundl tempus definiunt 
cum meridies esse videatur. His copiis Vercassivellaunum Ar- 
vernum, unum ex quattuor ducibus, propinquum Vercingetori- 
gis, praeficiunt. Ille ex castris prima vigilia egressus prope 

25 confecto sub lucem itinere post montem se occultavit milites- 
que ex nocturno labore sese reficere iussit. Cum iam meridies 
appropinquare videretur, ad ea castra quae supra demonstravi- 
mus contendit; eodemque tempore equitatus ad campestris 
munltiones accedere et reliquae copiae pro castris sese osten- 

30 dere coeperunt. 

LXXXIV. Vercingetonx ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus ex 

2. pills muralibus : wall-javelins. These were heavy, made to be 
hurled from a wall. 20. quo pacto : in what way. 


oppido egreditur ; cratis, longurios, muralis falcls, reliquaque 
quae eruptionis causa paraverat profert. Pugnatur uno tern- 
pore omnibus locis atque omnia temptantur; quae minime visa 
pars firma est, hue concurritur. Romanorum manus tantis 
mumtionibus distinetur nee facile pluribus locjs occurrit. Mul- 5 
turn ad terrendos nostros valet clamor qui post tergum pugnan- 
tibus exsistit, quod suum periculum in alieha vident virtute 
constare ; omnia enim plerumque quae absunt vehementius 
hominum mentis perturbant. 

Both sides fight despsrately, and the Romans are in great danger. 

LXXXV. Caesar idoneum locum nactus quid quaque in parte 10 
geratur cognoscit, laborantibus subsidium submittit. Utrisque 
ad animum occurrit unum esse illud tempus quo maxime con- 
tend! conveniat : Galli nisi perfregerint mumtiones, de omm 
salute desperant ; Roman! si rem obtinuerint, finem laborum 
omnium exspectant. Maxime ad superipres mun!tiones labora- 15 
tur, quo Vercassivellaunum missum demonstravimus. Inlquum 
loci ad decllvitatem fastigium magnum habet momentum. 
Alii tela coniciunt, alii testudine facta subeunt; defatlgatls 
invicem integri succedunt. Agger ab universls in munltionem 
coniectus et ascensum dat Gallis et ea quae in terra occulta- 20 
verant RomanI contegit ; nee iam arma nostris nee vires suppe- 

LXXXVI. His rebus cognitis Caesar Labienum cum cohorti- 
bus sex subsidio laborantibus mittit. Imperat si sustinere non 
possit, deductis cohortibus erupti5ne pugnet ; id nisi necessario 25 
ne faciat. Ipse adit reliquos, cohortatur ne labor! succumbant ; 
omnium superiorum dlmicationum fructum in eo die atque hora 
docet consistere. Interiores desperatis campestribus locis 
propter magnitudinem munltionum loca .praerupta ascensu 
temptantj hue ea quae paraverant conferunt. Multitudine 30 

I. muralis falcis: perhaps the same as the harpagones mentioned 
in Chap. LXXXI. 17. momentum: importance; the Gauls were 
higher on the hill than the Romans. 


telorum ex turribus propugnantls deturbant, aggere et cratibus 
fossas explent, falcibus vallum ac loricara rescindunt. 

LXXXVII. Mittit primum Brutum adulescentem cum cohor- 
tibus Caesar, post cum aliis C. Fabium legatum ; postremo ipse, 
5 cum vehementius pugnaretur, integros subsidio adducit. Re- 
stituto proelio ac repulsis hostibus eo quo Labienum miserat 
contendit ; cohortls quattuor ex proximo castello deducit, 
equitum partemseseqm, partem circumire exteriores munltiones 
et a tergo hostis adoriri iubet. Labienus, postquam neque 
10 aggeres neque fossae vim hostium sustinere poterant, coactis xr 
cohortibus, quas ex proximis praesidiis deductas fors obtulit, 
Caesarem per nuntios facit certiorem quid faciendum existimet. 
Accelerat Caesar, ut proelio intersit. 

Finally the Gauls are utterly defeated, and Vercingetorix surrenders himself 

to Caesar. 

LXXXVIII. Eius adventu ex colore vestitus cognito, quo 
15 Insigni in proeliis utT consuerat, turmlsque equitum et cohorti- 
bus visls quas se sequi iusserat, ut de locis superioribus haec 
declivia et devexa cernebantur, hostes proelium committunt. 
Utrimque clamore sublato excipit rursus ex vallo atque omnibus 
munltionibus clamor. Nostri emissis pills gladiis rem gerunt. 
20 Repente post tergum equitatus cernitur ; cohortes aliae appro- 
pinquant. Hostes terga vertunt ; fugientibus equites occurrunt. 
Fit magna caedes. Sedulius, dux et princeps Lemovicum, 
occiditur; Vercassivellaunus Arvernus vivus in fuga compre- 
henditur; signa militaria LXXIIII ad Caesarem referuntur; 
25 pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes in castra recipiunt. Con- 
spicati ex oppido caedem et fugam suorum desperata salute 
copias a munltionibus reducunt. Fit protinus hac re audita 
ex castrls Gallorum fuga. Quod nisi crebrls subsidiis ac totius 
diel labore milites essent defessi, omnes hostium copiae deleri 

14. colore vestitus: the purple color of his paludamentum. 
16. haec . . . devexa: this sloping hillside; devexus means practically 
the same as declivis. 


potuissent. De media nocte missus equitatus novissimum 
agmen consequitur; magnus numerus capitur atque interficitur, 
reliquT ex fuga in civitates discedunt. 

LXXXIX. Postero die Vercingetorix concilio convocato id 
bellum se suscepisse n5n suarum necessitatum, sed communis 5 
Hbertatis causa demonstrat ; et quoniam sit fortunae cedendum, 
ad utramque rem se illis offerre, seu morte sua Romams satis- 
facere seu vivum tradere velint. Mittuntur de his rebus ad 
Caesarem legati. lubet arma tradi, prmcipes produci. Ipse 
in munitione pro castris consldit ; eo duces producuntur. Ver- 10 
cingetorix deditur, arma proiciuntur. Reservatis Haeduls atque 
Arvernis, si per eos civitates recuperare posset, ex reliquis 
captivis toti exercitui capita singula praedae nomine distribuit. 

The troops are placed in winter quarters. A thanksgiving of twenty 

days is appointed at Rome. 

XC. His rebus confectis in Haeduos proficiscitur ; civitatem 
recipit. E6 legati ab Arverms missi quae imperaret se facturos 15 
pollicentur. Imperat magnum numerum obsidum. Legiones 
in hiberna mittit. Captivorum circiter xx milia Haeduls 
Arvermsque reddit. T. Labienum cum duabus legionibus et 
equitatu in Sequanos proficisci iubet ; huic M. Sempronium 
Rutilum attribuit. C. Fabium legatum et L. Minucium Basilum 20 
cum legionibus duabus in Remls conlocat, ne quam a fmitimis 
Bellovacis calamitatem accipiant. C. Antistium Regfnum in 
Ambivaretos, T. Sextium in Bituriges, C. Caninium Rebilum in 
Rutenos cum singulis legionibus mittit. Q. Tullium Ciceronem 
et P. Sulpicium Cavillom et Matiscone in Haeduls ad Ararim 25 
rei frumentariae causa conlocat. Ipse Bibracte hiemare con- 
stituit. His rebus ex Caesaris litteris cognitls Romae dierum 
xx supplicatio redditur. 

28. redditur : sc. dis. 


The references are to the grammars of Allen and Greenough (A.), Bennett 
(B.), Gildersleeve and Lodge (G.), Harkness (H.), and Hale and Buck 
(HB.). References to the first edition of B. are added in parenthesis where it 
differs from the revised edition. Most of the abbreviations will be easily 
understood; but cf. (confer} =' compare,' and sc. (scilicet) ' understand,' 
' supply." 


CHAP. I. Line i . Gallia omnis : Gaul in the wider sense. PAGE 
Transalpine Gaul is meant, exclusive of the Roman province 55 

(provincia) . See Introd., p. 23, and the map of Gaul. In a 
narrower sense Gallia meant the land of the Celtae, or Galli, of 1. 3. 
est divisa: illustrates the adjective use of a participle. We 
translate is divided. A. 495 ; B. 337 ; G.- 250. R. 2 ; H. 640. 3 ; 
HB. 248. tris : for declension see the grammar. The student 
should be sure that he knows the inflection of every inflected word 
which he meets, and should early accustom himself to the use of the 
index in his Latin grammar. unam : sc. partem. 

2. incolunt: the passive would be more in conformity with 
English idiom (one of which is inhabited by the Belgae) . aliam : 
the regular succession is alter (second) , tertites (third). What are 
the usual meanings of alius and alter? qui : rel. pron., implying 
its own antecedent ; the third (part those inhabit) who are called. 
ipsorum : the reflexive sua might have been expected, but Caesar 
is speaking from the Roman point of view ; ipsorum is contrasted 
with nostra, as if Caesar had said, ' They themselves use the name 
Celtae, we call them Galli. 1 lingua: A. 409; B. 220. 3 ; G. 401 ; 
H. 476; HB. 436. b. 

3. lingua, institutis, legibus : in language, customs, (and) 
laws. A. 418; B. 226; G. 397; H. 480; HB. 441. 

4. inter se: from one another. A. 301. f; B. 245; G. 221; 
H. 502. I ; HB. 266. 

5. dividit : the verb is singular because the two rivers form a 
single boundary-line from the upper course of the Marne to the 
mouth of the Seine. See the map of Gaul. A. 317. b ; B. 255. 3 ; 
G, 285. EXC. 2; H. 392. 4; HB. 331. 3. Notice the order of 


256 NOTES I 

PAGE words in this sentence. The emphatic word, as often, is placed first. 
55 See A. 596, 597, and the translation of this chapter there given ; 

B. 348, 349; G. 672. 2. a, 674. RULE I ; H. 664, 665. I ; HB. 623, 
625. Horum omnium: partitive gen., or gen. of the whole. A. 
346. 2; B. 201. i; G. 372; H. 442; HB. 346 These words, re- 
ferring back to the previous sentence, are placed in a prominent 

6. a cultu : A. 402 ; B. 214; G. 390. i. 2. N. i ; H. 461, 462. i ; 
HB. 408. cultu . . . provinciae : civilization and refinement of 
the province, i.e. the province, in which are civilization and refinement. 
See Introd., p. 23. The name provincia gives the modern Pro- 

7. minime saepe : least often, i.e. very seldom. The force of 
miniine saepe extends to important. We should be likely to say, 
'Traders very seldom come, bringing in those things.' 

8. mercatores : these were traveling traders, or peddlers, chiefly 
from the province. Starting from seaports, as Massilia, they would 
naturally trade mostly in southern and central Gaul, though they 
went as far as Germany and Britain. ad effeminandos animos : 
to character being weakened, to weaken character', effeminandos 
is a gerundive agreeing with animos, which is used with ad. Dis- 
tinguish carefully between the gerundive, a participle, and the gerund, 
a noun. A. 503, 506 ; B. 338. 3, 339. 1.2; G. 427, 432 ; H. 623, 628 ; 
HB. 609, 612. III. 

9. proximi: how is this compared? Germanis : dat. with 
proximi. The accusative might have been used. A. 384, 432. a; 
B. 192. i, 141. 3; G. 359. N. i ; H. 434. 2, 435. 2; HB. 362. Ill, 
380. b. 

10. trans Rhenum : the Rhine was considered the boundary 
between Gaul and Germany, yet migrations across the river were fre- 
quent. quibuscum : for cum as enclitic see A. 150. d ; B. 142. 4; 
G. 413. R. i ; H. 182. 2 ; HB. 418. a. 

u. Qua de causa: and for this (same) reason, i.e. that of 
nearness to the Germans. A. 308. f ; B. 251. 6; G. 610. R. i ; H. 
510; HB. 284. 8. quoque: also, i.e. as well as the Belgae. 
Quoque always follows the word which it emphasizes. reliquos : 
the rest of. A. 293 ; B. 253. 5 ; G. 291. R. 2 ; H. 497. 4 ; HB. 
279. i. b. virtute : in valor ; abl. of specification, or respect. 
praecedunt : not all verbs compounded with prae take the dative. 

12. proeliis: abl. of means, but trans, in battles. 

13. cum . . . prohibent . . . gerunt: temporal clauses, almost 
equivalent in meaning to participles (either keeping them away . . . 


or themselves making war). Notice that suis and ipsi refer to the PACK 
subject, Helvetii, while eos and eorum refer to the Germans. suis 55 

finibus : abl. of separation. 

14. Eorum : the inhabitants of Gallia omnis, the people being 
mentioned instead of the land ; so Belgae is used for Belgium in 1. 
1 8 below. quam : rel. pron., obj. oiobtinere, of which Gallos is the 
subject. The three words form a clause in indirect discourse, and 
this clause is subject of dictum est. The direct form of the quotation 
would be quam Galli obtinent. A. 579, 580; B. 331.! ; G. 508.2, 
343. 2; H. 641, 642; HB. 533, 534. i. obtinere : does not mean 
obtain, but hold (against opposition, active or potential). Latin 
words are often not to be translated by their English derivatives. 

15. initium capit a: begins at. 

1 6. flumine, Oceano, finibus : notice the asyndeton (absence of 
connectives), and cf. lingua, institutis,legibus, 1. 3. 

17. ab Sequanis : i.e. on the side where the Sequani live. A. 
429. b ; G. 390. 2. N. 6 ; H. 485. 4 ; HB. 406. 2. What prepositions 
are used with the ablative? septemtriones : north. Notice the 
singular in 1. 19. The word (lit. seven plow-oxen) designates the 
seven prominent stars of the constellation Ursa Major, the ' Great 
Bear,' 'Dipper,' or 'Charles's Wain.' 

1 8. ab finibus oriuntmr : cf. a flumine Rhodano, 1. 15 ; oriuntur 
is equivalent to initium capiunt. What are its principal parts? 
What name is given to verbs which have mostly passive forms, but 
active meaning ? extremis : farthest from the province. G-alliae : 
the region inhabited by the Celtae. What rivers formed its northern 

19. inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni: we usually say 'the 
lower Rhine.' spectant in septemtrionem et orientem solem : 
lie towards the north and east, i.e. northeast (from the province). 

21. ad Hispaniam : near Spain. What is this ' part of the 
ocean ' now called ? 

This chapter serves to introduce us to the people with whom 
Caesar fought, and to their country. In Bk. VI Caesar gives a 
somewhat detailed account of the Gallic race. The student should 
now read Introd., pp. 21-29. 

II. 23. nobilissimus : of highest rank. ditissimus : sup. of 

24. Orgetorix: besides proper names, only a few words of the 
languages of ancient Gaul survive- The names are usually signifi- 
cant. The termination -rix is frequently found, and means ' king ' 
(Latin rex). Orgetorix means ' king-of-the-killers.' M. : read 

258 NOTES I 

PAGE this Marco. M. Messala . . . consulibus : in the consulship of 

55 Marcus Messala and Marcus Peso, i.e. 61 B.C., three years before the 
outbreak of the Gallic War. A. 419. a, 424. g ; B. 227. i ; G. 409 ; 
H. 489; HB. 421, 661. i. The year was regularly expressed in this 
way. regiii : obj. gen., depending on ctipiditate. A. 348 ; B. 200 ; 
G. 363. 2 ; H. 440. 2 ; HB. 354. 

56 i. nobilitatis : of the nobles (lit. nobility) ; abstract noun used in 
a collective sense, as often in English. In most of the states of 
Gaul the kings had been overthrown and the prerogatives of the 
old nobility curtailed. But to one who was able to put himself at 
the head of a mercenary force the field was open for an attempt to 
overthrow the elective magistrates and become king in fact, if not 
in name. Cf. Bk. II, Chap. I. civitati: A. 367; B. 187. II. a; 
G. 346; H. 426. 2 ; HB. 362. I. 

2. ut . . . exirent : A. 563 ; B. 295. i ; G. 546. i ; H. 565 ; 
HB. 502. 3. a. Notice how the English idiom differs from the 
Latin. In English we say, ' He persuades me to do this ' ; the Latin 
says, ' He persuades (makes acceptable) to me that I do this.' Per-, 
suadeo is from the root of suavis, sweet. Why is exirent plural ? 
cum omnibus copiis : i.e. ' bag and baggage.' This was to be a 
migration of the whole people, but yet, as Caesar represents it, it was 
for purposes of conquest. The Helvetii were to become masters of 

3. perfacile: what is the force of per? esse : inf. in ind. 
disc., depending on the idea of saying in persuasit. .A. 580. a; B. 
314. 2 ; G. 652. R. 2 ; H. 642. I ; HB. 589. a. The subject of esse is 
the infinitive potiri. A. 452 ; B. 327. I ; G. 421 ; H. 609. i ; HB. 
585. Since an infinitive used substantively is neuter, the predicate 
adjective perfacile is also neuter. Trans, that it was -very easy 
to get the sovereignty of the whole of Gaul. omnibus: A. 370; 
B. 187. Ill; G. 347; H. 429; HB. 376. praestarent: A. 549; 
B. 286. 2; G. 586; H. 598; HB. 526. The tense is imperfect be- 
cause the clause takes its time from persuasit, a secondary, or his- 
torical, tense. A. 482, 483 ; B. 258, 267. 1.2; G. 225, 509 ; H. 198, 
543; HB. 476. totius Galliae: obj. gen. 

4. imperio: A. 410; B. 218. i ; G. 407; H. 477. I; HB. 429. 
Id: dir. obj. of persuasit (Jie persuaded them of this, lit. made this 
acceptable to them). hoc facilius : the more easily, lit. more easily 
by this ; hoc is abl. of degree, or measure, of difference, but hardly 
differs here from abl. of cause. A. 414. N. ; B. 223 ; G. 403 ; H. 479. i ; 
HB. 424. a. 

5. loci natura: i.e. by natural boundaries, or obstacles; ex- 


plained by the ablatives fliimine Rheno, monte lura, etc. How does PAGE 
the plural Q{ locus differ in gender from the singular? continentur : 56 

are shut zn, lit. are held together- una ex parte : on one side. 
Notice the Latin idiom, and see note on ab Sequanis, p. 55, 1. 17. 
For the order of the words (adj.. prep., noun) see A. 599. d ; B. 
350. 7. b ; G. 678. R. 2 ; H. 671. 5 ; HB. 627. 4. 

6. latissimo : very wide, not widest. qtii : does this pronoun 
take its gender from flumine or from Rheno? 

7. altera : see note on aliam, p. 55, 1. 2. 

9. provinciam nostram : the part which the Allobroges inhab- 
ited. See the map of Gaul. His rebus fiebat ut . . . possent : 
so (lit. because of these things') it was coming about that they both 
roamed less widely (than they wished) and could less easily wage 
war upon their neighbors. Observe faak fiebat is imperfect, and see 
the grammar for the difference in meaning between the perfect and 
the imperfect tense. The subject of fiebat is ut . . . vagarentvtr 
. . . possent. In Latin, as in other languages, a clause may be used 
as a noun. Such a clause is called a substantive clause. The 
subject of a verb is often obscured in English by the little word 'it.' 
In this sentence, to find the real subject -of fiebat (it was coming 
about), ask yourself what was coming about. For the mood of 
vagarentnr and possent see A. 569. 2 ; B. 297. 2 ; G. 553. 3 ; 
H. 571. i ; HB. 521. 3. a. 

10. finitimis : for the case see note on omnibus, 1. 3. 

1 1 . qua ex parte : and in this respect. Cf. una ex parte, 1. 5 . 

The Helvetii were distressed on their military side. homines : not 

subject, but in predicate apposition with the subject (being men 

fond of warring}. bellandi: gerund; obj. gen., depending on 

' czipidi. A. 504, 349. a; B. 338. i..b, 204. i ; G. 428, 374; H. 626, 

451. i; HB. 612. I, 354. 

12. Pro multitudine hominum angustos : (too) narrow for 
the mimber of their people (lit. narrow in proportion to) . Their 
number is given as 263,000. 

13. gloria . . . fortitudinis : renown for bravery in war, lit. 
renown of war and bravery. se habere: ind. disc.; the direct 
form would be nos habemus. 

14. in longitudinem : in length. Notice that in this idiom the 
accusative is used with in. What prepositions are used with both 
accusative and ablative? milia passuum : miles, lit. tfwusands of 
paces. The passus, a double step, was five Roman feet. The mile, 
5000 Roman feet, was equal to about 4854 feet, modern measure. 
For case of milia see A. 425; B. 181. i; G. 335; H. 417; HB. 

260 NOTES I 

PAGE 387. I. Observe that it is a noun, and learn from the grammar the 
56 use of the singular, mille. 

15. CCXL : read this ducenta (not ducenti^ for it agrees with milia) 
quadraginta. The student should always carefully consult his 
grammar, whenever he is in doubt as to the Latin form of a nu- 
meral for which characters are used in the text. CLXXX : to bring 
this more nearly into accord with the fact, it has been conjec- 
tured that Caesar wrote in latitudinem LXXX (instead of CLXXX) . 
How do the dimensions given compare with those of modern 
Switzerland? The pressure of the Germans no doubt influenced 
the Helvetii in forming their decision to migrate. Read Introd., 
pp. 6-8. 

III. 1 6. His rebus : the special meaning of res must be ob- 
tained from its context. Here it is reason^ or cause. 

17. ea: obj. of comparare. quae . . . pertinerent: which 
were necessary (lit. tended) to their departure. The subjunctive is 
used because the sentence represents the thought of the Helvetii. 
A. 592. 3; B. 323; G. 628; H. 649. i ; HB. 535. i. a. proficis- 
cendum: A. 506; B. 338. 3; G. 432; H. 628; HB. 612. III. 
comparare : depends on constituerunt . A. 456 ; B. 328. I ; G. 
423. 1.2; H. 607 ; HB. 586. a. 

18. quam maximum: as great as possible. A. 291. c; B. 
240. 3; G. 303. R. i ; H. 159. 2; HB. 241. 4. 

19. ut . . . suppeteret: a clause of purpose, or final clause, de- 
pending on sementis facer e ; that a supply of grain might be on hand. 
A- 53> S3 1 - i; B. 282. i; G. 544, 5455 H. 568; HB. 502. 2. 

21. Ad eas res conficiendas : for completing these prepara- 
tions. A. 506. N. 2; B. 339. 2; G. 427; H. 628; HB. 613. i. 

22. in tertium annum : for the third year. 

23. confirmant: historical present, nearly equivalent to a his- 
torical perfect; not like the presents of Chap. I. Presents of this 
kind are much more common in Latin than in English, and should 
therefore usually be translated by the past tense. A. 469 ; B. 259. 3 ; 
G. 229; H. 532. 3; HB. 491. I. 

25. multos annos : A. 423; B. 181. i ; G. 336; H. 417; HB. 

387- II. 

26. amicus : this appellation, given by the Roman senate, was 
eagerly sought by foreign princes, and was (says Caesar in Chap. 
XLIII) generally given for great services. 

27. ut . . . occuparet : depends on persuadet. See note on 
ut . . . exirent, 1. 2. For tense see A. 485. e; B. 268. 3; G. 
511. R. i ; H. 546; HB. 491. 2. 


28. Dumnorigi: depends on perstiadet, p. 57, 1. i. Dumnorixwas PAGE 
bitterly hostile to Caesar and the Romans. His elder brother, the 56 
druid Diviciacus, was, on the other hand, an admirer of the Romans, 

a friend of Cicero, and an efficient helper of Caesar. See Introd., 
p. 7. For the fate of Dumnorix see Bk. V, Chaps. VI and VII. 
qui : its antecedent is Dumnorigi. 

29. eo tempore : A. 423. i ; B. 230 ; G. 393 ; H. 486 ; HE. 439. 
principatum : leadership, not as a magistrate, but as a man of 
great personal influence. maxime : especially. For the positive 
of this word multum or magnopere is used. 

2. Perfacile f actu : (a) very easy (thing) to do. A. 510; B. 57 
340. 2; 0.436; H. 635.1; HB. 619. i. esse: inf. in ind. disc. ; its 
subject is conata perficere. conata : a participle used as a noun, 

neut. pi. In the singular the masculine noun conatus, -us, is used. 

3. obtenturus esset : subjunctive of the first, or active, peri- 
phrastic conjugation, representing a future of the direct discourse. 

A. 194. a, 580 ; B. 269. 3, 314. I ; G. 514, 515, 508. 2 ; H. 541. N. I, 
643 ; HB. 470. 4. a, 534. 2. 

4. quiii plurimurn Helvetii possent : that the Helvetii were the 
most powerful. For plurimum see A. 390. c; B. 176. 2. b ; G. 334; 
H. 409. i ; HB. 387. III. For the form of the clause see A. 558. a; 

B. 298 ; G. 555. 2; H. 594. II, 595. i ; HB. 521.3. b. This whole pas- ^ 
sage in direct discourse would run as follows : Perfacile factii, est 
conata perficere, propterea quod (ego} meaecivitatistmperium obtineboj 

non est dubium quin totius Galliae plurimum Helvetii possint ; (ego) 
meis copiis meoqrie exercitu vobis regna conciliabo, 

5. copiis : here resources, not troops. 

6. confirmat : notice the three different meanings blconfirmo in 
this chapter. 

7. regno occupato . . . sperant : they hope that having seized 
(or when they have seized} royal power they can, through the three very 
powerful and strong nations, get possession of the whole of Gaul. 
The three nations are, of course, the Helvetii, Sequani, and Haedui. 
For regno occupato see A. 420 ; B. 227. 2 ; G. 410, 664 ; H. 489. i ; 
HB. 421. 

8. totius Galliae : A. 410. a ; B. 212. 2 ; G. 407. d ; H. 477. 1. 3 ; 
HB. 353. What case does potior usually take? posse: possum 
has no future infinitive, but the present often has a future implica- 
tion. A future infinitive is regularly used with spero. 

Reread Chaps. I-III, observing tenses of the indicative. Notice 
that the story is told by perfects and historical presents. Details are 
filled in by imperfects, which describe rather than narrate. 

262 NOTES I 

PAGE IV. 9. per indicium: through informers (lit. information). 

57 Moribus suis : according to their custom. A. 418. a; B. 220. 3 ; 

G. 397; H. 475.3; HB. 414. 

10. ex vinculis : we should say in chains, but the pleading comes, 
so to speak, from within the chains. coegeruut : the Helvetii were 
very willing to become masters of Gaul, but were not ready to give 
supreme power into the hands of Orgetorix. damnatum . . . opor- 
tebat: it must needs be that the famishment follow (i.e. be inflicted 
oil) him (if) condemned. What is the subject of oportebat? 

11. ut igni cremaretur : a substantive clause in apposition with 
poenam. Die . . . dictionis : on the day set for the pleading of his 
caitse ; die is abl. of time. For its gender see A. 97. a ; 6.53; G. 64 ; 
H. 135 ; HB. 101. The genitive dictionis depends on die, and 
causae is obj. gen., depending on dictionis. See note on regni, p. 55, 
1. 24. 

13. familiam : the usual meaning is household, particularly slaves. 
Perhaps here it means clansmen, though it is not certain that the clan 
system prevailed in Gaul at this time. ad ... decem : to (the 
number of} i 0,000 men. 

14. obaeratos : many of the common people, either through 
poverty or through debt, gave themselves up to the service of a 
powerful lord, becoming nearly the same as slaves. 

15. eodem: the adverb. per eos . . . eripuit: by means of 
these he escaped being tried. What literally ? What prepositions 
take the accusative only? The. high-handed action of Orgetorix 
apparently led to rioting and almost to civil war. ne diceret: 
A. 558. b; B. 295. 3; G. 548; H. 566; HB. 502. 3. b. 

1 6. ius . . . conaretur: was trying to enforce its right, i.e. the 
right to bring criminals to account. For the mood of conaretur see 
A. 546; B. 288. i ; G. 585 ; H. 600. II. r; HB. 524. 

17. multitudinem : hasty levies. The power of the magistrates 
was military as well as civil. 

19. ut arbitrantur : the beginner should notice that ut here is 
followed by the indicative, and cannot, therefore, mean that, in 
order that, or so that. With the indicative ut usually means either 
as or when. quin . . . consciverit : that he himself decreed 
death to himself, i.e. committed suicide. A. 558 ; B. 298 ; G. 555. 2 ; 
H. 595. i ; HB. 521. 3. b. ipse : A. 298. f ; B. 249. 2 ; G. 311. 2 ; 
H. 509. i ; HB. 268. 

V. 20. nihilo minus : nevertheless (less by nothing). 

21. ut . . . exeant: a substantive clause explaining id qiiod 
constituerant. A. 563 ; B. 295. 4; G. 546; H. 565 ; HB. 502. 3. a. 


The fact that the Helvetii persisted in their determination shows PAGE 
that there were real reasons for their migration. See note on p. 56, 57 

1. 15, at the end. Ubi: when. A. 543; B. 287. i; G. 561; H. 
602 ; HB. 557. 

22. oppida, vicos, privata aedificia : fortified towns, milages 
(not fortified), isolated houses. 

23. numero : abl. of specification, or respect. reliqua : besides, 
not here the rest of. 

24. secum: A. 144. N. i ; B. 142. 4; G. 413. R. I ; H. 175. 7; 
HB. 418. a. 

25. portaturi erant: were going to carry. ut . . . essent: 
a clause of purpose. domum : A. 427. 2 ; B. 182. i. b.; G. 337 ; H. 
419. i ; HB. 450. b. reditionis : the gerund redeundi \~mg\\\. have 
stood in place of this. sublata : see tollo in Vocab. 

26. subeunda : see note on ad eas res conficiendas, p. 56, 1. 21. 
trium mensium : for three months. A. 345. b; B. 203. 2; G. 
365. R. 2; H. 440. 3 ; HB. 355. The number of the Helvetii and their 
allies is given as 368,000. Estimating the supply of flour at only 
one pound per day for each person, we should have a sum total of 
more than 16,000 tons. An immense number of animals and wagons 
would be required to transport this great quantity of food, with the 
other baggage, and progress on the march would be necessarily slow. 

27. sibi : A. 376 ; B. 188. i ; G. 350. 2 ; H. 425. 2 ; HB. 366. 
quemque : from quisque. domo : A. 93, 427. I ; B. 49. 4, 229. I . b ; 
G. 61. R. 2, 390. 2; H. 133. i, 462. 4: HB. 97. 5, 451. a. efferre: 
A. 563. a; B. 331. II; G. 423. N. 6; H. 565. 3; HB. 587. b. 

28. usi : having adopted, from ntor. But the idiomatic rendering 
is persuade to adopt, burn, and set out. 

29. cum iis : secwn might have been used as an indirect reflexive, 
but there would have been ambiguity, since suis refers to the subject 
of proficiscantur. A. 300. b ; B. 244. II ; G. 521. N. 3 ; H. 504. 3 ; 
HB. 262. 2. 

30. Boios : -the name of this tribe survives in the name Bohemia. 
They had probably been driven south by the advance of the Ger- 
mans. There was a tribe of Boii in Cisalpine Gaul, probably kin- 
dred to these. See Introd., pp. 2, 3. 

i. Noreiam : identified with the modern Neumarkt, in Styria. 58 

Near this town, in 113 B.C., the Cimbri defeated the Romans. See 
Introd., p. 5. oppugnarant: for oppngnaverant. A. 181. a; B. 
116. i; G. 131. i; H. 238; HB. 163. i. receptos : agrees with 
Boios, which is object oiasciscunt. A. 496. N. 2 ; B. 337. 5 (336. 3) ; 
G. 664. R. i ; H. 639; HB. 604. i. We may translate the sentence 

264 NOTES I 

PAGE the Boii, who had, etc., they receive to themselves and adopt (lit. join 
58 to themselves) as allies. The dative sibi depends on asciscunt, while 

ad se depends on receptos. 

VI. 3. Erant : there were. quibus itineribus : A. 429. a ; 
B. 218. 9; G. 389; H. 476; HB. 426. Notice the repetition of the 
antecedent in the relative clause, but do not imitate it in translation. 

4. posseut : subj. of characteristic. There may have been many 
roads, but there were only two so situated, or of such a kind, that 
they could use them. A. 535; B. 283. 2; G. 631. i ; H. 591. 5; 
HB. 521. i. The Helvetii could, no doubt, have marched north- 
ward ; but that would not have suited their purpose, and would have 
brought them into collision with the Germans. unum : sc. iter. 
This ran westward along the right bank of the Rhone. The 
student while following the story should make constant use of the 
maps in this book. 

5. qua : the adverb. 

6. ducerentur: A. 537. 2; B. 284. 2; G. 631. i ; H. 591. 2; 
HB. 517. 2. The way was so narrow and difficult that only with 
great trouble could wagons be hauled over it one by one (in single 
file). A railway now follows this route from Geneva. The narrow 
part, where the Jura approaches the river, is called the Pas de 
I'^cluse. ut . . . possent : a clause of result. 

8. alterum : the other. The Helvetii wished to follow this route, 
crossing to the left bank of the Rhone and passing through the 
territory of the Allobroges, just south of the river. 

9. facilius : the difficulty of reaching western Gaul through the 
CeVennes Mountains would, however, have been considerable. . 

12. pacati erant : by the Romans. See Introd., p. 6. 

14. non nullis: A. 326. a; B. 347.2; G. 449. 4; H. 656. i ; 
HB. 298. 2. locis: A. 429. i; B. 228. i. b; G. 385. N. i; 
H. 485. 2; HB. 436. vado : in Caesar's time the Rhone seems 
to have been fordable in more places than now. 

15. Extremum: how is this compared? 

17. persuasuros : sc. esse, which is often omitted in the future 
active and perfect passive infinitives. 

18. bono animo : well-disposed, of good feeling. A. 415; 6.224; 
G. 400; H. 473. 2; HB. 443. viderentur : account for the mood 
and tense ; notice that existimabant is the main verb of the sentence. 

19. eos : cf. cum Us, p. 57, 1. 29, and see the note. ire: A. 563. c; 
B. 295. 2. N. ; G. 553. 2. N. ; H. 614; HB. 587. paterentur: a 
substantive clause, object of both persuasuros and coacturos. The 
direct form of this sentence would be Allobrogibus (nos) vel 


persuadebimus, quod nondum . . . videntur, vel vi cogemits ut per PAGE 
suos finis nos ire patiantur. 58 

20. Omnibus rebus comparatis : may be translated by a clause 
beginning with when or cffter. A. 420. I ; B. 227. 2. a ; G. 665 ; 
1^.489. i ; HB. 421. 3. 

21. qua die : notice the gender, and cf. is dies below. See note 
on p. 57, 1. ii. For the repetition of the antecedent cf. quibus 
itineribus, 1. 3, and see A. 307. a; B. 251. 3; G. 615; H. 399. i; 
HB. 284. 4. conveniant: A. 531. 2; B. 282. 2; G. 630; H. 590; 
HB. 502. i. 

22. ante . . . Aprilis : an idiomatic expression, equivalent 
here to quintus dies ante Kalendas Aprilis. The nominal date 
is March 28, 58 B.C. (found by counting backward 5 days, be- 
ginning with April i); but, as the calendar was in a very con- 
fused state, authorities differ nearly a month in their estimates of the 
real date. The estimate of the famous astronomer Leverrier is 
March 24, the date of the spring equinox of that year. L. Fisone: 
Caesars father-in-law. 

VII. 24. Caesari : emphatic position ; depends on nnntiatum 
esset. id : explained by the clause eos . . . conari. 

25. ab urbe: i.e. from Rome. See Introd., p. 12. quam 
maximis : see note on quam maximum, p. 56, 1. 18; potest might 
have been omitted. Caesar is said to have made the journey from 
Rome to Geneva at the rate of about ninety miles a day. 

26. itineribus : the plural refers to the successive stages of the 

27. ad Grenavam: before Geneva. A. 428. a; B. 182. 3; G. 
337. R. 4; H.4i8. 4; HB.453- 1. Provinciae . . . imperat: he 
levies upon the whole province as great a number of soldiers as possible. 

29. legio una: probably the tenth, Caesar's favorite legion. 
See Introd., pp. 31 and 36. ad G-enavam : at Geneva. A. 428. d ; 
B. 182. 3; G. 386. R. 2; HB. 453. I. TTbi . . . facti sunt : 
when the Helvetii were informed (lit. were made more certain) of 
his arrival. For mood of facti sunt see note on ubi, p. 57, 1. 21. 

32. qui dicerent : to say. Why is dicer ent subjunctive ? sibi 
esse in anirno : that they purposed (Jiad it in mind}. What had 
they in mind ? The answer, iter facere, gives the subject of esse. 
For sibi see A. 373 ; B. 190 ; G. 349 ; H. 430 ; HB. 374. 

1. ullo: A. 311; B. 252. 4; G. 317. i ; H. 513 ; HB. 276. 7. 59 

2. propterea quod . . . nullum : because they had no other 
way. There is strong emphasis on nulhtm, as is indicated by its 
unusual position. We might say in English becaiise other way they 

266 NOTES I 

PAGE had none. Why is haberent subjunctive ? rogare : sc. se as 
59 subject ; in the direct form rogamus. The object of rogare is the 

substantive clause^?// . . . liceat. eius voluntate : "with his con- 
sent (willingness}. ' 

3. liceat: for tense see A. 485. e; B. 268. 3 ; 0.509. a; 11.546; 
HB. 491. 2. Notice that the main verb of the sentence is mittunt, 
and that the subordinate verbs dicerent and haberent are in a second- 
ary tense. 

4. occisum : sc. esse. The killing of Cassius took place in 107 
B.C. See Introd., p. 5. 

5. sub iugum : cf. English < subjugate.' Two spears were stuck 
into the ground and a third was fastened across their tops. Under 
this 'yoke 1 the captured soldiers, laying aside their arms and their 
outer garments, were compelled to pass in token of defeat and humil- 
iation. concedeudum: sc.esse; impersonal use. Trans, thought 
permission ought not to be granted, lit. thought it was not to be 
yielded. Consult the grammar regarding the second (or passive) 
periphrastic conjugation of verbs. 

6. inimico animo : cf. bono <z;zz>;/0, p. 58, 1. 18. data facul- 
tate : abl. abs., expressing a condition, if the opportunity were 

7. faciendi : gerundive, agreeing with itineris. A. 503, 504 ; B. 
339. i ; G. 427, 428; H. 623, 626; HB. 612. I, 613. 

8. ut . . . posset: gives the purpose of Caesar's temporizing 
reply. dum': until. A. 553 ; B. 293. III. 2 ; G. 572 ; H. 603. II. 2 ; 
HB. 507. 5. 

9. diem : not a day. See Vocab. 

10. quid: anything. A. 310. a; B. 252. i; G. 107. i. R. ; H. 
1 86; HB. 276. I. ad Idus Aprilis: on April fj; but see note 
on p. 58, 1. 22. 

ir. reverterentur : let them return. A. 588 ; 6.316; 0.652; 
H. 642 ; HB. 534. 2. Caesar's words in direct form would be : Diem 
addeliberandum sumam; si quid vultis, ad Idus Aprilis revertimini. 

VIII. 12. militibus : the new levies. Notice the construction. 
The soldiers are regarded as instruments in the hands of the 

13. lacu : what is the ablative plural ? 

14. influit : the Rhone flows into the lake at one end and out at 
the other. ad montem luram: Caesar's works were on the left, 
or southern, bank of the Rhone. They were constructed to the 
point where the Jura range, approaching the right bank, leaves the 
narrow pass mentioned in Chap. VI. 


15. Helvetiis: i.e. Helvetiorum finibus. milia: see note on 
milia passmtm, p. 56, 1. 14. The accusative depends on perducit, 
and denotes extent of space. 

1 6. pedum sedecim the height is regarded as a quality, or 
characteristic, of the wall. A. 425. a; B. 203. 2 ; G. 365. R. 2 ; H. 
440. 3; HB. 355. Caesar's barricade was not continuous, but was 
built only where the nature of the ground rendered it necessary. For 
five sixths of the entire distance the bank of the river is so steep 
that no defenses were needed. Where the slope was gentler, the 
bank was cut down perpendicularly, or nearly so, to the distance of 
sixteen feet from the top. The earth was thrown out to the side 
towards the river; this produced the effect of a trench. See the 
plan, p. 59. 

17. castella: little fortresses^ or redoiibts, serving as rallying- 
places for the soldiers. See the illustration on p. 107. quo facilius 
posset : in order that (lit. by which} more easily he might be able. 
A. 531. a; B. 282. i. a; G. 545. 2; H. 568. 7; HB. 502. 2. b. 
For tense of posset see note on tit . . . occuparet, p. 56, 1. 27. 

18. conarentur : A. 593; B. 324. i ; G. 663. i ; H. 652; HB. 
539. ea dies: the Ides of April; seel. 10. 

19. reverterunt: in tenses from the present stem this verb is 
usually deponent, revertor, reverti. 

20. negat se posse : says that he cannot. Nego is regularly 
used instead of dico . . . nan. more: see note on moribns sm's, 
p. 57; 1.9. iter : i.e. permission to go. 

21. ulli: here equivalent to cuiqnam. Notice that both quis- 
qtiam and iillus are regularly used only in negative sentences, or 
sentences implying a negative. See note on nllo, 1. 1. conentur : 
subj. of ind. disc. Caesar probably said Si vim facere conabimini, 
prohibebo. A. 516. i.a; B. 302. i ; G. 595 ; H. 574; HB. 579. a. 
prohibiturtim : \.e.seprohibiturumesse. 

22. ea spe deiecti: disappointed in this hope, lit. cast down 
from (cf. English 'downcast 1 ) this hope. A. 402; B. 214; G. 
390. 2. N. i ; H. 462. i ; HB. 408. 2. navibus iunctis : abl. abs., 
expressing means. 

I. alii vadis : we might have expected an alii before navibus ; 
i.e. some tried to cross by bridges of boats and by rafts, others by 
fording at the shallow places. But the omission indicates that only 
a few tried to ford the river, while the main body tried to cross in 
the other ways. The word alii is in partitive apposition with Helveta. 
A. 282. a ; B. 169. 5; G. 322; H. 393. 4; HB. 319. I. a. qua: 
the adverb. 

268 NOTES I 

PAGE 2. noctu : an adverb. 

60 3. si ... conati : having tried (to see) 'whether they could force 

their way through. A. 576. a, 574; B. 300. 3; G. 460. I. 5,467; 
H. 649. II. 3 ; HB. 582. 2. a. b. 

4. conatu : see notes on ea spe deiecti, p. 59, 1. 22, and conata, 
p. 57, 1. 2. destiterunt: the subject is Helvetii. 

IX. 5. Reliziquebatur tma via : observe the order of words ; 
there was left (only) the one road. Sequanis invitis : abl. abs., 
expressing a condition. 

6. angustias : the Pas de TEcluse, nineteen Roman miles from 
Geneva ; see note on p. 58, 1. 6. At this point the Sequani, if so 
disposed, could easily stop the progress of the Helvetii. His . . . 
possent : not being able to persuade these by their own influence. 
The position of his emphasizes its connecting force. sponte : 
see spontis in Vocab. 

7. possent: cf. ubi . . . arbitrati siint, p. 57, 1. 21. Notice 
that the indicative in temporal clauses expresses merely time ; the 
subjunctive time and something else, here cause. A. 546 ; B. 288. i ; 
G. 579; H. 600. I. II. i ; HB. 525. Reread a few chapters of the 
text, noticing the force of moods in the temporal clauses. Dum- 
norigem : cf. p. 56, 1. 28. 

8. deprecatore : abl. abs. with eo. Deprecator is a noun denot- 
ing the agent. A. 236. a; B. 147. i ; G. 181. i ; 11.334; HB. 206. i. 
The prefix de means away. The deprecator ' prays away,' or averts, 
something. In this case Dumnorix is to try to overcome the refusal 
of the Sequani to allow the Helvetii to pass. impetrarent: the 
object is easily supplied. 

9. gratia: on account of his personal popularity', abl. of 
cause. plurimum: A. 390. c; B. 176. 2. b ; G. 334; H. 409. I ; 
HB. 387. III. 

11. in matrimonium duxerat : had married. For the fact jsee 
p. 57, 1. i. To marry, said of the woman, is nubere. cupiditate : 
for formation of the word cnpiditas see A. 241 ; B. 149 ; G. 181.2. b ; 
H. 345; HB. 207. 2. novis rebus: a change of government. 
For case see A. 367; .B. 187. II. a; G. 346; H. 426. i ; HB. 362. 
The adjective novus lacks a comparative. 

12. quam plurimas . . . volebat: wished to have as many 
states as possible bound (to hint) by his services. To have a thing 
bound easily passes into the meaning to have bound a thing. Thus 
arose the form of the perfect tense in English and other modern 

14. ut . . . patiantur : obj. of impetrat, as is obsides ittt . . . 


dent of perficit. The arrangement of these clauses illustrates the 
chiastic order, named from the Greek letter x (fhz) : 

impetrat ut . . . patmntztr 

uti . . . dent perficit 

15. Sequani, Helvetii: in partitive apposition with the implied 
subject of dent. He causes them to exchange hostages, the Sequani 
pledging themselves not to obstruct the Helvetii, the Helvetii under- 
taking to pass through without doing any damage. The clauses ne 
. . . prohibeant and ut . . . transeant depend on obsides inter 
sese dent, which practically means agree. A. 563. d; B. 295. 4; 
G. 546; H. 565; HB. 502. 3. a. 

X. 17. Helvetiis . . . ammo: see note on sibi . . . ammo, 
p. 58, 1. 32. 

18. Haeduorum : across the Arar from the Sequani. See In- 
trod., p. 6. Santomim : on the western coast of Gaul. This 
word, like some other names of tribes, has forms of both the second 
and third declensions ; cf. Santonos, p. 61, 1. 17. 

19. non longe : a glance at the map will show that the distance 
was fully 100 miles. In their old home the Helvetii were really 
nearer the province. They would be more dangerous, however, on 
the more exposed side of the province (locis patentibus maximeque 
frumentariis, 1. 22). quae civitas : a tribe which. A. 307. e; 
B. 251. 4. b; G. 616. 2; H. 399. 3; HB. 327. Tolosa (Toulouse) 
was the chief city of the Tolosates. 

20. Id si fieret : protasis to futurum (esse), which is in ind. 
disc., depending on intellegebat. The subject of futurum is ut . . . 
haberet. A. 569. a; B. 297. 2 ; G. 553. 3 ; H. 571. i ; HB. 521. 3. a. 
Trans, he knew that if this happened (i.e. if the Helvetii reached 
the territory of the Santones), it would be very dangerous (with 
great danger) to the province to have (lit. that it would have), 
etc. Direct : Id si fiet, magno . . . erit (jor futurum esfy ut homines 
. . . habeat. 

21. provinciae : obj. gen., depending onpericulo. bellicosos : 
A. 245 ; B. 151. 3 ; G. 182. 10; H. 346; HB. 209. 2. 

22. locis : dat, depending Q^finitimos. patentibus : exposed, 
unprotected by natural barriers, as mountains. maxim e fmmen- 
tariis: A. 128; B. 74. 2; G. 87. 6; H. 159; HB. 121. 

270 NOTES I 

PAGE 23. munition!: A. 238. b; B. 147.3; G. 181. 2. b; H. 333; HB. 

60 206. 2. A few references for word-formation are given in these notes, 
and the student should look up other derivations for himself. The 
subject is treated in A. 227-267; B. 146-159; G. 176-200; H. 318- 
375; HB. 202-218. The student should also frequently consult 
the Word-Groups in this book. For case of munitioni see note on 
omnibus, p. 56, 1. 3. 

24. legatum : see Introd., p. 32. Italiam: Cisalpine Gaul; 
see Introd., p. 21. 

25. legiones conscribit : Caesar levied these legions on his own 
responsibility, without the authority of the senate. He now had 
six legions. See Introd., p. 36. 

26. Aquileiam : Aquileia was an important city near the head 
of the Adriatic. It was strongly fortified, and served to protect 
Cisalpine Gaul against invaders from the eastward. In imperial 
times it was a city of great size and enormous wealth. proximum 
iter : past Cremona and Turin and over the Cottian Alps. 

28. Ibi: i.e. in the Alps. 

30. Compluribus : A. 120; B. 70; G. 89. R. 3 ; H. 127. 4; 
HB. 116. b. Notice here the curious interlocked order ; comphiri- 
bus is to be taken with proeliis, his with pulsis. ab Ocelo : what 
is the force of the preposition with the name of a town ? 

32. Vocontiorum ulterioris provinciae : of the Vocontii (a 
people) of the farther province, i.e. Transalpine Gaul. 

61 i. Segusiavos : these were clients of the Haedui. Caesar 
seems to have crossed the Rhone a little to the east of its junction 
with the Arar (Saone) . 

2. extra provinciam : Caesar undoubtedly here overstepped his 
authority. Outside of the Roman province, the Gallic tribes were 
independent of Roman rule. But the alliance of the Helvetii with 
the Sequani, who were friendly to the Germans, was a real menace 
to Roman influence in Gaul. The historian Livy represents the 
Helvetii as ready to march upon Narbo itself. See Introd., pp. 6-8. 

Notice the quick succession of events expressed by the historical 
presents, from pr deficit to ducit. 

XI. 3. iam : Caesar's journey to Italy and back must have taken 
nearly two months, so that the time would now be June. 

4. pervenerant, populabantur : notice the change of tense. 

5. se suaque : themselves and their (possessions). 

6. legates : carefully distinguish between the two meanings of 
legatus. rogatum: to ask. A. 509; B. 340. i; G. 435; H. 633; 
HB. 618. 


7. Ita : here begins a sentence in oratio obliqua, i.e. indirect dis- 
course, depending on the idea of saying implied in rogatum. Cf. 
esse, p. 56, 1. 3. The main verb of the sentence is meritos esse, which 
has se as its subject. For it a . . . ut see A. 537. N. 2 ; B. 284. i ; 
G. 552 ; H. 570. 3 ; HB. 521. 2. a. foot-note i. 

8. vastari debuerint: for tenses see A. 485. c, 486. a; B. 
268. 6, 270. 2 ; G. 254. R. i, 513 ; H. 550, 618. 2 ; HB. 478, foot-note 

2 on p. 311. 

10. Ambarri : the name means ' dwellers around the Arar.' See 
the map of Gaul. 

11. depopulates : passive in meaning, though the verb is com- 
monly deponent. A. 190. b~; B. 112. b; G. 167. N. 2 ; H. 222. 2; 
HB. 291. d. non prohibere: could not (lit. did not) keep off; non 
prohibemus in direct discourse. 

13. trans Rhodanum : north of the Rhone and east of the Arar. 
vicos : see note on p. 57, 1. 22. possessiones: i.e. lands. 

14. sibi . . . reliqui: that there was nothing left {nothing of a 
remainder} to them but the bare grozind (soil of the land}. Notice 
the d of solum; the adjective is solus. For reliqui see A. 346. a. I ; 
B. 201. 2. a; G. 369. R. i ; H. 440. 5. N. ; HB. 346. a. 

15. non exspectandum sibi: sc. esse. Trans, that he ought 
not to wait. See note on concedendum, p. 59,1- 5- For sibi see A. 
374; B. 189. i ; G. 355 ; H. 431 ; HB. 373. i. 

16. sociorum: the Haedui and Ambarri, allies of the Roman 
people. consumptis: we may translate as if an active participle 
agreeing with Helvetii. 

17. pervenirent: for mood see note on d^tm, p. 59, 1. 8. 

XII. 1 8. Flumen est Arar : there is a river, the Saone. Most 
of the Haedui lived west of the river, and most of the Sequani east ; 
but the words' per finis show that the river was not absolutely a 
dividing line between the two tribes. 

19. lenitate: abl. of manner. A. 412; B. 220. i; G. 399; H. 
473- 3 ; HB. 445. 3. 

20. in utram partem fluat : in which direction it flows. A. 
573, 574; B. 300. i. a; G. 452. 2, 467 ; H. 649. II ; HB. 537. b. 

21. transibant: observe the tense. The Helvetii had proceeded 
about 100 miles from Lake Geneva. exploratores : scouts, usu- 
ally detachments of mounted soldiers sent to reconnoiter. Explain 
the formation of explorator ; cf. deprecatore, p. 60, 1. 8. 

22. tris partis : three fourths. In such expressions as this (a 
cardinal number with partes) a denominator larger by one than the 
numerator is regularly understood. 

272 NOTES I 

PAGE 23. id flumen: A. 395 ; B. 179. I ; G. 331. R. i ; 11.413 ; HB. 386. 

61 24. Ararim : with this accusative compare the ablative Arari, 
p. 62, 1. 10. de tertia vigilia : during the third -watch, i.e. after the 
beginning of the third watch. The time from sunset to sunrise was 
divided into four equal watches, the length of which would of course 
vary with the season. In June the third watch, beginning at mid- 
night, would extend to about two o'clock. cum legionibus tri- 
bus : abl. of accompaniment. For formation of legio see note on 
munitioni, p. 60, 1. 23. 

25. castris : this camp was probably in the northern angle 
formed by the Rhone and Saone. 

26. impeditos : i.e. unable to defend themselves on account of 
their burdens and because they were engaged in crossing. 

27. coucidit : carefully distinguish the verbs concido, concido, 
and concede, and notice the composition of each. Another account, 
probably incorrect, makes Labienus, not Caesar in person, the victor 
over the TigurinL Labienus had been left in charge of the fortifica- 
tions along the Rhone, but had probably rejoined Caesar before the 
battle. The place of this slaughter was probably a point about 
twelve miles above the junction of the Saone and Rhone. The rest 
of the Helvetii had crossed here, or a little farther north. manda- 
runt: i.e. mandaverunt. Cf. oppugnarant, p. 58, 1. I. 

28. in proximas silvas abdiderunt : notice the accusative 
silvas ; they fled into the nearest woods and hid there. The sese 
of 1. 27 is object of abdiderunt as well as of mandarunt. Is pagus : 
the word pagus, canton, is used of local divisions of territory and 
also of the inhabitants of the divisions. 

30. patrum iiostrorum memoria : in the time (lit. recollection} 
of our fathers. The year was 107 B.C. See Chap. VII and Introd., 
p. 5. 

62 2. iugum : notice the case, and look up in the grammar the uses 
of sub. See note on p. 59, 1. 5, for the custom to which sub iugum 
miser at refers. 

3. quae pars, ea : i.e. ea pars quae. Notice how much more 
forcible Caesar's order is. A. 307. b. N. ; B. 251. 4. a ; G. 616. I, 620 ; 
H. 399. 3 ; HB. 284. 5.6. 

4. princeps poenas persolvit : was the first to pay {paid first} 
the penalty. Persolvere means to pay to the uttermost. For the use 
of princeps see A. 290 ; B. 239 ; G. 325. R. 6 ; H. 497. 3 ; HB. 243. 

5. Qua in re: and thereby. 

6. eius soceri L. Pisonis avuin : the grandfather of his 
(Caesar's) father-in-law, Liicius Piso. See Introd., p. n. 


7. L.Pisonem . . . interfecerant : the Tigurini had killed Lucius 
Piso, the legate, in the same battle in 'which they had killed Cassius. 

XIII. 9. reliquas copias Helvetiorum : notice the position 
of these words before the conjunction nt. 

10. faciendum curat : caused to be built. A. 500. 4; B. 
337. 8. b. 2 (337. 7. b. 2) ; G. 430; H. 622 ; HB. 612. III. 

11. exercitum : no doubt all six legions. The battle with the 
Tigurini had been fought with three. 

12. cum. . . intellegerent : when they comprehended that he had 
done in one day that which they had themselves accomplished only 
with the greatest difficulty in twenty days, namely the crossing of the 
river. The clause ut flumen transiretitzy^iansidqiiodconfecerant, 
and hence takes the usual form of a substantive clause depending on 
conficio. A. 568 ; B. 297. i ; G. 553. i ; H. 566; HB. 521. 3. a. The 
great numbers of the Helvetii and their allies, and the large amount 
of baggage which they must have carried, rendered the movements of 
the host very slow. 

14. cuiiis legationis : equivalent to quorum legatontm. 

15. Cassiano : Caesar names the war from the general on the 
Roman side ; cf. 1. i. For the suffix -arms see A. 249. 2 ; B. 152. i ; 
G. 182.5; H. 353; HB. 210. 5. 

1 6. egit : parleyed; it is equivalent in this use to a verb of saying, 
and therefore introduces indirect discourse. Divico's speech ex- 
tends to the end of the chapter. Si ... Helvetios : the direct 
form would be si faciet, ibunt atque erunt Helvetii. A. 589. i. 2. a; 
B. 319. A. B ; G. 656. 1.2; H. 646 ; HB. 534. I. b. 2. II. 

1 8. constituisset : Divico said constitueris, fut. perf. This 
sentence may be translated if the Roman people would make peace 
with the Helvetii, the Helvetii would go to that place and remain 
there, where Caesar (should have} settled them and (should have) 
wished them to be. sin . . . reminisceretur : but if he persisted 
in pursuing them with war, he should remember , for the direct sin 
perseverabis, reminiscere (imperative). Sin is regularly used to in- 
troduce the second of two conditions opposed to each other. Notice 
the doubled per in persequi perseveraret. For mood of reminis- 
ceretur see A. 588 ; B. 316 ; G. 652 ; H. 642 ; HB. 534. 2. IV. 

19. incommodi : a mild word ; cf. insignem calamitatem, \. 4. 
For case see A. 350. c; B. 206. 2 ; G. 376; H. 454. i ; HB. 350. 

20. Quod adortus esset : as to the fact that he had attacked. 
A. 572. a; B. 299. 2; G. 525. 2; H. 588. 3. N. , HB. 552. 2. The 
subjunctive is due to indirect discourse. 

21. cum: at a time when. C^tm^s, a relative word (originally 


274 NOTES I 

PAGE quom, cf. qui), and the subjunctive is closely akin to the subjunc- 
62 tive of characteristic. transissent : this represents an indicative 

of direct discourse. 

22. ne magnopere tribueret : he should not give much credit, 
or let him not give much credit. This is a prohibition expressed in- 
directly. A. 450, 588. N. 2; B. 276. b, 316. a; G. 270. R. 2, 652; 
H. 561. i, 642. 4; HB. 501. a. 2, 534. 2. IV. Notice that suae is a 
direct reflexive, while ipsos refers to the Helvetii. 

23. Se . . . didicisse : they had been so taiight by (lit. had so 
learned front) their fathers and forefathers. What sort of clause 
may be expected after an ita ? 

25. dolo: A. 431; B. 218.3; G. 401. N. 6; 11.476.3; HB. 
438. 1. ne committeret ut . . . caperet : he should not allow 
that place where they had taken their stand to receive a name from, 
etc. Cf. ne tribueret, 1. 22. ut ... caperet . . . proderet : 
substantive clause, object of committeret. 

2.6. internecione : Divico uses a plain word to convey his 
threat, though he had used the mild word incommodi to refer to the 
old disaster. 

27. memoriam : i.e. calamitatis internecionisque. 

As this is the first long passage of connected indirect discourse 
which the student has had in this book, he should study it carefully. 
Changing the indirect to the direct form is a very useful exercise 
in syntax and composition. Consult A. 590 for a treatment of this 

XIV. 28. His: sc. legatis. Eo, quod: for this reason, 
(jiamely) because. Eo is abl. of degree, or measure, of difference, 
with /mnus, but almost equivalent to an abl. of cause. See note 
on hoc facilius, p. 56, 1. 4. What is the subject of dari? 

30. eo . . . quo . . . accidissent : that he was the more 
indignant, the less they had happened in accordance (i.e. in pro- 
portion as they had not happened in accordance} with the de- 
serts of the Roman people. In direct discourse this whole sen- 
tence would run : Eo (or hoc) mihi minus dubitationis datur, 
quod eas (or has) res qnas commemoravistis memoria teneo, atque 
eo (or hoc) gravius fero quo minus merito populi Romani ac- 
ciderunt. The Romans always considered their opponents the 

31. qui si: for if they (the Roman people). alicuius iniu- 
riae : of some (act of) injustice. A. 310. b ; B. 252. 2 ; G. 315. N. I ; 
H. 512; HB. 276. 2. For the case of iimiriae see A. 349.3; 
B. 204. i ; G. 374; H. 451. 2. N. 2; HB. 354. 


32. fuisset, fuisse : fuisset, fuit in direct discourse. A. 517.0; PAGE 
B. 304. i. 3. a; G. 597. R. 3 ; H. 579. I, 583. 3 ; HE. 581, 582. 3. a. 62 
The meaning is that it was not difficult for them to be on their 

guard, and they would have been, if they had been conscious of 
having committed some act of injustice. deceptum : sc. eum 
(\.t.populumRomanum) as subject. 

33. neque . . . timeret : they did not know that anything had 
been done by them on account of which they should fear. For 
timeret see A. 535. a; B. 282. 2 ; G. 631. 2 ; H. 569; HB. 513. 2. 
The antecedent Qiqiiare is the implied subject of commissum. 

1 . timendum : sc. sibi esse, that they ought to fear. Cf. con- 63 
cedendum, p. 59, 1. 5. Quod: but (lit. as to whicJi). A. 397. a; 

B. 185. 2; G. 610. R. 2 ; H. 510. 9. contumeliae : for case cf. 
incommodi, p. 62, 1. 19. 

2. vellet: probably for vettem of direct discourse, the sense 
being, ' If I were willing to forget the old outrage, can I put aside 

the memory of the recent wrongs also?' num: A. 332. b; 
B. 162. 2. b ; G. 456; H. 378; HB. 231. i. d. iniuriarum: 
explained by the following ^//^-clauses. eo : i.e. Caesar. 

5. posse: A. 586; B. 315. 2; G. 651. R. i ; H. 642. 2; 
HB. 591. a. Quod gloriarentur : the fact that they boasted. 
This and the following ^7/0^-clause are the subject of pertinere. 

A. 572. N. ; B. 299. i; G. 525. 2; H. 588. II. 3; HB. 552. 2. 
Why are the verbs subjunctive ? 

6. se intulisse : that they had inflicted. 

7. eodem pertinere : pointed in the same direction, i.e. to their 
ruin. Consuesse : for consuevisse ; a perfect with present mean- 
ing. A. 205. N. 2 ; B. 262. A; G. 175. 5 ; H. 299. 2 ; HB. 487. 
enim : note that the conjunctions meaning ' for, 1 enim (always 
postpositive), etenim, nam, namqne, introduce independent sen- 
tences. deos : how is this word declined? 

8. doleant: for mood cf. posset, p. 59, 1. 18. Notice that the 
tense is present, though this speech depends on respondit, a sec- 
ondary, or historical, tense. quos : the antecedent is his, 1. 9. 

1. concedere : depends on consuesse. Cum : though. A. 549; 64 

B. 309. 3 ; G. 587 ; H. 598 ; HB. 526. 

2. si ... dentur : protasis to sese . . . facturum. In direct 
discourse this sentence would run : Si obsides a vobis mihi dabnn- 
tur, uti ea qitae pollicemini (vos) facturos (esse) intellegam, et si 
. . . intulistis, . . . satis facietis, (ego} vobiscum pacem faciam. 

3. Haeduis : dat. with satisfaciant. A. 368. 2 ; B. 187 ; G. 344 ; 
H. 426. i. N. 2 ; HB. 362. I. 

276 NOTES I 

PAGE In a part of Caesar's speech it is difficult to tell from the indirect 

64 form whether he spoke in the first person or not ; vellet and eo, p. 

63, 1. 2, and posse, p. 63, 1. 5, might refer to the Roman people 
rather than to Caesar. If the sentence is so understood, the use 
of eo is regular ; but if it refers to Caesar, we should expect se. 
Caesar's speech may be found given in direct discourse in G. 66 1 ; 
H. 653. 

6. institutes esse : cf. didicisse, p. 62, 1. 24. 

7. testem: why is this singular? 

XV. 10. equitation: see Introd., p. 37. 

11. coactum : see note on p. 60, 1. 12. It agrees with quern, 
the object cfchabebat, 

12. qui videant: a relative clause of purpose; qui is plural be- 
cause its antecedent, equitatum, is equivalent to equites. 

13. Qui: but they. A. 308. f; B. 251. 6; G. 610. R. I ; H. 510; 
HB. 566. alieno: unfavorable. What literally? What would 
S2io mean? 

14. pauci cadunt : the rest ran away. See Chap. XVIII, end. 

15. sublati: see tollo in Vocab. 

16. multitudinem : A. 241; B. 149; G. 181. 2. b; H. 345; 
HB. 207. 2. 

17. novissimo agmine : with the rear of their column, abl. of 

19. satis habebat : held (considered) it sufficient ; the object of 
habebat is the infinitive prohibere. in praesentia : for the present. 

20. Ita : refers forward to uti. dies : ace., expressing duration 

of time. 

21. agmen : A. 239; B. 147. 4; G. 181. 2. a; H. 336; HB. 
206.3. nostrum primum : sc.agmen; our van. non . . . pas- 
suum : not more than five or six miles (each day). 

22. quinis: A. 136, 137. a; 6.79, 81.4. a; G. 97 ; H. 163, 164. i; 
HB. 133. milibus : A. 406; B. 217. i; G. 398; H. 471; 
HB. 416. Caesar was waiting until a favorable opportunity for 
attacking should present itself. 

XVI. 23. Haeduos frumentum : A. 396; B. 178. i. a; 
G. 339. a; H. 411; HB. 393. 

24. essent polliciti: subj- of ind. disc. In making his de- 
mand Caesar reminded them of their promise. A. 592. 3 ; B. 323 ; 
G. 508. 3 ; H. 649. I ; HB. 535. i. a. flagitare : A. 463 ; B. 335 ; 
G. 647; H. 610; HB. 595. frigora: the cold climate (times of 
cold). The singular, frigus, means the cold. Gaul seems to have 
been colder in Caesar's time than France is now. 


26. frumenta : grain, or crops. The singular usually denotes 
the harvested grain. ne . . . quidem : these words always inclose 
the word or words to be emphasized. 

28. quod . . . subvexerat : 'which he had brought up the river 
Saone in (lit. by) boats. For the construction of flumine Arari cf. 
qttibtis itineribus, p. 58,!. 3. uti: from ntor ; notice how it differs 
from uti, 1. 20. minus poterat : could not very well. Minus is 
often a weaker non. 

29. iter averterant: to the valley of the Liger (Loire). See 
the map of Gaul. 

30. Diem . . . Haedui : the Haedui kept putting him off day 
after day. Diem is accusative of duration of time. conferri ... 
dicere : they kept saying that it (the grain) was being collected, was 
being transported, was close by. By the omission of connectives 
(asyndeton) the climax is heightened. 

31. diutius : longer (than was right), i.e. too long. 

i. metiri : see Introd., p. 36. The infinitive depends on opor- 65 

teret. A. 454; B. 330; G. 535 ; H. 615 ; HB. 585. 

3. Diviciaco et Lisco : partitive apposition to principibus. 
Diviciacus was a druid. See Introd., p. 27, and note on Dumnorigt, 
p. 56, 1. 28. 

4. quern : its antecedent is magistratui. There is in this sen- 
tence a slight confusion between the two meanings of magistrates, 
magistracy and magistrate. vergobretum : the word means 
'judge. 1 "Down to the time of the French Revolution, the magis- 
trate of Autun was called Verg or Vierg." Autun is near the site 
of the Haeduan town Bibracte. 

5. annuus : pred. adj., where English idiom would require an 

7. propinquis : (being) near, with hostibus. 

8. sublevetur: A. 540; B. 286. i; G. 541; H. 588. II; HB. 
535. 2. a. magna ex parte : to a great extent. 

9. multo gravius : Caesar accused the Haedui of ingratitude in 
not helping him, when he was acting in response to their prayers ; 
but he complained much more bitterly because they had played him 

XVII. 12. quod: the rel. pron , what, that which (sc. id, obj. 
of proponif). Esse non nullos : direct stint non nulli. Nearly 
all the speeches in Caesar are in indirect discourse. 

13. privatim . . . possint : have more power, though in private 
station. Compare the case of Orgetorix (Chap. IV) with his 
numerous dependents. 

278 NOTES I 

15. ne . . . conferant: trans, from furnishing. A. 558. b; 
B. 295. 3; G. 548; H. 596. 2; HB. 502. 3. b. For the plural con- 
ferant after the collective noun multitudinem cf. exirent, p. 56, 1. 2. 

1 6. Praestare : here begins the seditiosa atque improba (reck- 
less) oratio, which extends through erepturi. (They say that} it is 
better , if they (the Haedui) cannot lojiger hold the first place in 
Gaul, to endure the dominion of Gauls than that of Romans, and 
that they (the multitude) ought not to doubt, etc. 

19. Haeduis : A. 381 ; B. 188. 2. d ; G. 345. R. i ; H. 427 ; HB. 
371. sint erepturi: are intending to take away, or will take 
away. For the form of the clause cf. quin . . . possent, p. 57, 1. 4. 

20. nostra : i.e. Romanorum. 

21. se: the indirect reflexive, referring to the main subject, 
Liscus. Quin etiam : why, even. quod : see note on quod 
adortus esset, p. 62, 1. 20. 

23. id: notice its emphatic position before cum periculo. It is 
the object of fecerit, and refers to the clause quod . . . emtntiarit. 

Notice that all subjunctives in this speech are either present or 
perfect, and that the speech is introduced by proponit, a historical 
present All the subjunctives might have been changed to secondary 

XVIII. 26. pluribus praesentibus : with too many present, 
abl. abs. 

27. iactari: to be openly discussed. A. 263. 2; B. 155. 2; G. 
191. i ; H. 364; HB. 212. i. 

28. ex solo : i.e. ex eo solo. Dicit: sc. Liscus. 

29. reperit esse vera : he found that the facts were (truth was) 
as follows. 

30. Ipsum esse Dumnorigem : that Dumnorix was the man. 

summa audacia : equivalent to audacissimum. For the case 
cf. bono ammo, p. 58, 1. 1 8. 

32. rerum novarum : ci.novisrebus,-p.6p,\.ii. For the case 
see A. 349. a ; B. 204. i ; G. 374 ; H. 451 . i ; HB. 354. portoria : 
duties on goods carried into, out of, or through a country. Cf. 
porto, carry. 

33. vectigalia : revenues, as from public pastures or monopolies. 

parvo pretio : at a low price. A. 416 ; B. 225 ; G. 404 ; H. 478 ; 
HB. 427. I. redempta habere : had' bought in. See note on 
p. 60, 1. 12. propterea . . . nemo: because when he bid, no 
one dared to bid against him. Dumnorix bought for a lump sum 
the right to collect the taxes, expecting to recoup himself and make 
a profit. 


2. ad largiendum : for bribing* See note on prqficiscendum, 
p. 56, 1. 17. 

3. suo sumptu : at his own expense. 

4. domi: i.e. among his own people. A. 427; B. 232. 2; 
G. 411. R. 2 ; H. 484. 2 ; HB. 449. a. 

5. largiter posse: equivalent to multum posse. huius . . . 
conlocasse : to confirm (for the sake of) this power he had given 
(placed} his mother (in marriage) to a man among the Bituriges, 
most noble and powerful there. 

7. uxorem: the daughter of Orgetorix; cf. p. 57, 1. i. 

8. sororem ex matre : half-sister, on the mothers side. 
nuptum conlocasse : had placed to marry, i.e. had given in 
marriage. A. 509; B. 340. i. b; G. 435; H. 633. i; HB. 618. 

9. Helvetiis: A. 367; B. 187. II. a; G. 346; H. 426. i ; HB. 

10. suo nomine : in his own, name, i.e. on private grounds. 

13. Si quid accidat : if anything shoiild happen, a euphemistic 
expression for if any disaster should come. in spem venire : he 
conceived (came into} the hope. regni: obj. gen., depending on 
spem. The gerundive obtinendi agrees with it. 

14. imperio populi Homani: -under the government of the 
Roman people. 

15. Reperiebat: notice the tense. Caesar kept asking ques- 
tions, and kept learning something new. 

16. quaerendo: A. 507; B. 338. 4. b; G. 433; H. 631; HB. 
612. IV. quod . . . adversum: this expression is nearly equiva- 
lent to quae fuga equitum, and has fugae of 1. 17 for its virtual 
antecedent. We may translate freely the beginning of the flight in 
the ^^nsuccessful cavalry skirmish which had taken place . . . had 
been made, etc. 

17. ante: A. 433. 1,424. f; B. 144. i, 223; G. 415, 403. N. 4; 
H. 420. 4, 488. i ; HB. 303. c, 424. 

18. auxilio Caesari: A. 382. i ; B. 191. 2. b ; G. 356; H. 433; 
HB. 360. b. 

XIX. 22. res : facts, given in the four yw^-clauses which fol- 
low. These clauses have their verbs in the subjunctive, on the 
principle of indirect discourse, as they represent Caesar's thought 
at the time of the action of the main verb. quod : (namely) that. 

23. obsides . . . curasset: had caused hostages to be ex- 
changed between them. See note on faciendum cur at, p. 62, 1. 10. 

24. iniussu suo : without his (Caesar's) orders. A. 103. b. 5 ; 
B. 57. i ; G. 70; H. 143. i ; HB. 106. i. 

280 NOTES I 

PAGE 25. magistratu : the vergobret Liscus. satis: used as a noun, 

66 subject of esse. 

26. quare in eum animadverteret : wherefore he should 
proceed against (turn Ms attention toward) him. See note on 
timer et, p. 62, 1. 33. 

27. rebus: A. 367; B. 187. II. a; 0.346; H. 426. I ; HB. 362. 

29. studium: attachment. 

30. cognoverat: see note on consuesse, p. 63, 1. 7. What is 
the meaning of cognosce ? Of cognovi? 

31. animum off enderet : he might -wound the feelings. For 
the form of the clause see A. 564 ; B. 296. 2 ; G. 550. 1.2; H. 567. i ; 
HB. 502. 4. priusquam . . . conaretur: before he should 
make any attempt. A. 551. b ; B. 292. i. b; G. 577; H. 605. II; 
HB. 507. 4. b. What is the negative idea in this clause which 
makes it necessary to use quicquam instead ofcaliquid? 

33. per . . . Troucillum : connect this phrase with conloqui- 
tur. C. : stands for Gaiitm. A. i. a, 108. c; B. 373; G. i. R. i, 
and p. 493; H. 5. 3, 354. 6; HB. i. a, 678. 3. 

34. cui : fidein habebat is equivalent to a verb meaning 'trusted.' 

35. omnium rerurn : in all respects. 

67 i. ipso : Diviciacus. 

2. sint dicta: subj. in an ind. quest. quisque : each one, 
giving his individual information or opinion ; omnes would mean 
all, giving the same information or expressing the same opinion. 

3. sine eius offensicme animi: without "wounding his feelings. 

4. ipse : Caesar. causa cognita : after investigating the case. 

statuat: a somewhat milder word than animadverteret, p. 66, 
1. 26. 

XX. 6. ne quid gravius statueret: obj. of obsecrare; that 
he -would not take any too severe measures. When is quis, quid, an 
indefinite pronoun? Scire se : ind. disc., depending on the idea 
of saying in the verb obsecrare ; direct (ego} scio. 

7. quemquam : subject of caper e. Just as nee or neque is 
regularly used instead of et non, so nee quisquam replaces et nemo. 

ex eo : from that (fact). 

8. ipse : the speaker, Diviciacus, while ille refers to Dumnorix. 

plurimum : sc. posset from minimum posset below, and cf. p. 57, 


10. qtiibus opibus ac nervis : i.e. the influence and strength 
gained through Diviciacus. 

ir. gratiam : sc. suam, referring, as all the reflexives in this 
passage, to the speaker. Notice the gerundive construction used to 


express purpose. uteretur: the subject is Dumnorix, as of PAGE 
crevisset above. 67 

12. amore fraterno : love for his brother. The adj. is used for 
an obj. gen. vulgi: subjective gen. 

13. Quod si: now, if. a Caesare : like abl. of agent, because 
accidisset is nearly equivalent to a passive, should have been done. 

14. nerainem non : everybody. In direct form this sentence 
would run : Quod si quid ei a te gravius acciderit (fut. perf.), cum 
ego hunc locitm amiciiiae apud te teneam, nemo existimabit non mea 
voluntate factum (esse) . 

15. futurum: sc. esse ; it would come to pass. Its subject is the 
substantive clause uti . . . averterentur. Cf. p. 60, 1. 21. The 
form fiiturum uti animi averterentiir is periphrastic for animos 
aver sum iri. A. 5169. a; B. 270. 3. a; G. 248; H. 619. 2; 
HB. 472. c. 

1 6. cum: is this the preposition ? Notice peter et. 

18. faciat: A. 565. a; B. 295. 8; G. 546. R. 2 ; H. 565. 4; 
HB. 530. 2. tanti: of so great weight. A. 417; B. 203. 3; 
G. 379, 380. i ; H. 448. i ; HB. 356. i. In indirect discourse this 
sentence would run : Tanti tua apud me gratia est uti . . . menm 
dolorem tuae vohmtati . . . condonem. 

19. rei publicae : to the state, obj. gen. eius voluntati : out 
of deference to his wish ; voluntati is ind. obj. of condonet. What 
is the literal translation ? 

22. in reliquum tempus : for the future. 

23. praeterita : bygones. 

24. Dumnorigi: A. 362; B. 187. I; G. 345; H. 425. i; 
HB. 365. 

Caesar yielded to policy as well as to the entreaties of Diviciacus. 
The punishment of Dumnorix at this time would have alienated the 
Haedui, on whom Caesars army depended for food. 

XXI. 26. exploratoribus : see note on p. 61, 1. 21. 

27. qualis esset : an indirect question. 

28. qui cognoscerent : (j;ie)i) to/earn, a relative clause of purpose. 

29. esse : sc. ascensum as subject. De tertia vigilia : see 
note on p. 61, 1. 24. 

30. legatum pro praetore : the legatus ordinarily had no inde- 
pendent military authority, but was the assistant of his general. 
The title legatus pro praetore applied to Labienus probably indi- 
cates that he had received by special enactment the power and rank 
of propraetor, empowering him to act as Caesar's substitute when 
necessary. See legatim Introd., p. 32. 

282 NOTES I 

PAGE 31. iis . . . cognoverant: those (inen as) guides who knew the 

67 way ; cf. 1. 28. 

68 i . quid . . . sit : what his plan was. For case of consili see 
A. 343. b; B. 198. 3; 0.366; H. 447; HB. 346. Labienus from 
the summit was to attack the enemy in the rear, while Caesar 
attacked them in front. de quarta vigilia : what time was this? 

3. rei: A. 349. a; B. 204. I ; G. 374; H. 451. i ; HB. 354. 

4. L. Sullae: as Sulla died in 78 B.C., Considius's military 
experience had extended over a long period of years. M. Crassi : 
sc. exercitu. Crassus was one of the triumvirs ; see Introd., p. n. 
He defeated the gladiators and slaves under Spartacus in 71 B.C. 

XXII. 6. summus: A. 293; B. 241. i; G. 291. R. 2 ; H. 
497.4; HB. 244. 

7. passibus : abl. with the comparative longius. 

8. neque . . . aut . . . aut: trans, and . . . neither . . . nor. 

9. Labieui : sc. adventus. cognitus esset : goes with cum, 
1. 6. equo admisso : with his horse at full speed, abl. abs. 
Equum admittere means to let a horse go, give him free rein. 

10. accurrit, dicit : notice the asyndeton. voluerit : sc. 
Caesar as subject. 

12. in collem subducit: led (from below) up on the hill. 
The numerous instances of asyndeton in this chapter add life to the 

13. aciem instruit : Caesar awaited the coming of the Helvetii, 
thinking that they had already destroyed Labienus. erat prae- 
ceptum : the order had been given. What literally? What is the 
subject of the verb? 

15. ut . . . fieret: a clause of purpose. 

17. Multo die : when day was well advanced. 

18. timore perterritum : terror-stricken. 

19. quod . . . renuntiavisse : had reported to him as (a thing) 
seen what he had not seen. The participle visa is used substantively . 

20. quo consuerat intervallo : at what interval he was accus- 
tomed, i.e. at his accustomed interval. This was five or six miles. 
For attraction of antecedent into relative clause see A. 307. b ; B. 
251. 4; G. 616. i; H. 399. 3; HB. 284.6. For case of intervallo 
see A. 412 ; B. 221 ; G. 399 ; H. 473. 3 ; HB. 422. I. 

XXIII. 22. Postridie eius diei : lit. on. the morrow (next day) 
of that day. Postridie is equivalent to postero die. For the genitive 
see A. 359. b; B. 201. 3. a; H. 446. 5; HB. 380. c. biduum 
supererat cum oporteret : two days remained (before the time) 
when it would be necessary. 


23. a Bibracte : why is a preposition used? Most neuter names PAGE 
of towns ending in , though /-stems, have the ablative in e. 68 

Bibracte was on Mont Beuvray, not far from the site of the modern 
Autun. The Gallic fortifications may still be traced. 

25. rei: why dative? prospiciendum : sc. esse; that he ought 
to make provision for. 

26. Bibracte : ace. Why ? From a course almost due west 
Caesar now turned more nearly northward. 

27. decurionis : see Introd., p. 38. 

29. existimarent : A. 540. N. 2 ; B. 286. i. a; G. 541. N. 3 ; H. 
588. II. i ; HB. 535. 2. b. N. eo magis : all the more (more by this). 

30. superioribus locis occupatis : though they had seized the 
heights ; abl. abs., used concessively. commisissent : subj. 
because the thought of the Helvetii. 

31. eo : for this reason, abl. of cause. posse : sc. Romanos as 

32. a novissimo agmine : sc. nostro, at our rear. The Helvetii 
by turning back put themselves in Caesar's power. 

XXIV. i. id: A. 395; B. 179. 2; G. 342; HB. 391. 3. 69 
animum advertit : turned his attention toward, i.e. noticed. 
Usually animadvertere is used. For mood and tense of verb see 

A. 543 ; B. 287. I. a; G. 561 ; H. 602 ; HB. 554, 557. 

2. qui sustineret : to check. 

3. in colle medio: half-way up the hill. triplicem aciem : 
see Introd., p. 44. 

4. legionum quattuor : numbered VII-X. See Introd., p. 36. 

5. conscripserat : cf. p. 60, 1. 25. 

6. auxilia: see Introd., p. 37. 

7. sarcinas : the packs carried by the soldiers, often very heavy. 
See Introd., p. 40. iis : the two raw legions and the auxilia, who 
were on the top of the hill. 

8. muniri : the remains of this intrenchment have been dis- 

9. impedimenta : see Introd., p. 40. 

10. confertissima acie : by the great density of their line, lit. 
by their very dense line ; abl. of means with reiecto. phalange : 
an unbroken mass, with the shields of those in front overlapping. 

11. sub: tip towards. The student should refer constantly to 
the plan on p. 70 in reading the following account of the battle be- 
tween the Romans and the Helvetii. 

XXV. 12. omnium equis : i.e. those of his officers and 
personal staff. 

284 NOTES I 

PAGE 15. pilis : see Introd., pp. 35, 45. 

69 16. Gallis impedimento : A. 382. i. N. i; B. 191. 2; G. 356; 
H. 433 ; HB. 360. b. 

17. quod . . . poterant: this clause is subject of erat. Subor- 
dinate to poterant are, first, an abl. abs. ; second, a ^awz-clause ; 
third, two infinitives, closely connected with the second of which is 
another abl. abs. 

1 8. conligatis : pinned together. f errum : the soft iron shank 
connecting the head with the shaft. 

19. evellere : sc. id, \.&. f errum. sinistra impedita : abl. abs., 
causal. Shields were carried of course on the left arm. 

20. multi . . . praeoptarent : a clause of result. Notice the 
emphatic position of multi. 

21. manu : abl. of separation. nudo : unprotected, not naked. 

22. et . . . et: both . . . and. pedem referre : to fall back 
(facing the foe) ; terga vertere means to run away. circiter : an 

23. mille: A. 134. d; B. 80. 5; G. 95. R. 3; H.-i68; HB. 
131. 3. Capto : sc. ab Us. 

24. Boii et Tulingi : cf. Chap. V. milibus : abl. of means. 

25. novissimis : i.e. novissimo agmini. For case see note on 
Gallis impedimento, 1. 16. 

2.6. latere aperto : i.e. the right side, which was unprotected by 
shields. The Boii and Tulingi, who had just reached the battle- 
ground, seem to have tried to pass round in the rear of the Romans, 
to attack them on the right flank. The manoeuver was frustrated 
when the third line faced about, as described at the end of the 
chapter. circumvenire : depends on adgressi (sunf). 

28. conversa . . . intulerunt : turned about and charged in 
two divisions. What literally? The first two lines charged forward 
upon the Helvetii, who had been already once driven before them ; 
the third line faced about to receive the attack of the Boii and 
Tulingi. See the plan, p. 70. 

XXVI. 31. ancipiti: twofold, explained by the last sentence 
of Chap. XXV. 

32. alteri, alter! : i.e. the Helvetii, the Boii and Tulingi. 

70 i. hoc toto proelio : abl. of time within which. 

2. hora septima: as the time from sunrise to sunset was 
divided into twelve equal hours, the seventh hour in the latter part 
of June would extend from noon to about fifteen minutes past one. 
aversum hostem : the back of an enemy. This was not a flight, 
but an orderly retreat. 


3. Ad multam noctem : cf. mult o die, p. 68, 1. 17. ad im- 
pedimenta : at the baggage. Here, according to Plutarch, were the 
women and children, who were probably massacred when the Roman 
soldiers burst in. 

4. pro vallo : as a wall. 

5. coniciebant : notice the force of this and the following 

8. impedimentis : why ablative ? 

9. e filiis : A. 346. c; B. 201. i. a; G. 372. R. 2 ; H. 444. I ; HB. 
346. e. captus est : agrees with the nearer of the two subjects. 

10. nocte : A. 424. b ; B. 231. i ; G. 393. R. 2 ; H. 417. 2 ; HB. 
440. continenter: without stopping. The words mdlain . . . 
intermisso which follow are an explanation of continenter. 

1. in finis Lingonum : see the map of Gaul. It is almost c~r- 71 
tain that the battle took place near Montmort, a village about three 

miles from Toulon-sur-Arroux. Excavations have disclosed the 
form of the intrenchment on the hill, and have yielded calcined 
bones, fragments of helmets and javelins, and other relics. The time 
was probably the last of June (June 29, according to one authority). 

2. quarto : the third according to -modern reckoning. The 
Romans counted the day from which the reckoning was made. 

3. sepulturam: A. 238. b. N. i ; B. 147. 3. a; G. 181. 9; H. 
328. 4; HB. 206. 2. 

4. lie ... iuvarent: depends on litteras nuntiosque misit, 
which implies the idea of commanding. 

5. Qui . . . habiturum : in direct discourse (vos) si i^l'ver^tis, 
(ego vos) eodem loco quo Hel-vetios habebo. This means that Caesar 
would treat the Lingones as enemies. 

XXVII. ii. eos: the Helvetii, not the legati. 
12. essent : subj. because dependent on exspeciare, and forming 
a part of Caesar's command. iussisset : introduced by c^lm^ 1. 9. 

14. perfugissent : subj. of informal ind. disc. ea : i.e. obsides, 
arma, serin. conquiruntur : A. 556 ; B. 293. I ; G. 229. R., 570 ; 
H. 533.4; HB. 559. 

15. Verbigenus: the Helvetii consisted of four divisions, or can- 
tons. The Tigurini have been already mentioned, in Chap. XII. 
See Introd., p. 5. 

1 6. perterriti : masc. because hominnm milia sex means six 
thousand persons. ne supplicio adficerentur : that they would 
be visited with punishment, i.e. put to death. The clause depends 
on the expression timore perterriti, which is nearly equivalent in 
meaning to timentes. 

286 NOTES I 

PAGE 1 8. occultari . . . ignorari : be concealed (for a time, until they 

71 had a sufficient start) or remain altogether unknown. 

19. existimarent : see note on p. 68, 1. 29. 

20. Germanorum: if the fugitives had reached the Germans, 
they might have secured sympathy and active help against the Ro- 

XXVIII. 21. Quod: the rel. pron. How is it to be trans- 
lated? quorum . . . imperavit : he ordered those through whose 
territory they had gone to collect them and bring them back, if they 
wished to be blameless in his sight. For sibi see A. 378. I ; B. 
188. 2. c; G. 352; 11.425.4; HB. 370. 

23. in . . . liabuit: a mild way of saying that he massacred 
them or sold them into slavery. 

26. frugibus amissis : cf. p. 57, 1. 24. 

27. quo famem tolerareiit : with which they could relieve their 
starvation, A. 531. 2; B. 282. 2; G. 631. 2; H. 591. i; HB. 
517.2. . 

28. facerent : furnish. Observe the construction used with 
imperavit, and that in 1. 29 with iussit. ipsos: contrasted with 

29. ea ratione : for this reason. 

30. discesserant : A. 267. b ; B. 159. 3. e. N. ; G. 200. 2. a; H. 
375.3; HB. 218. i. b. vacare : A. 563. b ; 6.331. IV; G. 532 ; 
H. 565. 2; HB. 587. ne : does this particle introduce clauses of 
purpose or of result ? 

32. finitimi : Caesar wished to have the Helvetii between the 
province and the Germans. See the location of the Helvetii on the 
map of Gaul. 

72 I. Boios : obj. of conlocarent. Haeduis : ind. .obj. of concessit, 
of which the clause ut . . . conlocarent is dir. obj. quod . . . 
cogniti : because they were known (to be men} of extraordinary 
bravery. The Haedui held the headship of one of the two parties 
in Gaul, and wished to strengthen their power. 

3. postea : perhaps after the close of the Gallic War. 

4. parem atque ipsi erant : equal to that in which they them- 
selves were, or the same as they themselves enjoyed. A. 384. N. 2 ; 
B. 341. i. c; G. 643 ; H. 657. i. N. ; HB. 307. 2. a. Before the mi- 
gration of the Helvetii the Boii were not settled in a definite home. 
Cf. p. 57, 1. 30. 

XXIX. 6. tabulae : the tablets used by the Romans were of 
wood covered with wax. The stilus, a pointed piece of metal, was 
used to scratch the characters in the wax. litteris Graecis : in 


Greek characters. The Gauls had learned these from the Greek PAGE 
colony of Massilia; they seem not to have had a native alpha- 72 


7. et : connects repertae sunt and relatae (sienf). 

8. ratio conf ecta erat : an accoiint had been made iip. qui : 
the interrogative adjective, introducing an indirect question. 

9. possent : subj. of characteristic. quot . . . mulieresque : 
sc. domo exissent. 

10. Quarum rerum, capitum : the idea of personality disap- 
pears. Cf. English 'five hundred head' (used of cattle). 

11. milium : pred. gen. Trans, 'the total of all these items was 
263,000 souls of the Helvetii. 

13. ad : up to, about. 

14. fuerunt : notice that this does not agree with summa, but 
takes its plural form from milia ccCLXVin. 

16. o et x : it is uncertain whether this number includes the Boii 
or not. Even if it does not, the number of killed, captured, and missing 
during the campaign would be not far below 250,000. No doubt some 
escaped singly to other tribes, but still the slaughter must have been 
frightful. Some later writers make the numbers smaller than 
here given. 

XXX. 17. totius Galliae : i.e. Celtic Gaul. See Introd., p. 23. 

18. gratulatum: A. 509; B. 340. i ; G. 435 ; H. 633 ; HB. 618. 

19. Intellegere sese : direct, (iios) intellegimus . The rest of 
the sentence depends on intellegere. veteribus : learn to com- 
pare and decline vetus. Helvetiorum . . . Roman! : injuries 
inflicted by the Helvetii (subj. gen.) on the Roman people (obj. gen.). 
These injuries are given in Chap. XII. 

20. ab his poenas repetisset : had inflicted punishment on 
them, more literally had claimed the penalty from them. Cf. poenas 
persolvit, p. 62, 1. 5. 

21. ex usu : to the advantage. 

22. florentissimis rebus: though their affairs were in a most 
prosperotis condition. 

24. domicilio: A. 382. 2; B. 191. i ;G-356; H. 433. 3; HB. 361. 
j 26. haberent : in the same construction as inferrent, potirentur, 

27. in ... indicere : appoint for a fixed time. 

28. Sese habere : this is the reason for their request. quas- 
dam : A. 310 ; B. 252. 3 ; G. 313 ; H. 512 ; HB. 276. 5. 

i. lure iurando . . . sanxerunt : made a compact with one 73 

another ^lnder oath that no one should disclose (the results of their 

288 NOTES I 

PAGE deliberation} except (those) to whom it (the duty of so doing) had 

73 been assigned by general agreement. 

XXXI. 5. ante f uerant : cf. p. 72, 1. 18. 

7. Caesar i ad pedes : at Caesar's feet. For the dat. see A. 
377 ; B. 188. I. N. ; G. 350. i : H. 425. 4. N. ; HB. 368. 

8. se id contenders: (saying that) they strove for this, ex- 
plained by the substantive clause ne . . . enuntiarentur . 

9. quam : than, with minus. 

10. si enuntiatum esset : if disclosures should be (should have 
been} made. The verb is impersonal. in cruciatum ventures : 
should come into torture, i.e. should suffer torture. 

ii.' Galliae : the speech which begins here is long, but not diffi- 
cult as a whole. Try to get the direct form of each sentence. 

12. factiones : parties. See Introd., p. 6. 

14. multos annos contenderent : had been striving for many 
years (and were still striving). A. 47i.b; 6.260.4; 0.234; H. 
535.1; HB. 485. factum esse : it came about. 

15. Sequanis : the Sequani lived across the Sa6ne from the 
Haedui, and both tribes claimed control of the river. 

1 6. posteaquam : this word regularly takes the indicative, like 
postquam. Why is adamassent (for adamavissenf) subjunctive? 

17. copias: riches. 

18. esse: sc. eos, i.e. Germanos, as subject. 

19. clientis : dependents, weaker tribes under their dominion. 

22. qui: the antecedent is eos (they) understood, subject of 
cqactos esse. 

23. hospitio : hospitium was a relation between two independ- 
ent states in consequence of which mutual favors of honor and hos- 
pitality were granted. The word was used also of a similar relation 
between individuals of different nations. 

26. sese . . . essent : the substance of the oath. 

27. recusaturos quominus essent : refuse to be. A. 558. b ; 
B. 295. 3 ; G. 549 ; H. 568. 8 ; HB. 502. 3. b. 

28. se : the speaker, Diviciacus. 

29. potuerit: subj. of characteristic. 

31. Romam ad senatum : A. 428.3; B. 182. 2. b; G. 337. R. 6; 
H. 418. i ; HB. 450. c. See Introd., p. 7. 
33. peius : (a) worse (thing), subject of accidisse. 

74 i . Ariovistus : some see in this name the German word 
Heerfurst, 'army-leader. 1 

2. optimus : this region still maintains its supremacy. 

3. occupavisset, iuberet : be careful to observe the tenses here. 


4. paucis mensibus : abl. of degree, or measure, of difference, 
as ante has the force of a comparative. 

5. quibus . . . pararentur : for whom a place and habitations 
were to be provided. For the subj. see A. 531 . 2 ; B. 282. 2 ; G. 630 ; 
H. 590; HB. 502. 2. 

6. Futurum esse uti omnes pellerentur : equivalent to omnis 
pulsum iri, all would be driven. See note on p. 67, 1. 15. 

8. Gallicum : sc. agrum, subject of confer endum esse. 

9. hanc : i.e. Gallicam. 

10. ut semel : as soon as (when once). 

11. ad Magetpbrigam : at Magetobriga. The situation of this 
town as given on the map is conjectural. The battle is thought to 
have taken place in 60 B.C. See Introd., p. 7. 

12. nobilissimi cuiusque : A. 313. b; B. 252. 5. c; G. 318. 2; 
H. 515. 2; HB. 278. 2. b. 

13. exempla : warning examples ; defined more closely by cru- 
ciatus, tortures. 

15. iracundum: A. 253. b; B. 150. i; G. 182. 2; H. 328. 5; 
HB. 208. 3. . 

1 6. Nisi quid auxili : unless something of help, i.e. some help. 

17. Gallis : dat. of agent with esse faciendiim. 

18. ut . . . emigrant : in apposition with idem. 

20. quaecumque: A. 151. a; B. 91. 8 ; G. sin. 2; H. 182. 3 ; 
HB. 140. d. 

21. non dubitare quin . . . sumat : he (the speaker, Divicia- 
cus) did not doubt that he (Ariovistus) would inflict. For the quin- 
clause cf. p. 57, 1. 4. de obsidibus supplicium sumat : cf. ab 
his poenas repetisset, p. 72, 1. 20. 

24. ne . . . traducatur : for the construction cf. ne . . . confe- 
rant, p. 65, 1. 15. 

Observe the tenses of the subjunctive in this speech. In the ear- 
lier part we have imperfects and pluperfects, except potuerit, p. 73, 
1. 29. In the latter part all are presents or perfects. 

XXXII. 27. Hac oratione habita : after this speech had been 
delivered. An ablative absolute should seldom be translated literally. 

29. Animadvertit Caesar : notice the inversion of subject and 
predicate. The effect is about like, 'It was very noticeable to 
Caesar.' unos : alone. A. 134. a; G. 95. R. i ; H. 166. i. 

30. tristis : translate by an adverb. 

32. respondere : cf. flagitare, p. 64, 1. 24. 

33. neque . . . posset : and could not get a single word out of 


290 NOTES I 

PAGE 2. Hoc : cf. eo, p. 62, 1. 28. 

75 5. adesset: A. 524; B. 307. i. 2; G. 602; H. 584; HB. 

504. 3. a. The imperfect here is accounted for by the sequence of 

6. reliquis, Sequanis : these words are emphatic, and contrasted 
with each other. Notice that each stands first in its clause. Se- 
qitanis is dat. of agent, modifying essent perferendi. 

XXXIII. 10. sibi . . . futuram : that he would attend to this 
matter. What literally? 

11. Magnam: emphatic by position. beueficio: during 
Caesar's consulship, apparently at. his recommendation, Ariovistus 
had been officially recognized by the Roman senate as rex atque 
amicus. It was already known that the Helvetian migration was 
preparing, and Caesar probably wished to secure the neutrality of 
Ariovistus in the coming Gallic campaign. See Introd., p. 7. 

12. iniuriis : acts of injustice. A. 100. c; B. 55. 4. c; G. 
204. N. 5 ; H. 138. 2; HB. 240. 5. b. 

13. secundum : a preposition. 

14. quare : equivalent to quibus. rebus, abl. of cause. The sin- 
gular shows that quare was felt as an adverb, wherefore. 

15. putaret: subj. of characteristic. quod . . . videbat . . . 
intellegebat : these clauses give two of the multae res. fratres 
appellatos : who had been called brothers. 

17. apud : in the hands of. 

18. quod : a condition which, subject of esse, 

20. Germaiios . . . videbat : that the Germans shoidd get the 
habit of crossing the Rhine and that a great number of them should 
come into Gaul he' saw was perilous to the Roman people. 

22. periculosum: what is the meaning of the suffix -osus? 
sibi : with temperatures. A. 367 ; B. 187. II. a ; G. 346 ; H. 426. 2 ; 
HB. 362. 

23. quin exirent : from issuing forth. A. 558 ; B. 298 ; G. 555. 1 ; 
H. 595. 2 ; HB. 502. 3. b. 

24. Cinibri Teutonique : see Introd., p. 5. 

26. Rhodanus : only the Rhone. quibus rebus : dat., depend- 
ing on occurrendum. 

27. quam maturrime : cf. quam maximum, p. 56, 1. 18. 
occurrendum : sc. esse ; that he ought to meet a* forestall. 

29. ferendus : used adjectively, bearable. 

By making the danger from Ariovistus appear as great as that 
which had threatened Rome from the Cimbri and Teuton!, Caesar 
sought to explain and justify his actions against the Germans. 


XXXIV. 31. medium utriusque : between the two. The 
genitive with medius is rare in prose. 

33. utriusque : of both. Ei legationi : i.e. Us legatis. 

1 . Si ... f uisse : direct. Si quid mihi a Caesar e opus esset, 
ego ad eum venissem. A. 589. b. 1.2; B. 321. A. B; G. 656. i. 2 ; 
H. 647; HB. 581. b. i. Trans, if he wanted anything, etc. What 
is the literal meaning ? Be sure that you find the right opus in the 

2. quid, se : both accusatives are governed by velit. Trans. 
wanted anything of him. Observe carefully the use of pronouns in 
this and the previous sentence. 

6. quid . . . esset : ind. quest., subject of videri. sua Gallia : 
notice the emphasis on sua. 

7. Caesari : dat. of possession. negoti: depends on quid. 
A. 346. a. 3; B. 201. 2; G. 369; H. 441 ; HB. 346. 

XXXV. 9. Quoniam : this conjunction cannot introduce 
appellatus esset, because another conjunction, cum, comes between. 
It must, therefore, introduce referret. 

10. beneficio : cf. p. 75, 1. n. It is explained by the clause 
ciun . . . appellatus esset. 

1 1 . Iiaiic gratiam referret : made this return, explained by the 
substantive clause ut . . . gravaretur . . . ptitaret. 

13. discendum sibi : that, he was ^tnder obligation to learn. 

14. haec esse quae : these were (the things) which. This is 
the principal clause of the sentence. primum, ne . . . tradu- 
ceret : this and the following clauses are in apposition with haec. 
They have the form, therefore, which clauses depending on postTilo 
regularly take. We may supply /// to introduce redderet and per- 
mitteret. A. 563; B. 295. i ; G. 546; H. 565 ; HB. 502. 3. a. 

17. ut . . . liceret: that they might return (lit. it might be 
allowed to them to retrini) with his consent those which they had. 
Notice the redundancy of words ; permitteret, voluntate, and liceret 
contain about the same idea. 

18. neve : regularly used for et ne. It introduces Caesar's third 
demand, which, like the second, is in two parts. neve : nor. 

19. Si fecisset : si feceris, if you do (shall have done), in the 
direct form. sibi : refers to Caesar. 

21. si non impetraret: if he should not obtain his reqriest. 
sese : subject of neglecttirunt. It is repeated by the se of 1. 24. 
M. Messala . . . consulibus : 61 B.C. 

23. obtineret: should hold, not obtain. quod . . . posset: 
so far as he could do it with benefit to the state. A. 535. d; B. 

292 NOTES I 

PAGE 283. 5; G. 627. R. i ; H. 591. 3; HB. 521. i. f. rei publicae : 

76 gen. 

XXXVI. 26. ut . . . imperarent : a substantive clause, sub- 
ject of esse, the predicate being ius. Ariovistus said, ' It is a law of 
war that those who have conquered rule as they wish those whom 
they have conquered.' 

28. victis: the conquered-, dat. of the participle, masc., used as a 
noun. ad alterius praescriptum : according to the dictation of 

29. consuesse : see note on p. 63, 1. 7. 

31. se impediri: subject of oportere. A. 565. N. 3 ; B. 330; 
G. 535; H. 615 ; HB. 585. Trans, he ought not to be hindered. 
What would be a literal rendering? Haeduos : subject of esse 

32. temptassent : why subjunctive ? What mood does qttoniam 
regularly take? 

33. Magnam : observe the emphasis of its position (it was a 
great injustice that Caesar was committing) . 

77 i. qui . . . faceret: a causal relative clause. A. 535. e; 
B. 283. 3; G. 633; H. 592; HB. 523. suo, sibi: the former of 
these words is a direct reflexive, referring to Caesar ; the latter is 
an indirect reflexive, referring to Ariovistus. Ariovistus feared that 
Caesar's coming might make the Haedui refuse to pay the tribute. 

2. neque . . . neque : but neither . . . nor. 

3. si . . . convenisset : if they stood by that 'which had been 
agreed upon. 

5. longe . . . afuturum : the name i brothers of the Roman 
people" 1 would be far away from them, i.e. would not help them7 

6. Quod . . . denuntiaret : as for Caesar 's threatening him. 
The subjunctive is due to indirect discourse. 

7. secum, sua : indirect and direct respectively. Cum vellet, 
congrederetur : in direct discourse cum volet, congrediatur (let 
him join battle, subj. expressing a command in the third person) ; 
or perhaps addressed directly to Caesar, cum -voles, congredere 

9. tectum nou subissent : perhaps not to be, taken literally, 
but meaning that they had no fixed abiding-place. 

XXXVII. n. Haec : put first for emphasis. 

12. ab, a : two prepositions are necessary, because there were 
two embassies. Treveris : on the Moselle. The name survives 
in the modern Treves. Haedui : sc. ueniebant. 

13. questum : supine from queror, expressing purpose. Haru- 


des : cf. p. 74, 1. 5. transportati essent, popularentur : why 

14. eorum: i.e. Haeduorum. obsidibus datis : abl. abs , 
expressing means ; not even by giving hostages. 

15. Ariovisti: i.e. on the part of Ariovistus. pages . . . 
consedisse : depends on questiun understood, while above we 
have a ^w^-clause. Caesar represents this as a migration, 
not merely a military movement. A description of the Suebi is 
given in Bk. IV, Chaps. I-III. The name survives in the modern 

1 6. ripas : the plural denotes various places along the right bank. 
20. Quibus rebus : abl. of cause. 

25. minus . . . posset: resistance could be made less easily. For 
the impersonal use of resist, see A. 372; B. 187. II. b; G. 217; 
H. 302. 6; HB. 364. 2. We may supply the dative Us, and trans- 
late they could be resisted. 

27. quam celerrime potuit : as quickly as he could. 

28. magnis itineribus : by forced marches. See Introd., p. 40. 

29. contendit : apparently from the country of the Lingones ; 
see p. 71, 11. i and 11-13- The time was probably about the 
middle of August. 

XXXVIII. 30. tridui : gen. of quality, or descriptive gen.; 
the adjective required by the rule is contained in the compound 
word, which is equivalent to triuin dierum. viam : A. 390 ; 
B. 176. 4. a; G. 333. 2; H. 409 ; HB. 396. i. nuntiatum est : 
what is its subject? 

32. quod : its antecedent is Vesontionem, which is masculine. 
For gender of quod see A. 306; B. 250. 3; G. 614. R. 3. b; H. 
396. 2; HB. 326. i. est: this clause is not a part of the quota- 
tion. On the site of Vesontio is built the modern city of Besan^on. 

33. suis iinibus : the land which he had taken from the Sequani, 
in the modern Alsace. Id : the capture of Vesontio. 

2. usui : useful, lit. for use. 

3. facultas : abundance. Cf. the meaning of the same word in 
the next line. natura loci : i.e. natural defenses. The town was 
situated in a bend, or loop, of the river. 

4. ad ducendum bellum : for prolonging a war. 

5. ut : as if. See the plan of Vesontio, p. 77. 

6. spatium : obj. of continet. amplius podum sescentorum : 
A. 407. c; B. 217. 3; G. 296. R. 4; H. 471. 4; HB. 416. d. 
pedum : gen. of quality, or descriptive gen., used as predicate of 
quod. The present distance across this ' neck of land ' is consider- 

294 NOTES I 

PAGE ably more than that given. The distance across the plateau which 
78 forms the top of the hill is about 600 feet. 

8. ripae : nom. pi. 

9. circumdatus : put around, i.e. built around. In compounds 
do often means ' put. 1 

XXXIX. 13. moratur: A. 556; B. 293. I; G. 229. R. ; H. 
533. 4 ; HB. 559. ex : in consequence of. 

14. magnitudine : abl. of quality, or description, used predica- 
tively. The Romans were rather small of stature. Cf. Bk. II, Chap. 

15. exercitatione : skill, the result of practice. 

17. aciem : fierceness, or glare. 

18. timor: a panic. A. 238. a; B. 147. 2; G. 181. 2. b; H. 
333; HB. 206. 4. 

19. non mediocriter : these words illustrate the figure called 
litotes, for which the grammar may be consulted. Use the index. 
mentis animosque : minds and spirits. The Germans were less 
familiar, therefore more terrible, than the Gauls. 

20. tribunis, praefectis : see Introd., pp. 33, 34. Many of 
these men, no doubt, belonged to families to which Caesar was in 
debt, pecuniarily or politically. Those who owed their appoint- 
ment to this were naturally of small use from a military point of 
view. reliquis : young men who accompanied Caesar in order to 
gain some military experience under an able general, or to see what 
.life in the field was. They were called contubernales (< tent- 
companions ') of the general. 

22. quorum . . . inlata: of these one giving one reason, another 
another. For alms alia see A. 315. c; B. 253. 2; G. 221. R. i ; 
H. 516. I; HB. 279. 3. quam . . . diceret: which he said 
made it necessary for him to set out. What is the literal translation? 
For mood of diceret cf. existimarent, p. 68, 1. 29. 

24. pudore : a sense of shame. ut . . . vitarent: a clause of 
purpose, depending on remanebant. 

25. vultum fingere : i.e. so as to conceal their fear. 

26. tabernaculis : see Introd., pp. 41, 43. 

27. suum : emphatic, contrasted with commune. 

28. totis castris : throughout the camp. A. 429. 2 ; B. 228. I. b ; 
G. 388; H. 485. 2; HB. 436. a. testamenta: not verbal wills, 
which, when made just before a battle, had binding force, but regu- 
larly attested documents. 

30. centuriones : see Introd., p. 33. quique : and those 


31. perturb abantur : were getting frightened', observe the tense. 
ex his : equivalent to a genitive. 

33. ipsos : could se have been used here ? 

i. rem frumentariam : obj. of timer e. We should expect a 
nominative, subject of posset. ut . . . posset: A. 564; B. 296. 2; 
G. 550. 2 ; H. 567. i ; HB. 502. 4. Trans, ut by that . . . not. 

3. castra . . . ferri : the expression castra mover e means to break 
camp ; signaferre, to bear on the standards, i.e. to march. During 
a halt the standards were set up in the earth. dicto : dat. with 
ajidientis, which here means obedient. A. 367; B. 187. II. a; G. 
346. N. 5 ; H. 426. i ; HB. 362. 

4. laturos : this sentence in the direct form would run, Cztm 
. . . ttisseris, non erunt dicto andientes milites neque . . . ferent. 

This description ot ui^ panic and the speech given in the next 
chapter, by which Caesar cl,cked it, are admirable examples of 
Caesar's literary skill. 

XL. 5. omnium or dinum : of ell the centuries. See Introd., 
p. 31. To a council of war only the ctiturions primorum or dinum 
(see Introd., p. 34) were usually summoned Caesar now wishes, 
through the centurions, to reach the whole ai~ny as effectively as 

7. incusavit: blamed, or reproached. ;. 

8. sibi . . . putarent: they thought it incumbent ut themselves 
to ask or consider. What literally? 

9. putarent : subj. because it gives the reason of Caesar the 
speaker as reported by Caesar the writer. Ariovistum : subject of 
appetisse. See note on beneficio, p. 75, 1. II. 

10. cur quisquam iudicaret : why should any one think? A 
negative answer is implied. For the subjunctive, which was sub- 
junctive in the direct form as well, see A. 444, 587 ; B. 277, 315. 3 ; 
G. 259. 651. R. 2 ; H. 557, 642. 3 ; HB. 513. i. 

11. Sibi quidem persuaderi: for his part, he was becoming 
convinced, more literally to him at least it was being proved. Notice 
the impersonal use of a verb which takes the dative. ' I am be- 
coming convinced ' is mihi persuadetur. See note on mimes . . . 
posset, p. 77, 1. 25. 

12. eum: Ariovistus. The clause ewn . . . fepudiaturum is 
subject Q$ persuaderi. 

14. intulisset : intulerit in the direct form. quid tandem 
vererentur : what in the world should they be afraid off See note 
on 1. 10. 

15. sua: vestra in the direct form. It refers to the army, which 

29 2 NOTES I 

283. 5; G. 627. R. i ; H. 591. 3; HB. 521. i. f. rei publicae: 

XXXVI. 26. ut . . . imperarent : a substantive clause, sub- 
ject of esse, the predicate being ius. Ariovistus said, ' It is a law of 
war that those who have conquered rule as they wish those whom 
they have conquered.' 

28. victis: the cotiquered; dat. of the participle, masc., used as a 
noun. ad alterius praescriptum : according to the dictation of 

29. consuesse : see note on p. 63, 1. 7. 

31. se impediri: subject of oportere. A. 565. N. 3 ; B. 330; 
G. 535; H. 615; HB. 585. Trans, he ought not to be hindered. 
What would be a literal rendering? Haeduos : subject of esse 

32. temptassent : why subjunctive ? What mood does quoniam 
regularly take? 

33. Magnam : observe the emphasis of its position (it was a 
great injustice that Caesar was committing) . 

1. qui . . . faceret: a causal relative clause. A. 535. e; 
B. 283. 3; G. 633; H. 592; HB. 523. suo, sibi: the former of 
these words is a direct reflexive, referring to Caesar; the latter is 
an indirect reflexive, referring to Ariovistus. Ariovistus feared that 
Caesars coming might make the Haedui refuse to pay the tribute. 

2. neque . . . neque : but neither . . . nor. 

3. si ... convenisset : if they stood by that which had been 
agreed upon. 

5. longe . . . afuturum : the name 'brothers of the Roman 
people" 1 would be far away from them, i.e. would not help them"! 

6. Quod . . . denuntiaret : as for Caesar's threatening him. 
The subjunctive is due to indirect discourse. 

7. secum, sua : indirect and direct respectively. Cum vellet, 
congrederetur : in direct discourse cum volet, congrediatur (let 
him join battle, subj. expressing a command in the third person) ; 
or perhaps addressed directly to Caesar, cum -voles, congredere 

9. tectum non subissent : perhaps not to be, taken literally, 
but meaning that they had no fixed abiding-place. 

XXXVII. ii. Haec : put first for emphasis. 

12. ab, a: two prepositions are necessary, because there were 
two embassies. Treveris : on the Moselle. The name survives 
in the modei'n Treves. Haedui : sc. veniebant. 

13. questum : supine from queror, expressing purpose. Haru- 


des : cf. p. 74, 1. 5. transportati essent, popularentur : why PAGE 
subjunctive? 77 

14. eomm : i.e. Haedrwriim. obsidibus datis : abl. abs , 
expressing means ; not even by giving hostages. 

15. Ariovisti: i.e. on the part of Ariovistus. pagos . . . 
consedisse : depends on questum understood, while above we 
have a ^m'd'-clause. Caesar represents this as a migration, 
not merely a military movement. A description of the Suebi is 
given in Bk. IV, Chaps. I-III. The name survives in the modern 

1 6. ripas : the plural denotes various places along the right bank. 
20. Quibus rebus : abl. of cause. 

25. minus . . . posset: resistance could be made less easily. For 
the impersonal use ofresistt, see A. 372; B. 187. II. b; G. 217; 
H. 302. 6; HB. 364. 2. We may supply the dative Us, and trans- 
late they could be resisted. 

27. quam celerrime potuit : as quickly as he could. 

28. magnis itineribus : by forced marches. See Introd., p. 40. 

29. contendit : apparently from the country of the Lingones ; 
see p. 71, 11. i and 11-13. The time was probably about the 
middle of August. 

XXXVIII. 30. tridui: gen. of quality, or descriptive gen.; 
the adjective required by the rule is contained in the compound 
word, which is equivalent to triwn dierum. viam : A. 390 ; 
B. 176. 4. a; G. 333. 2; 11.409; HB. 396. I. nuntiatum est : 
what is its subject? 

32. quod : its antecedent is Vesontionem, which is masculine. 
For gender of quod see A. 306; B. 250. 3; G. 614. R. 3. b; H. 
396. 2; HB. 326. I. est: this clause is not a part of the quota- - 
tion. On the site of Vesontio is built the modern city of Besan^on. 

33. suis finibus : the land which he had taken from the Sequani, 
in the modern Alsace. Id : the capture of Vesontio. 

2. usui : useful, lit. for use. 

3. facultas : abundance. Cf. the meaning of the same word in 
the next line. naturaloci: i.e. natural defenses. The town was 
situated in a bend, or loop, of the river. 

4. ad ducendum bellum : for prolonging a war. 

5. ut : as if. See the plan of Vesontio, p. 77. 

6. spatium : obj. of continet. amplius podum sescentorum : 
A. 407. c; B. 217. 3; G. 296. R. 4; H. 471. 4; HB. 416. d. 
pedum : gen. of quality, or descriptive gen., used as predicate of 
quod. The present distance across this ' neck of land ' is consider- 

294 NOTES I 

PAGE ably more than that given. The distance across the plateau which 
78 forms the top of the hill is about 600 feet. 

8. ripae : nom. pi. 

9. circumdatus : put arottnd, i.e. built around. In compounds 
do often means l put. 1 

XXXIX. 13. moratur : A. 556 ; B. 293. I ; G. 229. R. ; H. 
533. 4 ; HB. 559. ex : in consequence of. 

14. magnitudine : abl. of quality, or description, used predica- 
tively. The Romans were rather small of stature. Cf. Bk. II, Chap. 

15. exercitatione : skill, the result of practice. 

17. aciem : fierceness, or glare. 

18. timor: a panic. A. 238. a; B. 147. 2; G. 181. 2. b; H. 
333; HB. 206. 4. 

19. non mediocriter : these words illustrate the figure called 
litotes, for which the grammar may be consulted. Use the index. 
mentis animosque : minds and spirits. The Germans were less 
familiar, therefore more terrible, than the Gauls. 

20. tribunis, praefectis : see Introd., pp. 33, 34. Many of 
these men, no doubt, belonged to families to which Caesar was in 
debt, pecuniarily or politically. Those who owed their appoint- 
ment to this were naturally of small use from a military point of 
view. reliquis : young men who accompanied Caesar in order to 
gain some military experience under an able general, or to see what 
.life in the field was. They were called contubernales ('tent- 
companions ') of the general. 

22. quorum . . . inlata: of these one giving one reason, another 
another. For alms alia see A. 315. c; B. 253. 2; G. 221. R. i ; 
H. 516. i; HB. 279. 3. quam . . . diceret : which he said 
made it necessary for him to set out. What is the literal translation? 
For mood of diceret cf. existimarent, p. 68, 1. 29. 

24. pudore : a sense of shame. ut . . . vitarent : a clause of 
purpose, depending on remanebant. 

25. vultum fingere : i.e. so as to conceal their fear. 

26. tabernaculis : see Introd., pp. 41, 43. 

27. suum: emphatic, contrasted with commune. 

28. totis castris : throughout the camp. A. 429. 2 ; B. 228. i. b ; 
G. 388; H. 485. 2; HB. 436. a. testamenta: not verbal wills, 
which, when made just before a battle, had binding force, but regu- 
larly attested documents. 

30. centuriones : see Introd., p. 33. quique: and those 


31. perturbabantur : were getting frightened; observe the tense. PAGE 
ex his : equivalent to a genitive. 78 

33. ipsos : could se have been used here? 

I. rem frumentariam : obj. of timer e. We should expect a 79 

nominative, subject of posset. ut . . . posset: A. 564; B. 296. 2 ; 
G. 550. 2 ; H. 567. i ; HB. 502. 4. Trans, ut by that . . . not. 

3. castra ... ferri : the expression caslra mover e means to break 
camp-, signaferre, to bear on the standards, i.e. to march. During 
a halt the standards were set up in the earth. dicto : dat. with 
audientis, which here means obedient. A. 367; B. 187. II. a; G. 
346. N. 5 ; H. 426. i ; HB. 362. 

4. laturos : this sentence in the direct form would run, C^tm 
. . . iiisseris, non erunt dicto audientes milites neque . . . ferent. 

This description ot th*. panic and the speech given in the next 
chapter, by which Caesar clicked it, are admirable examples of 
Caesar's literary skill. 

XL. 5. omnium or dinum : of all the centuries. See Introd., 
p. 31. To a council of war only the centurions primorum ordinum 
(see Introd., p. 34) were usually summoned. Caesar now wishes, 
through the centurions, to reach the whole army as effectively as 

7. incusavit : blamed, or reproached. 

8. sibi . . . putarent: they thought it incumbent Oi~ themselves 
to ask or consider. What literally ? 

9. putarent: subj. because it gives the reason of Cae^r the 
speaker as reported by Caesar the writer. Ariovistum : subject of 
appetisse. See note on beneficio, p. 75, 1. n. 

10. cur quisquam iudicaret: why should any one think? A 
negative answer is implied. For the subjunctive, which was sub- 
junctive in the direct form as well, see A. 444, 587 ; B. 277, 315. 3 ; 
G. 259, 651. R. 2; H. 557, 642. 3; HB. 513. i. 

1 1 . Sibi quidem persuaderi : for his part, he was becoming 
convinced, more literally to him at least it was being proved. Notice 
the impersonal use of a verb which takes the dative. ' I am be- 
coming convinced ' is mihi persuadetiir. See note on minus . . . 
posset, p. 77, 1. 25. 

12. eum: Ariovistus. The clause eum . . . repudiat^lr^^m is 
subject of persiiaderi. 

14. intulisset : intulerit in the direct form. quid tandem 
vererentur : what in the world should they be afraid of? See note 
on 1. 10. 

15. sua: vestra in the direct form. It refers to the army, which 

296 NOTES I 

PAGE Caesar is addressing through its representatives. ipsius : refers to 
79 Caesar himself. A. 300. b; B. 249. 3; G. 660. 5; H. 509. 6; HB. 

263. 2. 

16. Pactum: sc. esse. Notice the emphatic position of the 
word. periculum: trial. The root is the same that appears in 
the verb experior. 

17. Cimbris : cf. Chap. XXXIII, and see Introd., pp. 4-6. 

18. meritus videbatur : was seen to have earned. We should 
expect here the subjunctive of indirect discourse, but the indicative 
is used to emphasize the statement as a fact. The statement seems 
artfully thrown in as a hint to the army to be equally deserving of 
praise. For Caesar's relation to Marius see Introd., p. 8. 

19. nuper: more recently. servili tumultu : abl. of time. 
The Servile War against Spartacus a n d nis gladiators was in 
73-71 B.C. These gladiators were lar^uy German slaves. Tumultus 
was the word applied to any uprising in Italy or Cisalpine Gaul. 
quos : the antecedent is servo? urn, implied in servili. A. 306. b ; 
B. 250. 4; G. 614. R. 3. a; H. 399. 4; HB. 325. tamen: i.e. 
though they were defeated, yet they were helped somewhat by the 
training which they had received at our hands. 

20. usus ac disciplina : experience (from practice) and training 
(from a teacher). 

21. Ex quo : from this. Though introduced by a relative, 
this is practically an independent sentence ; hence posse, not 
posset, in indirect discourse. A. 583. b; B. 314. 4; G. 635; 
H. 643. i; HB. 535. i. b. quantum boni: how mtich (of") 
value. haberet: trans, has, not had. In Latin such expres- 
sions of a general, or permanent, truth usually conform to the law 
of sequence of tenses. 

22. inermis : at the outbreak of the insurrection the arms of the 
slaves were of the most primitive kind. 

24. quibuscum congress! superarint: quibuscum goes with 
congressi, and the object of superarint is to be supplied ; but we 
may translate whom the Helvetii had often met and vanqitished. 
Observe the tense of superarint (superaverint) and potuerint. 
In the next sentence Caesar returns to the regular sequence. 

26. exercitui: A. 384; 6.192.1; G-359; H. 434. 2 ; HB. 362. 
The Helvetii had defeated the Germans, the Romans had overcome 
the Helvetii. The inference is obvious. 

27. adversuni proelium : the battle at Magetobriga ; see p. 74, 
1. n, and Introd., p. 7. hos . . . posse: in the direct form hi, 
si quaerent, reperire possunt. 


28. defatigatis Gallis : abl. abs., expressing time and cause. PAGE 

29. cum se tenuisset . . . fecisset : after keeping himself and 79 
giving them no chance at him. castris : abl. of place. The prepo- 
sition is not used, because the ablative is one of means as well as 

30. sui: for gen. see A. 348; B. 200; G. 363. 2; H. 440. 2 ; 
HB. 354. desperantis . . . vicisse: having attacked them 
suddenly, when they were now despairing of a battle and scattered, 
had overcome them more by ruse and strategy than by valor. 

32. Cui ration!, hac : equivalent to hac ralione cui. The ante- 
cedent is attracted into the relative clause. Translate the sentence, 
Not even Ariovistus himself hoped that our armies could be caught 
by this ruse, for which there had been a place in fighting against 
unskilled barbarians. 

I. Qui . . . conferrent: those who ascribed their fear to a 80 
pretended anxiety regarding supplies, etc. The antecedent of qui 
is the subject oifacere, eos understood. 
3. officio : discharge of his duty. 

5. frumenta : how does this differ in meaning from frumentum ? 

6. Quod . . . dicantur : as to the fact that it was said they 
would not be obedient to command or move forward. See note on p. 
62,1.20. See also A. 582 ; B. 332. c; 0.528; H. 611; HB. 590. i. 
Notice here again the primary tense. 

7. nihil : not at all. A. 390. c. N. 2 ; B. 176. 3. a ; G. 334. R. i ; 
H. 416. 2; HB. 387. III. 

8. scire: sc. se. quibuscumque . . . defuisse: whomever 
an army had not obeyed, either fortune had failed (these) because 
the campaign had been badly conducted. 

10. avaritiam esse convictam: greed had been proved (against 
them}. The meaning of the sentence is, if any generals have found 
their armies disobedient, the reason is that the generals have been 
unlucky in war or have been proved guilty of dishonesty. 
innocentiam : integrity. 

1 1 . perpetua vita : throughout his whole life. f elicitatem : 
good fortune, luck, as a personal quality. 

12. quod . . . fuisset : what he had intended to postpone to 
a later day. 

13. de quarta vigilia : see note on p. 61, 1. 24. 

14. quamprimum: as soon as possible. utrum . . . valeret: 
A- 334, 335 5 B. 162. 4 ; G. 458, 460 ; H. 380 ; HB. 234. 

15. officium: sense of duty. Quod si . . . iturum : in the 
direct discourse quod si . . . sequetur, taj/ien ego . . . ibo. 

298 NOTES I 

PAGE 17. praetorian? cohortem: bodyguard, composed of the best 

80 soldiers, and receiving many marks of favor from the general. 

This speech deserves to be carefully studied as a specimen of 
oratory. Caesar was ranked by the Romans second only to Cicero 
among their orators. As a general he relied much on his power 
of persuasion. This speech produced an instantaneous effect, as is 
seen in the next chapter. 

XLI. 20. conversae sunt : were transformed. 

22. inlata est: was inspired. princeps gratias egit: was 
foremost in expressing thanks. A. 290; B. 239; G. 325. R. 6; 
H. 497. 3; HB. 243. 

23. quod . . . fecisset : because he had expressed a most favor- 
able opinion about it. 

25. cum tribunis egerunt: i.e. begged the tribunes. primo- 
rum ordinum : see Introd., p. 34. 

26. uti Caesari satisfacerent : obj. of egerunt. 

27. summa belli : the conduct of the war. suum : predicate 
of iudicium, which is subject of esse. 

29. itinere exquisite per Diviciacum : having sought out a 
route through the help of Diviciaciis. quod . . . habebat : because 
of the Gauls he had most faith in him. For the dative i see note 
oh cui, p. 66, 1. 34. 

30. ut . . . duceret : that he might lead his army through, open 
country, by a detour of more than fifty miles. Thus Caesar avoided 
the angustiae itineris of which the soldiers were afraid. The case 
of milium is not affected by the comparative amplius. A. 407. c; B. 
217. 3 ; G. 296. R. 4; H. 471. 4; HB. 416. d. Instead of marching 
northeasterly from Besan9on directly up the valley of the Doubs, Caesar 
made a detour to the north and east. Then he entered the valley of the 
Rhine through the pass between the Jura and the Vosges mountains. 
He thus avoided the difficulties of the Doubs valley and the Jura range. 

33. milia : ace. of extent of space. Probably Caesar had reached 
the Fecht, between Ostheim and Gemar. 

81 XLII. 2. Quod : the rel. pron., obj. of postulasset. Its ante- 
cedent is id, subject of 'fieri. What is the subject of licere ? per se : 
so far as he was concerned. 

4. condicionem : proposal. 

7. denegasset : had utterly refused. 

9. pro : in gratitude for. 

12. fore uti desisteret : he would cease, more literally it would 
come to pass that he would cease. A. 569. a; B. 270. 3. a; G. 248 ; 
H. 619. 2 ; HB. 472. c. 



13. conloquio : for a conference. 

17. postulavit: notice the form of the two demands following 
this verb, each expressed by the subjunctive, and each having an 
explanatory clause with the accusative and infinitive appended to it. 

22. veniret: this may be taken as a substantive clause, like 
ne . . . adduceret. But it is better to regard it as simply the in- 
direct form of uterque veniat, let each come. alia rations : on any 
other terms. 

2.6. tolli : to be prevented. 

27. G-allorum equitatui : see Introd., p. 37. 

30. Gallis equitibus : dat., though translated with from. A. 
381 ; B. 188. 2. d; G. 345; H. 427; HB. 371. Caesar had about 
4000 horsemen. 

31. eo : thereon, i.e. on them, legionarios : A. 250. a ; B. 151. 2 ; 
G. 189. 45 ; H. 348 ; HB. 210. i. The word is contrasted with 
equitibus. See Introd., p. 34. 

32. imponere: subject of esse, 1. 29. si . . . esset: if there 
should be any need of action. For the construction with opus see 
A. 411. a; B. 218. 2. c; G. 406; H. 477. Ill; HB. 430. i. 2. b. 

33. non inridicule : not without wit, a case of litotes. 

I. pollicitum . , . rescribere: having promised (merely) that 
he would have the tenth legion as his body-guard, he was (actually) 
enrolling them among the equites. The joke lies in the double 
meaning of the word equites, which was the name of an order of 
nobility at Rome, below the senatorial rank. Perhaps the double 
meaning of ad equum rescribere may be expressed by the English 
' to invest with spurs.' 

XLIII. 5. Eo: i.e. adtumulum. 

6. equis : abl. of means, but trar.s. on horseback. passibus: 
A. 425. b ; B. 223 ; G. 403 ; H. 4*7. 3, 479. 3 ; HB. 424. The abla- 
tive is connected with ab. i.e. away by two hundred paces. 

8. ex equis: on horseback. Cf. exvinculis, p. 57, 1. 10. 

9. denos : ten apiece, a distributive numeral. 

12. munera: probably such things as the Romans once sent to an- 
other foreign king, a curule chair, a golden crown, costly clothing, 
etc. quam rem : a thing which, subject of contigisse and consziesse. 

13. officiis : services. 

14. cum: though. aditum: right of approach. 

15. haberet: A. 549; B. 309. 3; G. 587; H. 598; HB. 525. 

1 6. Docebat etiam : he tried to make clear to him, furthermore. 
On docebat depend three indirect questions, quam . . . intercederent, 
quae . . . facta essent, and ut {how} . '. . tenuissent. 





17. necessitudinis : friendship, or alliance. ipsis . . . inter- 
sederent : existed between themselves (the Romans) and the Haedui. 

1 8. quae . . . essent: what decrees of the senate had been made 
in their favor, how often, and how flattering. honorifica : how 
are adjectives in -ficus compared ? 

20. appetissent : subj. of ind. disc. 

21. ut . . . esse : to wish its allies and friends not only to lose 
nothing of their own, but even to be increased in influence, dignity, 
and honor. The clause explains consuetudinem. 

23. quod . . . posset: and indeed who could suffer that to be 
taken away from them which they had brought to the friendship of 
the Roman people? Caesar refers to the independence of the 
Haedui and their influence among the Gauls. The direct form of 
the question was qnis possit? 

25. ne bellum inferret : that he should not make war. In the 
direct form this clause would be a prohibition. How are prohibi- 
tions expressed? 

28. quos transire pateretur : allow any to cross. A. 563. c ; 
B. 331, III ; G. 553. 2. N. ; H. 614 ; HB. 587. 

XLIV. 30. sese : subject of transisse and three other infinitives. 
Fhis passage is given in the direct form in G. 661. I ; H. 653. 
I. rogatum: cf. p. 73, 1. 15. 
3. obsides : obj. of habere. 

5. victis imponere : to impose on the vanquished. sese 
G-allis, Gallos sibi: the chiastic order. See note on p. 60, 


6. ad se oppngnandum : to attack him.', the gerundive con- 
struction, expressing purpose. 

8. uno proelio : the battle ad Magetobrigam. Cf. p. 74, 1. 1 1. 
3i . . . decertare : if they wished to try again, he was ready to 
fight it out again. In the direct form, Si iterum experiri vohtnt, 
?go iterum paratus stun decertare. 

10. de stipeudio recusare : to make excuses about paying 
tribute, i.e. refuse to pay. quod :. the relative. 

11. pependerint : from pendo, not pendeo. 

12. Amicitiani esse oportere : friendship ought to be', but re- 
nember that oportere is impersonal, and hence amicitiam is subject 
Df esse, not of oportere. sibi ornamento : A. 382. I ; B. 191. 2 ; 
^. 356 ; H. 433 ; HB. 360. b. 

14. remittatur: should be remitted. The power of exacting 
Tibute would be lost if the Haeduan hostages were returned, as 
Daesar demanded. 


16. appetierit: appetii in the direct discourse. Quod: see PAGE 
note on p. 62, 1. 20. 83 

17. id: refers to the preceding clause. sui muniendi causa: 
to protect himself. 

1 8. quod . . . veiierit : that he did not come without being 
asked. The clause is subject of esse, testimonium being predi- 

19. defenderit : repelled. 

22. G-alliae provinciae : see Introd., p. 23. 

23. Quid sibi vellet : direct, Quid tibi vis ? What are your in- 
tentions? A. 586 ; B. 315. i ; G. 651 ; H. 642 ; HE. 534. 2. HI, 537. 

24. Provinciam . . . nostram : this {part of) Gaul was his 
province, just as that was ours. 

25. Ut . . . interpellaremus : direct, Ut mihi concedi non 
oportet, si in vestros finis impetum faciam, sic item vos estis iniqui, 
quod in meo iure me inter pellatis. i.e. as no concession ought to be 
made to me, etc. Up to this point dependent subjunctives in this 
speech have been either present or perfect ; we now have also im- 
perfects and pluperfects. 

28. tarn imperitum rerum : so ignorant of the course of events. 
A. 349. a; B. 204. i ; G. 374; H. 451- 1 5 HB. 354- 

29. ut non sciret: as not to know, a clause of result. bello 
proximo : abl. of time. 

30. ipsos: i.e. Haeduos. 

31. auxilio: abl. with usos esse. 

32. Debere . . . habere : he had good reason to suspect that 
although Caesar pretended friendship, he had tlie army which he had 
in Gaul for the purpose of crushing him. The subject of habere is 

34. Qui nisi : so unless he. 

1. Quod : and as to that, referring to the previous sentence. 84 

2. gratum esse facturum : he would confer a favor, lit. do a 
pleasing thing. Caesar had many enemies in Rome, and these were 
no idle words. 

3. compertum : agrees with id, and the expression id compertum 
habere means nearly the same that id comperisse would mean. A. 
497. b; B. 337. 7 (337. 6); G. 238; H. 431. 3; HB. 605. 5. a. 
quorum : its antecedent is nobilibus principibiisque. 

4. morte : abl. of price. redimere: buy back. Ariovistus had 
been in favor before. 

5. Quod: but. decessisset: fut. perf. in the direct dis- 

302 NOTES I 

PAGE 6. quaecumque bella : subject of geri. In the direct discourse, 

84 quaecumque bella geri -voles sine ullo tuo labor e et periculo confidant. 

XLV. 9. in earn sententiam, quare : to this effect (namely to 
show), why. 

n. pati : its subject is consuetudinem, its object uti . . . desereret. 
We had pati followed by ace. and inf. on p. 82, 1. 24. optime 
meritos : most deserving. 

12. neque . . . Roman! : and he thought Gaul did not belong to 
Ariovistus more than to the Roman people. 

13. superatos esse: in 121 B.C. 

14. quibus . . . ignovisset : but the Roman people had pardoned 
them. Why is quibus dative? in provinciam redegisset: re- 
duced into a province, under a Roman governor. The Cdvennes 
lay between these tribes and the Roman province, so that it would 
have been hard to incorporate them with the latter. 

15. si ... oporteret : if priority of time (each most ancient 
time) ought to be considered. 

17. iustissimum : most valid. imperium : right of rule. 

1 8. quam : subject of uti. 

19. victam: though conquered. suis legibus uti: i.e. to be 

XL VI. 20. geruntur : were going on. Account for the tense. 

21. tumulum : A. 432. a; B. 141. 3; G. 416. 22; H. 420. 5; 
HB. 380. b. 

22. loquendi : on p. 75, 1. iT.^finem facere is used with a dative. 

23. ne quod telum reicerent : not to throw back any weapon. 
The form quod is adjective, quid generally substantive. 

26. ut . . . posset . . . eircumveiitos : subject of commit- 
tendum. Trans, that, after the enemy were defeated, it could be 
alleged that they had been deceived by him in the conference through 
their (misplaced) confidence. As Caesar takes victory for granted, 
it is better not to regard pulsis hostibus as conditional. 

28. qua adrogantia . . . interdixisset : with what arrogance 
(lit. having used what arrogance} in the conference Ariovistus had 
ordered the Romans out of (forbidden the Romans from} all Gaul. 

29. Gallia: abl. of separation. Romanis : dat., depending 
on inter dixisset. inter dixisset: subj. in an ind. quest. ut: 

. 30. diremisset : had broken off. Caesar labors earnestly to 
make his acts appear justifiable, and in a certain sense they were so. 
Gaul had to be either Romanized or Germanized, and there can be 
no doubt which was the better for the country at that time. 


XL VII. i. Biduo post: next day, lit. two days after, Cf. PAGE 
pridie eius diei, 1. 6. The Romans counted the day from which, as 85 

well as the day to which, they reckoned. legates misit: this ex- 
pression implies both 'to say' and 'to ask. 1 On the former idea 
depends the following clause with the ace. and inf., on the latter 
idea the clause beginning with uti. 

2. coeptae : for the voice see A. 205. a; B. 133. i; G. 
423. N. 3 ; H. 299. i ; HB. 199. 2. 

3. agere cum eo : to treat with him. 

4. si id minus vellet: if he hardly wished (to do) that. ex 
suis legatis : of his legates. A. 346. c; B. 201. i. a; G. 372. R. 2 ; 
H. 444; HB. 346. e. 

5. eo magis : all"the more. 

6. pridie eius diei : see note on postridie eius diet, p. 68, 1. 22. 
quin conicerent : from hurling. A. 558 ; B. 295.3. a ; G. 555. I ; 
H. 595. 2 ; HB. 502. 3. b. 

7. Legatum: obj. of missurum and obiecturum. 

9. Commodissimum visum est : it seemed most fitting. The 
subject of visum est is mitt ere. 

10. humanitate : culture. 

1 1 . Flacco : Valerius Flaccus was governor of Gaul in 83. B. C. 
Notice that Procillus took the nomen and praenomen of the man 
from whom he received the honor of citizenship. For Roman names 
see A. 108 ; B. 373 ; G. page 493 ; H. 354 ; HB. 678. civitate 
donatus erat : had been presented with (Roman) citizenship. A. 
364; B. 187. I. a; G. 348; H. 426. 6; HB. 365. b. propter 
fidem : this phrase, propter . . . scientiam, and the clause quod 
. . . esset give the reasons why it seemed best to send Procillus. 

12. multa : agrees with qua, but is nearly equivalent to an adverb 
with utebatur, i.e. spoke freely. 

13. longinqua consuetudine : abl. of cause. quod . . .esset: 
because in his case the Germans (Germanis is dat. of poss.) had no 
reason for doing wrong. Procillus was a Gaul, not a Roman. Why 
is esset subjunctive? Remember that Caesar is describing his own 
previous acts as if those of another person. 

14. una : sc. cum eo, along with him. 

15. hospitio Ariovisti utebatur : enjoyed guest-friendship with 
Ariovistus. Hospitium was a very sacred relationship, and might be 
hereditary. See note on p. 73, 1. 23. quae diceret Ariovistus: 
ind. quest. 

18. Quid: why? A. 390. c. N. 2 ; B. 176. 3. a ; G. 333. I. R. 2; 
H. 416. 2 ; HB. 388. a. N. An speculandi causa : or (was it) for 

304 NOTES I 

PAGE the purpose of spying? A. 335. b ; B. 162. 4. a ; G. 457. i ; H. 380. 3 ; 
85 HB. 237. Conaiitis : sc. eos. Ariovistus wished his army to 

regard Procillus and Metius not as envoys, but as spies. Therefore 
he prevented them from speaking. 

XL VIII. 20. milibus : see note on passibus, p. 82, 1. 6. 

23. ultra eum : i.e. in the direction from which Caesar had come. 
This was apparently an excellent manoeuver. See the plan, p. 87. 

24. qui : agrees with its nearest antecedent. 

25. continues : in succession. 

26. aciem instructam habuit : kept his army drawn up in line 
of battle. ut . . . deesset: that, if Ariovistus had a desire to fight 
a battle, he might have the chance. We have nt -non instead of ne, 
because the negative is closely connected with the verb. 

28. castris : see note on p. 79, 1. 29. 

29. se exercuerant : had trained themselves, i.e. had become 

31. quos . . . delegerant: whom the horsemen had selected for 
their own protection from the whole number (of foot-soldiers), one 
apiece. Each ' knight ' had his ' squire. 1 
(86 J 2. si quid erat durius : if there was any ztnus2ial difficulty. 

3. si qui : the indefinite pronoun, of which quis is the regular 
substantive form in the masculine nominative singular. 

4. si ... prodeundum : if it was necessary to go forward 
rather far to any place. Si quo is the adverb of '-si quis, just as quo 
of quis or qui. 

6. equorum : to be taken with both iubis and cursum. Run- 
ning along by the horses and holding on by their manes, they could 
keep up with them. Caesar afterwards used these cavalry tactics. 

XLIX. 7. eum : subject of tenere, and refers to Ariovistus. lie 
. . . prohiberetur : a clause of purpose, depending on delegit and 
venit. Cf. p. 85, I. 23. 

8. loco : Caesar uses the word locus five times in the first six 
lines of this chapter. In the previous chapter he uses castra four 
times in four lines. It is said that Macaulay never hesitated to repeat 
a noun, if by :;o doing he could express his meaning more clearly 
than by using a pronoun. 

9. castris : for a camp. idoneum : for its comparison see 
A. 128; B. 74. 2; G. 87. 6; H. 159; HB. 121. 

10. acie triplici : see Introd., p. 44. 

13. expedita: agrees grammatically with milia, but logically 
with hominum. The word means unencumbered, hence ready to 
fight. See Introd., p. 40. 


14. quae . . . prohiberent : a rel. clause of purpose. PAGE 

15. Nihilo : abl. of degree, or measure, of difference. 86 

1 6. opus : i.e. munitionem castrorum. 

18. quattuor reliquas : there were, then, six in all. See In- 
trod., p. 36, and cf. Chap. X. castra maiora: Caesar's main 
camp, where he had been for nearly two weeks. The two camps 
were about two and one-half miles apart, with the camp of Ariovistus 
between them. See the plan, p. 87. What was the obvious pur- 
pose of Caesar's smaller camp ? 

L. 19. institute suo : in accordance with his plan. See note 
on moribns suz's, p. 57, 1. 9. 

2 1 . pugnandi potestatem fecit : offered battle. 

26. inlatis : inflicted. 

28. proelio decertaret : fight it ont in a (pitched) battle. 
/ quod . . . esset : a substantive clause explaining hanc. 
^ 29. ut . . . declararent : a substantive clause explaining con- 
szietudo. A. 570; B. 297. 3 ; G. 557 ; H. 571. 4; HB. 521. 3. a. 

30. sortibus : Tacitus describes the sortes of the Germans. 
Twigs with certain marks made upon them, scattered over a white 
cloth, were drawn by him who consulted the lots. The marks were 
then interpreted. vaticinationibus : perhaps prophecies uttered 
by women thought to be inspired. 

31. necne: A. 335. N. ; B. 300. 4. a; G. 459; H. 650. i : HB. 
234. a. fas : divine will. 

32. iiovam luiiani : this new moon fell on Sept. 18. Days of 
new and full moon were of good omen. The Spartans would not 
send aid to the Athenians at Marathon before the full moon. 

LI. 2. alarios : auxiliaries. See Introd., p. 37. The word 88 

alarins means belonging to the wings, where the auxiliaries were 
usually stationed in battle. 

4. pro: in proportion to, in comparison with. ad speciem : 
for show. Caesar wished Ariovistus to think that these auxiliaries 
were legionaries. 

7. generatim : by tribes. 

10. Eo : i.e. in raedas et carros. These were probably set in a 
great semicircle, inclosing the rear and flanks. 

1 1 . passis : from pando. 

LII. 14. legates et quaestorem : Caesar had six legions, so 
probably he had only five legati. Later he had ten. See Introd., 
p. 32. 

15. suae quisque virtutis : notice the Order of words, which is 

306 NOTES ' I 

PAGE 18. signo dato: i.e. by a trumpet See Introd., p. 39. 

88 19. ut: correlative with ita. pila:-obj. of the gerund con- 
iciendi. What other construction might have been used ? A. 503 ; 
B- 339- r ; G. 427; H. 626. i ; HB. 613. 

21. phalange facta: see note on phalange, p. 69, 1. 10. 

23. insilirent: subj. of characteristic. desuper: i.e. over the 
rim. The usual practice of the Roman soldier was to push the 
enemy's shield upward with his own, and thrust underneath. 

24. sinistro cornu: the left wing of the German army. 

27. adulescens : perhaps Crassus was distinguished by this 
word from his elder brother, mentioned in Bk. V as Caesar's 
legate and in Bk. VI as quaestor; or from his father, M. Crassus, 
the triumvir. expeditior : freer. The cavalry was chiefly for 
pursuit after the battle. 

28. tertiam aciem : this had been kept in reserve until now. 
LIII. 30. proelium restitutum est: the tide of battle was 


31. prius quam pervenerunt : cf. priusquam conaretur, p. 66, 
1. 31, and the note. For the mood of pervenerunt see A. 551. a; 
B. 291. 2; G. 574; H. 605. i; HB. 561. fugere: A. 456; 
B. 328. i ; G. 423. 2; H. 607. i ; HB. 586. a. 

32. milia passuum quinque : if this battle was fought between 
Ostheim and Gemar, on the left bank of the Fecht, the distance 
to the Rhine at its nearest point was twelve or fifteen miles, and 
quinque must be an error. Some authorities think that Caesar 
mistook the 111 for the Rhine. The date of the battle was about 
Sept. 14. 

33. viribus : A. 431; B. 219. i ; G. 401. N. 6; H. 476. 3; 


89 2. naviculam: a diminutive. profugit: he seems to have 

died not long after. His death is mentioned in Bk. V, Chap. 
XXIX. reliquos omnis : 80,000 are said to have perished. 

4. duxerat: had brought. 

5. duxerat: sc. in matrimonium, had married. 

7. altera, altera : one, the other. Cf. una, altera above. 

8. trinis catenis : with triple chains, i.e. three sets of chains. 
A. 137. b ; B. 81. 4. b ; G. 97. R. 3 ; H. 164. 3 ; HB. 247. i. Caesar 
uses catenae as a plural only. 

1 1 . honestissimum : notice that honestus means honorable, not 
honest in the narrower sense. 

13. neque . . . deminuerat : and (because) fortune had not de- 
ducted anything from so great pleasure and rejoicing by harm to him. 


15. sortibus : abl. of means. consultum: sc. efse, consulta- 
tion had been held, or the gods had been consulted. utrum : as to 

1 6. sortium beneficio : the lots had decided that he should be 

This defeat of the Germans on what was practically their own 
ground insured the Roman supremacy in Gaul. 

LIV. 18. Suebi: cf. Chap. XXXVII. Perhaps the Suebi men- 
tioned in Chap. LI were a detachment only, the advance-guard of 
the migration. 

19. coeperunt: started. qiios : how is this to be translated ? 

20. Rhenum: A. 432. a; B. 141.3; G. 359. N. I ; H. 435. 2; 
HB. 380. b. Cf. tiimuhim, p. 84, 1. 21. 

22. maximis bellis : a powerful blow had been struck at free 
Gaul in the victory over the Helvetii, and the onward march of the 
Germans had been checked by the victory over Ariovistus. These 
victories had been won by a man of middle age, whose previous 
military experience had been comparatively slight. 

23. hiberna: sc. castra, winter quarters. See Introcl., p. 43. 
in Sequanos : among the Sequani. Notice that both hiberna 
and Seqtianos take the construction of end, or limit, of motion. 

24. hibernis : dat. Labienum : see Introd., p. 32. citeri- 
orem G-alliam : see Introd., p. 21. 

25. conventus : the courts of justice presided over by the 
governor of a province. Caesar wished to be nearer Rome, the 
better to look after his political interests there. 


I. r. Cum esset Caesar: while Caesar was. The use of the 90 

subjunctive with cum in temporal clauses emphasizes the circum- 
stances rather than the time. In this case the point of impor- 
tance is that Caesar was not in Transalpine Gaul at the time when 
he received the reports. A. 545, 546; B. 288. i; G. 579, 585; 
H. 600. II. i; HB. 524, 550. a. citeriore Gallia: see Introd., 
p. 21. Here Caesar usually spent his winters while governor of 
Gaul. See note at end of Bk. I. For comparison of citerior see 
A. 130. a; B. 73. i ; G. 87. 2. 7 ; H. 155. i ; HB. 123. For declen- 
sion of comparatives see A. 120; B. 69; G. 89; H. 127; HB. 116. 
supra: at the end of Bk. I. See Introd., p. 12, for a brief sum- 
mary of Bk. I. 

3 o8 


PAGE 2. adferebantur : notice the tense ; kept coming, lit. were (con- 

90 tinually) being brought. A. 470; B. 260. 2; G. 231; H. 534. 3; 

HB. 484. litteris : by despatches; see Vocab. For case see A. 
409; B. 218; G. 401 ; H-476; 116.423. 

3. Labieni: see Introd., p. 32. certior: see certus in Vocab. 

fiebat: A. 204; B. 131; G. 173; H. 296; HB. 195. Belgas : 
subject of coniurare and dare. A. 397. e; B. 184; G. 343. 2; H. 
415; HB. 398. quam: subject of esse. Its antecedent is Belgas, 
but it agrees in number and gender with partem. A. 306 ; B. 250. 3 ; 
G. 614. R. 3. b ; H. 396. 2 ; HB. 326. I. tertiam Galliae partem : 
see Bk. I, Chap. I, and Introd., p. 23. These words, with esse, form 
the predicate of quam. 

4. dixeramus : i.e. before we began to write the present narra- 
tive about them. coniurare, dare : these are the verbs of a sen- 
tence in indirect discourse depending on rumores adferebantur and 
certior fiebat. Trans, that all the Belgae ivere conspiring . . . and 
giving. To express the same thought in the direct discourse, change 
the accusative to a nominative and the infinitive to an indicative, 
i.e. omnes Belgae coniiirant . . . dant. Similarly quam . . . partem 
above becomes quac tertia est Galliae pars. A. 578, 579, 580 ; 
B - 3 r 3> 33 1 - 15 G. 508. 2, 5275 H. 613, 641, 642; HB. 589, 

5. inter se: to one another. A. 301. f; B. 245. i; G. 221; 
H. 502. I ; HB. 266. Coniurandi: gen. of gerund, depending on 
causas. A. 504; B. 338. i; G. 428; H. 626; HB. 612. i. Any 
movement against the Roman power was, in Caesar's eyes, a con- 
spiracy. has esse causas : that these were the reasons ; in the 
direct form, hae sunt causae. 

6. quod vererentur : if this were Caesar's statement, we should 
have iierebantur. The subjunctive shows that it is part of the in- 
formation he received. A. 580; B. 314. i ; G. 508. 2 ; H. 643 ; HB. 
534.2. ne . . . adduceretur: after expressions denoting fear we 
find ne with the subjunctive if it is wished that a thing may not 
happen, ut or ne non if it is wished that a thing may happen. A. 564 ; 
B. 296. 2; G. 550; H. 567; HB. 502. 4. The rule for sequence de- 
termines the tense. A. 483 ; B. 267. 2 ; G. 509 ; H. 543 ; HB. 476. 

Gallia : by this is meant the division inhabited by the Celtae, or 
Galli. See Introd., p. 23. Trans, after all Gaul had been subdued 
(rendered peaceful"). Since the ablative absolute is used much more 
frequently in Latin than the nominative absolute in English, the 
nominative absolute should seldom be used in translating it. A. 
420. N. ; B. 227. 2 ; G. 410 ; H. 489. I ; HB. 421. 


7. non nullis : some. sollicitarentur : see note on quod vere- 
rentur, 1. 6. 

8. partim . . . ferebant : partly those (i.e. by some) who, (just) 
as they had been unwilling that the Germans should continue longer 
in Gaul, so were indignant that an army, etc. diutius : A. 218. a ; 
B. 77. i; G. 93; H. 311. 4; HB. 129. versari: A. 563. b; B. 
331. IV; G. 532; H. 614; HB. 587. The reference is to the 
hordes of Germans under Ariovistus whom Caesar had driven from 
Gaul the previous year. noluerant : this and the following indica- 
tives show that Caesar is not now quoting the information given by 

9. exercitum . . . inveterascere : this depends on moleste 
ferebant. A. 572. b; B. 331. V; G. 533; H. 614; HB. 594. 

10. partim qui : these make a second division of the Gallis of 
1. 7. The non nullis of 1. n form a third division. mobili- 
tate . . . animi : on account of changeableness and fickleness of 
purpose. A. 404; B. 219; G. 408; H. 475; HB. 444. The rest- 
lessness of the Gauls (often mentioned by Caesar) rendered them 
particularly susceptible to the influence of party leaders, some of 
whom no doubt were actuated by motives purely patriotic. novis 
imperils: a revolution. What literally? For case see A. 367; 
B. 187. II. a; G. 346; H. 426. i ; HB. 362. 

n. a potentioribus : abl. of agent, depending on occupabantur. 
A. 405; B. 216; G. 401; H-468; HB. 406. i. Find other instances 
of the construction in this chapter. 

12. conducendos : a gerundive agreeing with homines. Trans, 
the phrase for hiring men. A. 503 ; B. 339. 2 ; G. 427 ; H. 628 ; 
HB. 613. i. ' 

13. regna occupabantur: royal power was seised {usurped}. 
The plural helps to show that there were many instances. qui : 
and these men. minus: A. 218. a; B. 77. i; G. 93 ; H. 311.2; 
HB. 129. rem: thing is usually inadequate as a translation of 
res. Since the reference is to regna occupabantur, we may here say 

14. imperio nostro : tinder our government. 

11. 15. commotus: because he was disturbed. The participle 
is widely used in Latin, and English participles must be employed 
less frequently in translating. Notice the agreement of every Latin 
participle you meet, and consider its meaning carefully before trying 
to render it. duas : A. 134. b; B. 80. 2 ; G. 95; H. 166; HB. 

16, conscripsit: Caesar already had six legions. See Introd., 


PAGE pp. 31, 36. inita aestate : in the beginning of summer, lit. summer 

90 having been entered. in ulteriorem Galliam: see Introd., p. 23. 
Connect the phrase with deduceret. 

17. qui deduceret: A. 531. 2; B. 282. 2; G. 545; H. 590; 
HB. 502. 2. Here, as often, the infinitive gives the best English 
rendering of the clause of purpose. cum . . . inciperet: as soon 
as there began to be a supply of fodder. See note on cum esset, 1. i. 
Notice that there is in the original no equivalent of the word ' there,' 
sometimes used in English to introduce a verb. What is the subject 
of inciperet ? 

18. Dat: historical present, very common in Latin. A. 469; 
B. 259. 3; G. 229; H. 532. 3; HB. 491. i. 

19. Senonibus : where situated ? The maps in this book should 
be regularly consulted. - The word is in the dative case, indirect 
object of dot. reliquis Gallis : ,we say the rest of the Gauls, 
but observe that reliquis is an adjective. A. 293 ; B. 253. 5 ; G. 
291. R. 2; H. 497. 4; HB. 279. i. b. Belgis : A. 384; B. 
192. i ; G. 359; H. 434. 2; HB. 362. 

20. uti . . . cognoscant : A. 563 ; B. 295. I ; G. 546 ; H. 564. I ; 
HB. 502. 3. a. The phrase negoti^tm dare is equivalent to a verb 
of commanding. We may translate he charges the Senones to learn, 
lit. he gives the task to the Senones that they learn. gerantur : 
A. 593; B. 324. i ; G. 629; H. 652; HB. 539. 

21. certiorem faciant: cf. certior Jiebat, 1. 3. constanter: 
consistently; their stories ' stood together.' manus . . . conduci: 
indirect discourse ; direct, manus coguntur, exercitits . . . conducitur. 

. 22. dubitandum : gerundive ; sc. esse, the two words together 
making the infinitive of the so-called passive periphrastic conjuga- 
tion. It is here used impersonally in indirect discourse depending 
on existimavit. Trans, thought he ought not to hesitate, lit. thotight 
that it was not to be hesitated (by himself). A. 196, 208. d ; B. 1 15, 
138. IV; G. 251. i. 2; H. 237, 302. 7; HB. 162, 201. c. 

23. quin proficisceretur : to set out. It depends on dubitandum. 
Non dubito regularly takes quin and the subjunctive when it means 
I do not doubt ; when it means / do not hesitate, it regularly takes 
the infinitive. 

24. castra movet: the army had been wintering among the 
Sequani, probably at Vesontio. xv : read it quindecim. Caesar's 
eight legions, with auxiliaries and cavalry, may have amounted to 
from 40,000 to 50,000 men. 

91 III. i. Eo : the adverb. celerius : how is this compared ? 
omnium opinions: than any one expected. A. 406. a; B. 217. 4; 


G. 398. N. i ; H. 471. 8 ; HB. 416. e. Notice the order of words in 
this phrase. Adjectives and genitives normally follow the noun they 
modify, but may be made emphatic by being put before it. So 
on p. 90, 1. 3, omnis Belgas, 'all the Belgae ' ; p. 90, 1. 10, novis im- 
periis, ' new governments.' The student should notice instances of 
the application of this principle as he reads. 

2. Hemi: their chief town was Durocortorum, the modern 
Rheims. Galliae : see note on Gallia, p. 90, 1. 6. For case cf. 
Belgis, p. 90, 1. 19. ex Belgis : takes the place of a partitive geni- 
tive, or genitive of the whole. A. 346. c; B. 201. i. a; G. 372. R. 2 ; 
H. 444 ; HB. 346. e. 

3. qui dicerent : see note on q^^^ deduceret, p. 90, 1. 17. 

4. se suaque : the -que shows that se as well as sna is object ofper- 
mittere. The subject of an infinitive in indirect discourse is usually 
expressed, but it would be awkward to have another se as the subject 
of permittere. The indirect discourse extends to the end of the 

6. coniurasse : for coniiiravisse. A. i8i.a ; B. 116. i ; G. 131. i ; 
H. 43. i ; HB. 163. i. 

7. dare : the first of four infinitives limiting paratos. facere : 
to obey, lit. to do, or exectite. oppidis : the omission of the 
preposition is due to the fact that the ablative expresses means as 
well as place. 

9. incolant : this might have been incolerent, since misemnt, the 
main verb of the sentence introducing the indirect discourse, is in a 
secondary, or historical, tense. A. 585. b. N. ; B. 318 ; G. 654. N. ; 
H. 644. i ; HB. 478. 

10. taiitum : the predicate oifiirorem; so great was the infatua- 
tion. It is correlative to ?//, which introduces the verb pot^lerint, 
subjunctive of result. A. 537. N. 2; B. 284. i ; G. 552 (under 3) ; 
H. 570; HB. 521. 2. a. ne quidem: that which is emphasized by 
these two words always stands between them, here Suessiones, which 
is the object of deterrere. The name of the Suessiones survives in 
the modern Soissons. 

n. fratres consanguineosque : the second word defines more 
accurately the first, which is sometimes used in the figurative sense of 
allies. suos : refers to the subject of potuerint, i.e. the Kemi. 
eodem . . . legibus : the same cotistitution (legal system) and the 
same laws (special enactments). A. 410; B. 218. i ; G. 407; H. 
477. I ; HB. 429. 

13. ipsis : here practically an indirect reflexive. A. 300; b; B. 
249.3; G. 521. N. 4; H. 509. 6; HB. 263. quin consentirent : 


PAGE from uniting. A. 558; B. 295. 3. a; G. 555. i; H. 595. 2; HB. 
91 502. 3. b. 

Try to put this speech into the direct form. Change the main 
infinitives to indicatives of the same tense; five infinitives will 
remain unchanged. Two verbs, potuerint and consentirent, must 
remain subjunctive; the others must be changed to the indicative. 
Be careful about pronouns. The first sentence will run as follows : 
Nos nostraque omnia . . . populi Romani per mittimus. The last 
four lines will be : Tantusque est . . . furor ^^t . . . consanguineos- 
que nostros, qui . . . legibus utuntur . . . magistratum nobiscum 
habent, deterrere potuerimus quin . . . consenfiant. 

IV. 15. essent: A. 573, 574; B. 300. i; G. 467; H. 649. II; 
HB. 534. 2. III. This question in the direct form would be, Quae 
civitates quant aeque in armis sunt? quid possent: how strong 
they were. A. 390. c; B. 176. 2 ; G. 334; H. 409. i ; HB. 387. III. 
Belgas : subject of the four following infinitives. Nearly all the 
remainder of this chapter is in indirect discourse. 

16. a Germanis : see Introd., pp. 23, 24. Rhenum : depends 
on traductos. A. 395. N. 2 ; B. 179. i. 3; G. 331. R. i ; H. 413; 
HB. 386. a. 

18. solos : pred. adj., (the Belgae) were the only ones. menio- 
ria: A. 423 ; B. 231 ; G. 393; H. 486; HB. 436. b. omni G-allia 
vexata: trans, by a w/W-clause. See Introd., p. 5. 

19. ingredi: from entering. An infinitive is very common with 
prohibeo. A. 558. b. N. ; B. 295. 3. N. ; G. 549. N. I ; H. 566. 2; 
HB. 502. 3. b, 587. prohibuerint : A. 535. b; 6.283. 2 i G. 
631. i ; H. 591. 5 ; HB. 521. i. a. 

20. fieri : inf. in ind. disc. ; trans, it was coming to pass. What 
was coming to pass ? The answer gives the subject of fieri. It is, 
of course, the clause that follows. uti sibi sumerent: that they 
took upon themselves. A. 569. 2 ; B. 297. 2 ; G. 553. 3 ; H. 
571. i ; HB. 521. 3. a. In the direct form it would be qua ex re fit 
uti . . . sumant. memoria : abl. of cause; cf. mobilitate, p. 90, 
1. ro. 

22. omnia . . . explorata: that they had everything ascertained. 
This expression emphasizes the result of action, whereas omnia se 
exploravisse, that they had ascertained everything^ would emphasize 
the action itself. A. 497. b ; B. 337. 7 (337. 6) ; G. 238 ; H. 431. 3 ; 
HB. 605. 5. In expressions like this we see the origin of the perfect 
tense in English. French, and other modern languages. 

23. propinquitatibus : the Remi were Belgae. 

24. quantam . . . pollicitus sit : how great a number each 


I ?, 

(chief) had promised, ind. quest. A favorite position of quisque is 
immediately after a reflexive, relative, or interrogative. 

25. Flurimum : see note on quid possent, 1. 15. 

26. virtute: abl. of cause or abl. of specification. A. 418; 
B. 226; G. 397; H. 480; HB. 441. 

27. armata milia centum : a hundred armed thousands, i e. 
a hundred thousand armed men. So electa milia LX, sixty thousand 
picked men. 

28. totius : for declension see the grammar. sibi : for them- 
selves. A. 376; B. 188. i ; G. 344; H. 425. 2; HB. 366. 

29. Suessiones . . . finitimos : in the direct form, Snessiones 
nostri sunt finitimi ; suos must refer to the speakers, the Remi. . If 
the reference were to the Bellovaci, horum would be used. 

31. Diviciacum : not, of course, Diviciacus the Haeduan, a 
prominent character in Bk. I, who is mentioned in the next chapter. 
qui . . . obtinuerit : who had held control not only of a great 
part of these regions but also even of Britain. The correlatives 
cum . . . turn are nearly equal to et . . . et. 

32. partis : depends on imperium. A. 348 ; B. 200 ; G. 363. 2 ; 
H. 440. 2; HB. 354. regionum: A. 346; B. 201 ; G. 367 ; H. 
440. 5 ; HB. 346. obtinuerit : for tense cf. incolant, \. 9. 

1. summam : the management, subject of deferri. omnium 92 
voluntate : according to the wish of all, i.e. unanimously. A. 412. b ; 

B. 220. 3 ; G. 399. N. i ; H. 475. 3 ; HB. 414. a. 

2. habere : sc. as subject Suessiones, or a pronoun referring to 
them. numero : abl. of specification ; cf. virtute, p. 91, 1. 26. 

3. Nervios : sc. polliceri. maxime feri : sup. of ferns. A. 
128; B. 74; HB. 121. ipsos : the Belgae. habeantur : why is 
this subjunctive ? 

6. Condrusos : with this and the following accusatives supply 
polliceri, or conficere posse (from p. 91, 1. 27), and make the clause 
depend on arbitrari, \. 8. 

7. Germani: A. 393. a; B. 177. 3; G. 205, 206; H. 393; HB. 
392. b. 

8. appellantur: is this a part of the indirect discourse? See 
note on noluerant, p. 90, 1. 8. arbitrari : sc. as subject se, refer- 
ring to the Remi ; direct, arbitramur, we think. Perhaps these 
tribes had not sent delegates to the meeting. ad : about (up 

The location of some of the tribes mentioned in this chapter is 
fixed by modern names of places, e.g. Bellovaci, Beauvais ; Ambiani, 


PAGE V. 9. Caesar . . . iussit : Caesar encouraged the Remi, .dis- 

92 missed them with gracious words, and directed that all their senate, 

etc. Participles may often best be translated by finite verbs. 

10. convenire: A. 563. a; 6.331.115 G. 423. N. 6; 1.565.3; 
HE. 587. 

n. obsides : as hostages. Perhaps the graciousness of Caesar's 
speech was not fully appreciated by the Remi, when they heard the 
orders which followed. ad diem : promptly, ' on time.'' 

13. rei publicae . . . intersit: it concerned the state (Rome) 
and the common safety (of Romans and Haedui). For rei publicae 
see A. 355 ; B. 210, 211. i ; G. 381 ; H. 449. I ; HB. 345. What is 
the subject of intersit f Why is intersit subjunctive ? Cf. essent, 
p. 91,1. 15. 

14. manus hostium distineri: that the forces of the enemy be 
kept from uniting (be held apart). The inseparable prefix dis- 
means apart. ne confligendum sit: that they might not be 
obliged to fight. For the impersonal use of the passive periphrastic 
conjugation cf. dubitandum, p. 90, 1. 22. For mood of confligendum 
j#see A. 531. i ; B. 282. I ; G. 545. 3 ; H. 568 ; HB. 502. 2. The 
clause is to be closely connected with distineri. 

15. Id: refers to manus distineri, and is subject of posse. The 
sentence is in indirect discourse depending on docet, 1. 13. si Hae- 
dui introduxerint : if the Haedui led (lit. shoidd have led). The 
powerful Bellovaci would thus be kept busy defending their own 
territory, and away from the rest of the Belgae. What mood is 
introduxerint? Why? It was future perfect in the direct form. 

17. mandatis : here a noun. 

1 8. in unuzn locum : in one place, but, as coactas implies motion, 
we have the accusative with in. 

19. vidit: A. 543; B. 287. i; G. 561; H. 602; HB. 554, 557. 

neque : and not, connects vidit and cognovit, but the negative 
belongs to longe. ab iis exploratoribus, ab Remis : connect 
both phrases with cognovit. 

20. cognovit : learned. flumen, exercitum : two accusatives 
with traducere, one the object of ducere, the other depending on the 
preposition. Cf. Rhenum traductos, p. 91, 1. 16. extremis: how 
is this compared ? For use of word see A. 293 ; B. 241. i ; 
G. 291. R. 2 ; H. 497. 4; HB. 244. 

21. traducere: A.456; 6.328.1; G. 423. 2 ; H.6o7; HB. 586. 

ibi: north of the Aisne, near the little village of Berry-au-Bac. 
Thus he was between the Aisne and a small, marshy stream (the 
Miette). See the plan, p. 95. 


22. Quae res : this manoeuver. et : notice that the conjunction 
is used three times to connect the three predicates of quae res, but 
the first et may be omitted in translation.- latus unum : the side 
next the river and nearly parallel with it. ripis : abl. of means. 

23. muniebat : see note at the end of Bk. I, Chap. III. Reread 
from the beginning of this book, noticing the force of each tense of . 
the indicative. post . . . reddebat; rendered his rear '(lit. those 
things which were behind him} safe from the enemy. Notice the 
strong emphasis of position of post eum, as also commeatus, 1. 24. 

24. coinmeatus ut portari possent efficiebat : made it pos- 
sible for supplies to be br ought ^ lit. accomplished that supplies could 
be brought. 

25. possent: for mood see A. 568; B. 297. i; G. 553. i; H. 
571 . 3 ; HB. 521. 3. a. In eo flumine : over that river ; at Berry- 
au-Bac ; Caesar had probably crossed by this bridge. 

26. in altera parte : i.e. on the south, or left, bank. The river 
here flows almost due west. By guarding the bridge Caesar secured 
his retreat in case of disaster. 

27. in altitudinem : in height. Notice that in this idiom the 
accusative is used with in. What prepositions are used with both 
accusative and ablative ? 

28. pedum duodecim : depends on vallo. A. 345. b; 6.203.2; 
G. 365. R. 2 ; H. 440. 3 ; HB. 355. duodeviginti pedum : width 
is meant. This is given as the more important dimension. Per- 
haps a definite relation was regularly observed between depth and 
width. See Introd., p. 43. The site of this camp has been ex- 
cavated, and it appears that the depth of the trench was about nine 
or ten feet. 

VI. 30. milia passuum octo : eight miles. See note on milia 
passuum, p. 56, 1. 14. Id : notice its emphatic position. The 
word serves to connect this sentence with the preceding. ex 
itinere : the Belgae did not stop to organize a regular siege, but 
attacked the town as soon as they arrived. See Introd., p. 46. 
magno impetu: abl. of manner. A. 412; B. 220. i; G. 399; 

H. 473-3; HB. 445-3- 

2. sustentatum. est : impersonal ; trans, the attack was sus- 93 
tained or the town held out. 

3. Gallorum . . . haec : the method of attack of the Gauls, as 
well as (lit. the same as) of the Belgae, is as follows. By Gallorum 
Caesar means the Celtae. See Introd., p. 23. For atque see A. 
384. N. 2 ; B. 341. i. c ; G. 643 ; H. 508. 5.; HB. 307. 2. a. 

5 . ubi : when, introduces coepti sunt and mldat^ls est. 

31 6 NOTES II 

PAGE 7- moenibus : depends on circnmiecta. A. 370; B. 187. III. 2; 

93 G. 348; H. 429. 2; HB. 376. 

9. coepti sunt : this verb is usually passive when the dependent 
infinitive is passive. A. 205. a ; B. 133. I ; G. 423. N. 3 ; H. 299. i ; 
HB. 199. 2. 

10. defensoribus : abl. of separation. A. 401; B. 214. I. b; 
G. 390. 1.2; H. 462 ; HB. 408. 3. 

n. testudine facta: making a testudo (tortoise). See Introd., 
p. 46, and the illustration on p. 93. 

12. murum: observe that not all verbs compounded with preposi- 
tions given in the rule take the dative. 

13. Quod: this. A relative at the beginning of a sentence is 
usually best translated by a demonstrative or personal pronoun, often 
with a connective, e.g. and or but. A. 308. f ; B. 251. 6; G. 
610. R. i ; H. 510; HB. 284. 8. 

16. conicerent : its subject is nntltitudo. A. 317. d ; B. 254. 4. a ; 
G. 211. R. i. a; H. 389. i ; HB. 331. a. consistendi : cf. con- 
iurandi, p. 90, 1. 5. 

17. erat nulli: A. 373; B. 190; G. 349; H. 430; HB. 374. 
The subject of erat is potestas. Trans, no one was able to maintain 
his position. What literally ? 

18. fiiiem oppugnandi fecisset : had put an end to the assault 
(inade an end of assaulting) . 

20. summa nobilitate : (a man} of the highest rank. A. 415 ; 
B. 224; G. 400; H. 473. 2; HB. 443. Caesar might have written 
summae nobilitatis. 

22. oppido: A. 370; B. 187. Ill; G. 347; H. 429; HB. 


23. ex iis: this equivalent for the partitive genitive, or genitive 
of the whole, is especially common with numerals. See note on ex 
Belgis, p. 91, 1. 2. legati : as envoys. Cf. p. 91, 1. 3. 

24. nisi . . . posse : a sentence in indirect discourse, depend- 
ing on nuntios mittit, which may be translated sent messengers to say 
that. In the direct form, nisi subsidium mihi submittetur, diutius 
sustinere non possum. sibi : as submittatur implies motion, Caesar 
might have written ad se, but the dative makes the idea of helping 
more prominent than that of sending. 

VII. 26. de media iiocte : shortly after midnight, or about 
midnight. See note on de tertia vigilia, p. 61, 1. 24. ducibus : 
as guides, predicate apposition to isdem. 

27. usus : employing. 'A. 491 ; B. 336. 5 ; G. 282. N. ; H. 640. i ; 
HB. 601. i. 


28. subsidio oppidanis : A. 382. i. N. i ; B. 191. 2; G. 356; PAGE 
H. 433 ; HB. 360. b. 93 

29. adventu: abl. of time and cause. Remis accessit: was 
aroused in the Remi. What literally? Remis is dative depending 
on accessit, a compound of ad. See note on oppido, \. 22. 

30. propugnandi : notice the force of pro ; they were eager to 
sally forth. 

31. hostibus : dat., but trans, from the enemy. potiundi: 
gerundive, or future passive participle, agreeing with oppidi, which 
limits spes. Trans, hope of taking the town, lit. hope of the town to 
be taken. Since the gerundive is a passive participle, it is regularly 
used in agreement with a noun only when the verb is transitive. 
See A. 503. N. 2; B. 339. 4; G. 427. N. 4. 5 ; H. 623. i; HB. 
613. 2. b. N. The learner should carefully distinguish between the 
gerund, a verbal noun, and the gerundive. For the form potiundi 
(instead of potiendi) see A. p. 89. foot-note i ; B. 116. 2 ; G. 130. 8 ; 
H. 243; HB. 184. N. 

32. oppidum, vicis, aedificiis : see note on p. 57, 1. 22. 

34. quo : an adverb, equivalent to ad qnae. incensis : this 
participle is parallel to the deponent participles morati and depopu- 
lati., and may be translated having set on fire. 

35. omnibus copiis : cum might have been used. A. 413. a; 
B. 222. I ; G. 392. R. i ; H. 474. 2. N. i ; HB. 420. 

1. a ... duobus : less than two miles away. Perhaps the best 94 
explanation of this phrase is that which regards a as an adverb, and 

the ablative as one of degree, or measure, of difference. A. 414 ; 
B. 223; G. 403; H. 479; HB. 424. For minus see A. 407. c; B. 
217. 3 ; G. 296. R. 4 ; H. 471. 4 ; HB. 416. d. 

2. milibus : not to be explained as in 1. i, but as an ablative 
following the comparative. A. 406; B. 217. i ; G. 398; H. 471; 
HB. 416, 417. 

VIII. 4. et, et : both, and. 

5. opiniouem virtutis : opinion of their valor, their repiitation 
for valor-, for the case cf. partis, p. 91, 1. 32. See Introd., p. 25. 
proelio : i.e. a pitched battle ; abl. of separation. 

6. quid posset : see note on quid possent, p. 91, 1. 15. 

7. auderent : a semi-deponent verb. 

8. inferiores : how is this word compared? loco: abl. abs. 
with the adjectives opportune and idoneo. A. 419. a; B. 227. i; 
G. 409; H. 489; HB. 421. procastris: the front of a camp should 
be the side towards the enemy. A glance at the plan shows that here 
no side exactly fronted the Belgian lines, but it seems pretty cer- 


PAGE tain that Caesar meant by the front the part facing westward. ad 

94 aciem instruendam : for drawing -tip a line of battle, a gerundive 

phrase depending on opportune) and idoneo. A. 385. a ; B. 192. 2. N. ; 

G - 359- R - 3 5 H - 435- * 5 HB - 384- 2. 

10. editus : rising, lit. having been put forth. tantum : sc. 
loci, and connect with patebat as ace. of extent ; extended over as 
much space as a battle-line, etc. This refers to the portion of the 
hill west of the camp. See the plan. adversus : fronting (the 
enemy}, an adj. agreeing with collis. 

1 1 . quantum : obj. of occupare and correlative to tantwn. loci : 
A. 346. a. 3 ; B. 201. 2 ; G. 369 ; H. 442 ; HB. 346. 

12. ex utraque parte: on both sides. rand ab are frequently 
used in expressions denoting position, contrary to the English idiom. 

A. 429. b; G. 390. 2. N. 6; H. 485. 4; HB. 406. 2. lateris de- 
lectus: i.e. steep lateral slopes, whereas the front sloped gradually. 
in f route: cf. pro castris, 1. 8. 

13. paulatim : do not confuse this word with paululum or paulis- 
per. redibat : as the upward slope of a hill may be said to leave 
the level of the plain, so the downward slope may be said to ' return.' 

14. transversam : crosswise, i.e. at right angles to the axis of 
the hill. See the plan. obduxit: notice the force of ob; the pur- 
pose was to oppose or obstruct an attacking party. This is the 
main verb of the sentence. passuum quadringeiitorum : limits 

fossam. A. 425. a; B. 203. 2; G. 365. R. 2 ; H. 440. 3; HB. 


15. ad extremas fossas : at the ends of the trenches. A. 293 ; 

B. 241. i ; G. 291. R. 2; H. 497. 4; HB. 244. 

16. tormenta: see Introd., p. 50. instruxisset : A. 5935 
B. 324. I ; G. 663. I ; H. 652 ; HB. 508, 509. 

17. poterant : indicative because it is the writer's statement of 
the reason. The use of possent would have indicated that the rea- 
son was present in Caesar's mind at the time of digging the trenches. 
ab lateribus : if the trenches had not been dug, the enemy could 
have reached the right of the Roman line by crossing the Miette at 
their own left and then following the stream, and the Roman left 
by passing behind the camp and along between the hill and the 
Aisne. See the plan. 

18. duabus legionibus: what were their numbers? See In- 
trod., p. 36. Raw legions were commonly assigned to camp duty, 
or stationed as a reserve. 

19. ut . . . possent: a clause of purpose. si . . . esset : 
wherever (if to any place) it might be necessary. The subjunctive 


may be explained on the same principle as instriixisset, \. 16. sub- PAGE 
sidio : as a reinforcement, lit. for help. Why dative? 94 

21. eductas instruxerunt : we may translate led oiit and drew up. 

IX. 22. Palus : the Miette flowed through this marsh. nos- 
trum : from noster ; sc. exercitiwt. 

23. Hanc : see note on id, p. 92, 1. 30. si . . . exspectabant : 
the enemy were waiting (to see) if our men would cross. A. 576. a ; 
B. 300. 3 ; G. 460. i. b ; H. 649. II. 3 ; HB. 582. 2. a. 

24. si ... fieret : depends on adgrederentur. Cf. si . . . esset, 
1. 19. ut . . . adgrederentur : that they might attack them at a 
disadvantage. impeditos : .i.e. as they were struggling through 
the marsh. 

26. contendebatur : impersonal ; cf. sustentatum est, p. 93, 1. 2. 
faciunt : A. 543 ; B. 287. I. a ; G. 561 ; H. 602 ; HB. 557. 

27. equitum proelio : equivalent to eqiiestri proelio. proelio': 
abl. abs. with secnndiore. nostris : to our men-, it depends on 
secundiore. A. 384; B. 192. i ; G. 359; H. 434. 2; HB. 362. I. 

28. ad flumen : to the west of Caesar's camp. Apparently the 
Belgae did not cross the Miette. 

29. quod : the antecedent \s flumen. 

31. eo consilio : with this design. ut . . . prohiberent: this 
explains eo consilio. Four of the subjunctives are verbs of the ^lt- 
clause. On these the clauses si possent and si minus potuissent 
depend. The two relative clauses do not help to express the plan 
of the Belgae, but are added by Caesar, and their verbs are therefore 
indicative. castellum : cf. p. 92, 1. 26. This castelhim was south 
of the Aisne. 

1 . minus : when a protasis is repeated in a negative form, minus 95 
is often used instead of non. 

2. magno nobis usui : of great use (or very useful} to us. See 
note on subsidio oppidanis, p. 93, 1. 28. The Remi were traitors to 
the Belgae, and were furnishing supplies to Caesar. Cf. Chap. III. 

3. ad bellum gerendum: in (for) carry ing on the war. 

X. 4. certior factus : cf. certiorfiebat. p. 90, I. 3. The nature 
of the ground no doubt concealed the movements of the Belgae from 

5. levis armaturae : of light equipment, i.e. light-armed. The 
expression is equivalent to an adjective. A. 345 ; B. 203 ; G. 365 ; 
H. 440. 3; HB. 355. ponte : by way of the bridge. A. 429. a; 
B. 218. 9; G. 389; H. 476; HB. 426. a. traducit: sc. flumen. 

6. in eo loco : see the plan. 

7. Hostis : obj. of adgressi. 


PAGE 8. per . . . reppulerunt: we should be likely to say over their 

95 bodies the rest attempted to cross, but were driven back. This expe- 
dient of changing the voice of a verb in translation is often a very 
convenient means of preserving emphasis. 

10. primes . . . interfecerunt : we may say the foremost were 
surrounded and killed, or, keeping the voice of interfecerunt, they 
surrounded and killed the foremost. Is equitatu abl. of means, or 
of agent ? 

11. expugnando : is this a gerund, or a gerundive? oppido : 
Bibrax ; cf. Chaps. VI and VII. 

12. se : the indirect reflexive. A. 300. 2; B. 244. i. II. a; G. 
521; H. 504: HB. 262. 2. neque: connects intellexerunt and 
viderunt, both of which are introduced by ubi, as is also coepit ; but 
the negative should be put with progredi. 

13. puguandi causa: one of the ways of expressing purpose. 
Consult the grammar. The student should accustom himself to 
finding things in his grammar with the help of the index. Either 
the word 'purpose' or the word 'gerund' should put him on the 
track of this construction. ipsos: a more distinctive word than 
eos, marking a contrast with nostros. 

14. constituerunt : the principal verb of the sentence. De- 
pending on it we have a clause in indirect discourse representing a 

N decision as to a fact, optimum esse standing for optimum est, and a 

clause with the subjunctive representing a decision as to a course 
of action. It is not uncommon for a verb to have object-clauses of 
different forms. 

15. domum suam : to his home. A. 427. 2; B. 182. i. b; G. 
337; H. 419. i ; HB. 450. b. reverti: subject of esse, and has 
qztemque for its subject. Learn its principal parts from the Vocabu- 
lary. It is semi-deponent, having active forms in the perfect, pas- 
sive in the present. How does it differ, then, from audeo? 
quorum: its antecedent is eos, 1. 16. A relative clause very 
often precedes the clause containing the antecedent of the relative. 

17. convenirent : to come together. A subjunctive depending 
on constituo is regularly introduced by ut. See A. 565. a. N. ; B. 
295. 8; G. 546; H. 565; HB. 502. 3. a. ut . . . decertarent 
. . . uterentur : a clause of purpose. On what does it depend ? 
In studying syntax always consider this question. It is the only 
way to understand a sentence fully. 

96 I. sententiam : decision. 

2. ratio : consideration. It is explained by the appositive clause 
quod . . . cognoverant. A. 572; B. 299. I ; G. 525. 2; H. 588. 35 


HB. 549, 552. i. finibus appropinquate : were drawing near PAGE 
to the territory. The dative is the usual construction with this verb. 96 

3. His . . . poterat: trans, freely these could not be persuaded 
to wait longer and not aid their people. His depends on persuaderi, 
which is used impersonally, as all intransitive verbs must be when 
passive. ' I am persuaded 1 is not pcrsuadeor, but mihi persnadetur, 
lit. // is persuaded (inade acceptable} to me. A. 372 ; B. 187. II. b; 
G. 208. 2 ; H. 426. 3 ; HB. 364. 2. By his is meant the Bellovaci in 
the Belgian army. Caesars scheme had worked well ; cf. p. 92, 11. 
13-17. ut . . . morarentur . . . ferrent : subject of persuaderi 

XI. 5. secunda vigilia : abl. of time. See note on de tertia 
vigilia, p. 6 1, 1. 24. 

6. castris : e castris might have been used. nullo . . . im- 
perio : in no definite order and ^mder no definite direction. No one 
superintended the movement. A. 412 ; B. 221 ; G. 399 ; -H. 473. 3 ; 
HB. 422. cum . . . peteret : A. 549 ; B. 286. 2 : G. 586 ; H. 598 ; 
HB. 526. We might translate every one trying to get for hiinself. 

7. sibi: A. 376; B. 188. i; G. 345; H. 425. 2; HB. 366. 
Notice its emphatic position, with quisqiie just after it, and see note 
on p. 91, 1. 24. 

8. fecerunt ut . . . videretur : caused the departure to seem 
like flight. See note on possent, p. 92, 1. 25. fugae : see note on 
Belgis, p. 90, 1. 19. 

9. Caesar : the common subject of perspexerat and continuit. 
Trans, having learned . . . and fearing . . . because he . . . Caesar 
kept. speculatores : spies, sent secretly to obtain information. 
veritus : see note on usus, p. 93, 1. 27. 

11. castris : the idea of means is present in this ablative as well 
as that of place. confirmata . . . exploratoribus : since the 
fact had been corroborated by the scouts. For the exploratores see 
note on p. 61, 1. 21. 

12. qtii . . . raoraretur : see note on qni dedncerel, p. 90, 1. 17. 

13. His: dat. with the compound verb; see note on oppido, 
p. 93, 1. 22. Why is it plural ? 

15. novissimos : those in the rear. 

1 6. eorum fugientium : of them as they fled. Do not say 'of 
those fleeing.' 

17. cum : causal, introducing three verbs, consisterent, sustine- 
rent, and ponerent. Though these verbs are grammatically coor- 
dinate, logically the first two are somewhat subordinated to the 
third. Notice that the first two are connected by -que, while the 


322 NOTES? II 

PAGE third, which has a new subject, stands without a connective. It is 

96 as if Caesar had said ' because, while (it is true) those at the end 
of the line stood their ground bravely, those farther forward were 
thrown into a panic and fled.' ab extreme agmine: see note on 
ex utraque parte, p. 94, 1. 12. ventum erat: trans, personally, 
those to whom they (the pursuers) had come, those whom they had 

20. imperio : cf. 1. 6. perturbatis ordinibus: broke ranks 
and, etc. 

22. tantam multitudinem quantum fuit: lit. a number as 
great as was the length of the day, i.e. as great a number as there 
was time for. See Introd., p. 45, for the usual treatment of a de- 
feated army. 

23. sequi: A. 456; B. 328. i ; G. 423. 2 ; H. 607 ; HB. 586. 

24. erat imperatum : they had been ordered, lit. it had been com- 
manded. Why is the verb used impersonally? 

XII. 25. Postridie eius diei: the next day, lit. on the morrow 
{next day) of that day. The genitive diei requires no special expla- 
nation, but the student may consult A. 359. b; B. 201. 3. a; H. 
446. 5 ; HB. 380. c. se reciperent : could recover. A. 551. b ; B. 
292. i. b ; G. 577 ; H. 605. II ; HB. 507. 4. b. Caesar's plan was to 
deal with the tribes of the Belgae one at a time. 

27. magao itinere : by a forced march. Noviodunum : this 
has been identified with the modern Soissons, named from the 
Suessiones. Probably it was near the site of Soissons, at all events. 

28. ex itinere: see note on p. 92, 1. 30. 

29. ab defensoribus : abl. of separation. The preposition might 
have been omitted. 

30. paucis defendeiitibus : abl. abs., to be translated by a 
clause beginning with though. expugnare : to carry by storm, 
whereas oppugnare means to assault. 

31. Castris munitis : the building of camps is constantly re- 
ferred to by Caesar. See Introd., p. 41. vineas : see Introd., 
p. 47. quaeque : -que is the enclitic, and. The antecedent of 
quae is not expressed. ad oppugnandum : for assaulting, for the 

32. ex fuga : belongs grammatically with convenit, but its posi- 
tion unites it closely with multitude, about as if it were fugientium, 
agreeing with Suessionum. Those are meant who had escaped the 
slaughter told of in the previous chapter. ' 

97 i. aggere, turribus : see Introd., pp. 47,48. magnitudine: 
goes with permoti. 


4. petentibus . . . conservarentur : inasmuch as the Remi 
begged that they should be spared. The Remi were, it will be re- 
membered, kinsmen of . the Suessiones. Cf. p. 91, 1. n. 

XIII. 6. primis : the leading men. 

7. Galbae : cf. p. 91, 1. 33. 

8. in ... accipit : in English idiom accepted the surrender of 
the Suessiones. in Bellova^os : after the battle on the Aisne 
Caesar marched westward, reaching first the Suessiones, then the 
powerful tribe of the Bellovaci. See the map facing p. 91. 

9. Qui cum : A. 308. f ; B. 251. 6 ; G. 610. R. i ; H. 510 ; HB. 
284. 8. sua omnia: all their possessions (their all}. 

1 1 . maiores natu : older men ; A. 131 . c. N. ; B. 226. i ; G. 397 ; 
H. 480. i ; HB. 441. 

12. voce significare : do you see any reason why Caesar did 
not write dicere ? What is the object of significare f 

13. fidem ac potestatem : protection and power. 

15. accessisset, poneret : observe carefully the change of tense. 

pueri : children. 

1 6. passis : from pando. suo more: according to their cus- 
tom; A. 418. a; B. 220. 3 ; G. 3975 H. 475. 3 ; HB. 414. a. 

XIV. 18. Haeduorum copiis : the forces with which Divi- 
ciacus had threatened the Bellovaci. Cf. p. 96, 1. 2. facit verba : 
made a plea. 

19. omni tempore . . . amicitia: i.e. they had always been 
faithful friends. 

20. impulses . . . intulisse : this sentence will not be trouble- 
some, if one sees plainly that defecisse and intttlisse belong with 
impulses (Bellovacos}, while perferre has Haeduos for its subject, 
and depends on dicerent. Notice the tenses of the infinitives. The 
principes said Haedtti perferunt, while Diviciacus said impulsi et 
defecerimt et int^der^mt. Why is dicerent subjunctive ? 

4. civitati intulissent : had brought upon the state. 

5. profugisse : sc. eos, the implied antecedent of qui. Petere : 
Bellovacos and Haeduos form its subject. 

6. sua dementia : his customary clemency, dementia is the 
mildne'ss of one in authority ; mansitetudo, gentleness of disposition. 

utatur : the previous subjunctives of this passage have been im- 
perfect or pluperfect, from here on they are present or perfect. 
Such a change is common, especially in long passages of indirect 
discourse. The ruling verb is facit (p. 97, 1. 18), a historical pres- 
ent. A. 485. e; 6.268.3; G. 654. N. ; H. 546; HB. 491. 1.2. 

7. Quod . . . amplificaturum : in the direct discourse, quod si 


feceris (fut. perf.), amplificabis. auctoritatem : Caesar might be 
expected to wish to increase the prestige of the Haedui, because 
they were allies of Rome. 

8. quorum : its antecedent is Belgas. si ... consuerint : 
direct, si inciderunt, sustentare consuevimus. Remember that 
Diviciacus, a Haeduan, is speaking. 

9. consuerint : for consueverint, a perfect with present meaning. 
See consuesco in Vocab. 

XV. 10. honoris . . . causa : i.e. to show honor to Diviciacus 
and the Haedui. A. 404. c; B. 198. I ; G. 373. R. I ; H. 475. 2 ; 
HB. 339. d. 

11. eos in fidem recepturum : would take them under his pro- 
tection, i.e. would accept their allegiance ; cf. p. 97, 1. 13. 

12. magna auctoritate : of great influence ; abl. of quality, or 
description. multitudine : abl. of specification, or respect. 

13. DC : sescentos. This was a very large number. 

1 6. Nervii : three tribes, the Suessiones, the Bellovaci, and the 
Ambiani, had submitted with scarcely a show of resistance. We 
shall read that the Nervii acted differently. Quorum : poss. gen., 
limiting natura and moribus. 

17. Nullum . . . mercatoribus : that traders had no access to 
them. For case of mercatoribus see A. 373 ; B. 190; G. 349; H. 
430 ; HB. 374. Regarding the mercatores see note on p. 55, 1. 8. 

18. nihil vini: no wine, lit. nothing of wine', A. 346. a. I ; B. 
201. i ; G. 369 ; H. 440. 5 ; HB. 346. pati : sc. eos, i.e. Nervios. 

19. rerum . . . pertinentium : i.e. luxuries. inferri : A. 
563. c; B. 331. Ill; G. 553. 2. N. ; H. 614; HB, 587. 

21. feros : how is this compared? Cf. maxime feri, p. 92, 1. 3. 
magnae virtutis : gen. of quality, or descriptive gen. Notice 
that it limits homines, and is equivalent to an adjective. 

22. dedidissent : it would be subjunctive in the direct form 
also, since it stands in a relative clause expressing cause. A. 535. e ; 
B. 283. 3. a; G. 633; H. 592; HB. 523. patriam: of their 
fathers, ancestral. 

23. sese : not subject of confirmare, but of missuros and acceptu- 
ros (esse). 

XVI. 25. triduum: why accusative? iter fecisset: had 
marched. Trace Caesar's route on the map. 

26. Sabim : for the form see A. 75. a. i ; B. 38. I ; G. 57. I ; H. 
102. 2 5 HB. 88. i. amplius : cf. minus, p. 94, 1. i. 

27. trans id flumen : emphatic, on the other side of this river, 
i.e. on the southern bank. 


29. his utrisque: both of these (tribes)] but notice, that the 
genitive is not used. How is utrisque declined? 

30. uti experirentur : to try, lit. that they sho^lld try, obj. of 
persuaserant. exspectari : its subject is capias. The Atuatuci 
did not come in time. 

31. mulieres : this word and the omitted antecedent of qui are 
objects of coniecisse, the subject of which is understood. 

1. per aetatem: i.e. the old men and the children. in 
eum locum quo : almost equivalent to in talent locum ut 

2. exercitui : an (not the) army. For the case cf. mercatori- 
bus, p. 98, 1. 1 8. 

XVII. 3. centuriones : see Introd., p. 33. 

4. castris : for a camp. This may be taken with either ido- 
neum or deligant. deligant : subj. of purpose. ex Belgis : 
equivalent to a genitive. 

5. una : the adverb ; cf. p. 98, 1. 28. 

7. eorum . . . perspecta : having carefully observed ottr army's 
itsual order of march of (during) those days. Notice how the geni- 
tives are heaped up. The translation given above will indicate the 

8. demonstrarunt : A. 181. a; B. 116. I ; G. 131. i ; H. 238; 
HB. 163. r. inter singulas legiones: between every two legions ; 
for the meaning of singuli see Vocab. A passage in indirect dis- 
course begins here and extends to the end of the sentence. For 
the formation of the word legio see A. 238. b ; G. 181. 2. b ; H. 333 ; 
HB. 206. 2. 

9. numerum : amount, since we translate impedimentorum by 
a singular noun. 

10. quicquam: lit. anything at all. The masculine is quisquam. 
Decline it without a feminine, and only in the singular. Note that 
and nothing is not et nihil, but neqne quicquam. See A. 311, 312; 
B. 252. 4; G. 317. i ; H. 513; HB. 276. 7. negoti: cf. vini, p. 
98, 1. 1 8. What was no trouble? The answer to this question will 
give the subject of esse. prima legio : i.e. the legion at the head 
of the column. See Introd., pp. 31, 40. 

11. venisset, abessent: represent future perfect and future in 
the direct discourse. 

12. sarcinis : i.e. the packs carried by the soldiers, while impedi- 
menta signifies the heavy baggage. See Introd., p. 40. The attack 
was to be made before the soldiers had laid down their packs. qua 
pulsa: translate by a clause with when. futurum ut . . . aude- 


rent: equivalent to reliquas . . . non ausuras (esse). A. 569. a; 
B. 270. 3. a, 297. 2 ; G. 248, 553. 3 ; H. 619. 2, 571. i ; HB. 472. c, 
521. 3. a. 

13. Adiuvabat: the emphasis may be brought out by a change 
of voice, e.g. the advice -was supported by the fact that the Nervii, 
etc. The subject of adiuvabat is the gtiod-cla.\ise. 

14. eorum : the quidam of 1. 6. 

15. cum . . . possent: causal, being weak in cavalry. For 
nihil see note on quid possent, p. 91, 1. 15. neque enim : and in 
fact . . . not; the negative goes with student. 

1 6. eirei: i.e. cavalry. For the case see note on novis imperiis, 
p. 90, 1. 10. possunt, valent: practically synonyms. Translate 
freely, all their strength lies in infantry. What literally ? 

17. quo : in order that, lit. by which', used sometimes instead of 
ut in clauses of purpose, regularly when there is a comparative in 
the clause. A. 531. a; B. 282. i. a; G. 545. 2; H. 568. 7; HB. 
502. 2. b. si venissent : if they came (lit. should have come) . 

1 8. teneris . . . interiectis : young trees were cut into not far 
from the ground and bent over. The branches then grew out side- 
ways (in latitudineni) . Thus a hedge was formed, with brambles 
and thorns filling the interstices. These hedges served as boun- 
daries of districts or towns, or possibly of individual farms. Such 
hedges are said still to be found in this region. 

2. -ut . . . praeberent: obj. of effecerant ; see note on pos- 
sent, p. 92, 1. 25. instar muri : like a wall. See instar in Vocab., 
and A. 359. b-, B. 198. 2 ; G. 373 ; H. 446. 4; HB. 339. d. 

3. quo . . . posset: through which (whither} one could not 
only not enter, but not even see, or which could not even be seen 
through, much less entered. The clause is one of characteristic. 

4. cum . . . impediretur: causal. non omittendum con- 
silium : that the plan (suggestion} should not be neglected. 

5. sibi: A. 374; B. 189. i ; G. 355 ; H. 431 ; HB. 373. i. 
XVIII. 6. quern locum: A. 307. a; B. 251. 3; G. 615; H. 

399. i ; HB. 284. 4. Omit locum in translation. 

7. ab . . . declivis : sloping downward evenly from the top. 

8. Ab eo flumine : on the other side of this river. 

9. acclivitate : upward slope ; cf. declivis above. nasceba- 
tur : rose. What literally ? This hill was on the right, or south- 
ern, bank of the Sambre, while Caesar's camp was north of the river. 
See the plan, p. 102. adversus . . . contrarius : fronting this 
and opposite. 

10. passus : ace. pi. infimus apertus : open (i.e. not wooded) 


at the bottom. A. 293; B. 241. i ; G. 291. R. 2 ; H. 497. 4; HB. 
244. Both words agree with collis. How is infimus compared ? 
ab superiors parte : in the upper part. 

11. ut . . . posset: a clause of result. 

12. secundum flumen : along the river, \\i. following the river. 
Secundum is derived from sequor. 

14. altitude: A. 241; B. 149; G. 181. 2. b; H. 345; HB. 
207. 2. ^-pedum trium: pred. gen. of measure. 

XIX. 15. subsequebatur : was following close behind. om- 
nibus copiis : A. 413. a ; B. 222. I ; G. 392. R. i ; H. 474. 2. N. i ; 
HB. 420. 

16. ratio ordoque : the two words express one idea, and there- 
fore take a singular verb. aliter . . . ac : was different from 
what, lit. had itself otherwise than. See A. 407. d; B. 341. i. c; 
G. 643; H. 516. 3; HB. 307. 2. a. Notice the derivation of aliter 
(from alius). 

17. appropinquabat : was getting near. 

18. consuetudine : see note on suo more, p. 97, 1. 16. expe- 
ditas : without encumbrances, i.e. in fighting order. See Introd., 
p. 40. 

19. conlocarat: for conlocaverat. duae legiones : numbered 
XIII and XIV. Cf. p. 90, 11. 15, 16. Caesar usually placed the 
inexperienced soldiers in the position of least danger. 

20. totum agmen claudebant : brought up the rear. 

21. Equites : these, with the archers and slingers, preceded the 
main body. 

23. silvas : those at the top of the hill. Cf. 1. n. 

25. longius . . . pertinebant: farther than (to the limit to 
whicJi) the open tracts extending before them (lit. stretched forward} 
reached. The Romans dared follow only as far as the edge of the 
woods. quern ad finem: i.e. ad finem ad quern. A. 307. b; B. 
251. 4; G. 616. i ; H. 399. 3; HB. 284. 6. 

26. cedentis : sc. eos, obj. of insequi. 

27. dimenso : passive in sense. A. 190. b; B. 112. b; G. 
167. N. 2 ; H. 222. 2 ; HB. 291. d. 

29. quod tempus : the time which. committendi proeli : 
for beginning the battle, gen. limiting tempus. In what case would 
proeli stand, if committendi were the gerund? coiivenerat: 
had been agreed upon. Compare the use of the English word 
' convention ' in the sense of agreement. 

30. ut : just as. Having arranged their line of battle under 
cover of the woods and strengthened their courage, they charged. 


1. incredibili: A. 252; B. 150. 4; G. 187. 4; H. 329; HB. 
208. 2. incredibili celeritate: this phrase limits decucurrerunt. 
Be careful to notice who were routed and who ran down to the river. 

2. in manibus nostris : upon us, within reach. 

3. adverse colle : tip the hill, lit. by way of the hill fronting 
them, an abl. of the route, or way by which. A. 429. a ; B. 218. 9 ; 
G. 389 ; H. 476 ; HB. 426. a. These words are, however, explained 
by some as ablative absolute. The hill was the one where the Roman 
camp was building. The camp was more than a half mile from the 

4. opere : i.e. the work of building the fortifications of the 
camp. The Romans were completely surprised. 

XX. 5. Caesari: cf. sibi, p. 100, 1. 5. vexillum: a red flag 
displayed at the general's tent. See Introd., p. 39. 

6. proponendum : with this and the following gerundives of this 
sentence, except petcndi, sc. erat or erant. cum oporteret : ivhen- 
(ever) it was necessary. A. 542,514. D. 2. b; B. 288. 3. a; G. 
584. R. ; H. 601. 45 HB. 540. concurri: the impersonal use of 
the passive. 

7. signum : the signal for the soldiers to take their places in the 
ranks. tuba: see Introd., p. 39. qui: the omitted antecedent 
of qui is subject of arcessendi (erant). 

8. aggeris : by this is meant material (timber, sods, stones) 
used to strengthen the rampart. See Introd., p. 43. 

9. cohortandi: A. 190. d; B. 112. b; G. 128; H. 222. 2 ; HB. 
291. a. signum : i.e. proeli committendi. The signal given by the 
tuba was probably taken up and repeated by horn-blowers with their 
cornua. See Introd., p. 39. There was, perhaps, one horn-blower 
for each maniple. 

10. brevitas: A. 241 ; B. 149; G. 186. 7; H. 345; HB. 207. 2. 
impediebat : see note on ratio ordoque, p. loo, 1. 16. 

11. duae res : (i) scientia atque usus ; (2) quod ab opere . . . 
vetuerat, the fact that Caesar had forbidden, etc. 

12. superioribus proeliis : abl. of means. quid . . . po- 
t erant : they could themselves not less advantageously decide for them- 
selves (direct themselves') what ought to be done than be shown by 
others. Observe the collocation of intensive and reflexive pronoun, 
ipsi and sibi, a favorite one in Latin. 

14. singulis legionibus singulos legates : the several legates, 
and their respective legions. Caesar often assigned to his legati the 
command of legions. See Introd., p. 32. 

15. vetuerat: what verb of commanding takes the accusative 


and infinitive ? What is the usual construction with other verbs 
of commanding ? 

1 6. nihil iam: no longer, 

17. perse . . . administrabant : did of themselves what seemed 

XXI. 18. cohortandos: the speech of encouragement before 
a battle was regarded by Caesar as necessary. 

19. quam . . . obtulit: sc.militum; whatever part (of them) 
chance brought in his ivay. A. 307. e; B. 251.4. b; G. 616 2; H. 
399. 3 ; HB. 327. ad legionem decimam : posted on the left 
wing. See the plan, p. 102. 

20. non longiore quam uti . . . retinerent : not longer than 
(simply to urge) that they should holdfast, etc. Cf. uti . . . cognos- 
cant, p. 90, 1. 20. 

21 . neu : equivalent to et ne, as neque (nee) is equivalent to et non. 

22. animo : abl. of specification or, as explained by some, a loca- 
tive abl. 

23. quod . . . aberant: with what is this causal clause to be 
connected ? non longius quam . . . posset : not farther 
than (whither) a spear could be. thrown, i.e. not too far for spears 
to reach them. A. 535. c; B. 283. 2. a; G. 298, 631. 3; H. 
570. I ; HB. 521. 2. c. Quo is here equivalent to ut eo. 

24. signum: cf. 1. 9. in alteram partem : i.e. to the right 


25. pugnantibus occurrit: sc. militibu's ; he found the soldiers 
already fighting. Temporis, hostium : emphatic by position ; 
the time was so short, the enemy so ready. 

27. ad insignia accommodanda : for adjusting their ornaments, 
crests of helmets, perhaps also other devices by which soldiers of 
different divisions of the army could be distinguished. 

28. galeas : not worn on the head during the march, or while 
the soldier was at work. See Introd., p. 35. scutis : abl. of sepa- 
ration. See Introd., p. 35, and the picture, p. Si. tegimenta: 
leather coverings, to prevent the shields from becoming scratched 
or tarnished. For the formation of the word see A. 239 ; B. 147. 4; 
G. 189. 20; H. 336; HB. 206. 3. defuerit: for mood see 
A. 537. i ; B. 284. i ; G. 552 ; H. 570 ; HB. 521. 2. For tense see 
A. 485. c; B. 268. 6; G. 513; H. 550; HB. 478. 

29. Quam . . . constitit, ne . . . dimitteret : i.e. every one 
took his place wherever he happened to come first, so as not to 
lose time, etc. Quam: agrees with partem. For the order of 
the words quam quisque see note on p. 91, 1. 24. quaeque , . , 


PAGE conspexit : and what (ever) standards he saw first. The stand- 

101 ards of maniples are meant. See Introd., p. 38. 

30. ad haec : we might expect hac inparte et ad haec. suis : sc. 
signis. Is quaerendis a gerund or a gerundive ? Which \spugnandi ? 

31. dimitteret: lose (voluntarily), let slip. 

XXII. 32. loci natura deiectusque collis : for the order of 
these words see note on p. 60, 1. 14. 

33. rei . . . ordo: i.e. the rules of military science ; ratio means 
theory and ordo arrangement. For formation of the word ratio see 

A. 238. b ; B. 147. 3 ; G. 181. 2. b ; H. 333 ; HB. 206. 2. 

102 i . cum : causal, introducing two subjunctives. The clause 
explains the preceding ablative absolute, while uniting with it to give 
the reasons for the statement of the main clause. diversae : 
being separated. aliae alia in : observe how much neater this is 
than the awkward English idiom some in one, others in another. 
See A. 315. c; B. 253. 2; G. 319; H. 516. I ; HB. 279. 3. 

2. saepibus interiectis : cf. last part of Chapter XVII. 

3. conlocari : sc. poterant ; reserves could not be put in position 
to meet definite emergencies. 

4. esset : its subject is quid, while opus is pred. nom. A. 41 1. b ; 

B. 218.2. a; G. 406; H. 477. III. N. ; HB. 430. 2. a. provideri: 
sc. poterat ; the indirect question quid . . . esset is its subject. 

5. Itaque . . . sequebantur: i.e. owing to the diversity of 
conditions, varied results necessarily followed. 

6. quoque: A. 599. b; B. 347. I ; G. 479; H. 657. 3; HB. 
302. 2. How may we know that this word is not the ablative of a 
pronoun ? 

XXIII. 7. Legionis nouae et decimae : these legions were 
commanded by Labienus, as we learn from Chap. XXVI. siriis- 
tra parte : the Atrebates, then, were posted on the right wing of 
the enemy. See the plan. 

8. acie : gen. case; see the fifth declension in the grammar. 
pilis emissis : see Introd., pp. 35, 45. exanimatos : out of breath, 
agrees with Atrebatis, the obj. of compnlerunt. 

9. his : most naturally referred to the Atrebates. 

n. conantis : sc. eos, obj. Qiinsecuti. impeditam : i.e. strug- 
gling in the water. 

12. transire : dubito usually takes an infinitive when it means 

13. rursus resistentis hostis : remember the hill with its wooded 
summit. After those of the enemy who were not killed got across the 
river, they rallied and renewed the battle, but were again put to flight. 


14. diversae : separated from the rest. 

15. quibuscum: i.e. ami quibus. C^lm is enclitic with personal 
and reflexive pronouns, and usually with relative and interrogative. 

1 6. ex loco superiors : to be taken with profligates. in ripis : 
with proeliabantur. 

1. afronte: in front. 103 

2. nudatis : since the ninth and tenth legions had crossed the 
river, while the eighth and eleventh, which had formed the center 
of the Roman line, were fighting on the bank. 

4. duce Boduognato : abl. abs., ^lnder the leadership of Bodit- 
ognatus. See A. 419. a; B. 227. i ; G. 409; H. 489; HB. 421. 
summam imperi: the stim of power, i.e. the chief command. 

5. ab aperto latere: on the exposed flank. As the shield was 
carried on the left arm, the right was the exposed side. Apertum 
latits regularly means the right flank. 

6. summum castrorum locum : i.e. the height on which the 
camp stood. The genitive is possessive. 

XXIV. 7. levis armaturae: see note on p. 95, 1. 5. See 
Introd., p. 37. 

8. cum iis una : along with them, i.e. the equites. quos : re- 
fers to equites and pedites, not to iis. 

9. dixeram : cf. p. 100, 1. 32 ; for tense cf. dixeramus, p. 90, 
1. 4. adversis : face to face. 

11. calones : see Introd., p. 38. decumana porta: the rear 
gate, away from the enemy. See Introd., p. 42. It was nearest the 
top of the hill. 

12. victores : as victors. Cf. p. 102, 1. 12. For formation of 
the word see A. 236. a; B. 147. i ; G. 186. n ; H. 334; HB. 206. i. 

13. cum respexissent : i.e. looking back, circumstance, not mere 
time. versari : means hardly more than esse. 

14. eorum: the drivers. Where were the thirteenth and four- 
teenth legions ? Cf. Chap. XIX. 

15. oriebatur: what suggests the blending of distant sounds 
into one confused uproar ? What is the distinction between imper- 
fect and perfect indicatives in narrative ? alii aliam : see note on 
aliae alia in, p. 102, 1. i. 

1 6. perterriti : what is the force of per- ? f erebantur : Jmrried. 

17. virtutis opinio : reputation for courage. 

1 8. auxili causa: for Caesar's auxiliaries see Introd., p. 37. 

19. cum : at first sight this seems to be a preposition, as an abla- 
tive follows. But as we read on we meet compleri (was fllling up), 
which requires an ablative to complete its meaning. A. 409. a; 

33 2 NOTES II 

PAGE B. 2 1 8. 8; G. 405; H. 477. II; HB. 425. Farther on, vidissent 
103 evidently needs a conjunction. legiones : the seventh and twelfth. 
Cf. 11. 1-6. 

21. Numidas: they were famous archers. 

22. desperatis nostris rebus : despairing of our success, lit. 
our things being despaired of. In the active desperare de re is 
used by Caesar rather than desperare rem. contenderunt : its 
subject is equites Treveri. This sentence may well be broken up 
in English into several short sentences. 

23. pulsos superatosque : sc. esse. castris impedimentis- 
que : abl. with potitos. 

24. hostis : subject of potitos (esse). 

XXV. 25. Caesar: subject of processit, p: 104, 1. 6. We last 
saw Caesar in Chap. XXI. This sentence, though long, is not diffi- 
cult. In finding the meaning follow strictly the order of the Latin. 
In translating follow the hint given in the note on contenderunt, 
1. 22. 

26. ubi : introduces vidit, 1. 28 ; the vidit of p. 104, 1. 4, is simply 
a repetition. signisque : the -que connects the clauses suos urgeri 
and signis . . . milites . . . esse. A. 324. a; B. 341. 2. a; G. 
476. N. 3 ; H. 677. 2 ; HB. 307. I. b. conlatis : the sudden rush of 
the Nervii described in Chap. XXIII had driven the component 
parts of the legion too closely together. 

27. conf ertos : being crowded together. sibi impedimento : 
the double-dative construction. Cf. subsidio oppidanis, p. 93, 1. 28. 

28. cohortis: see Introd., pp. 31, 44. 

29. signifero : probably the bearer of the standard of the first 
maniple of the cohort. This might be regarded as, in a certain 
sense, the standard of the cohort. See Introd., p. 38. The loss 
of a signum was always regarded as a great disgrace. For forma- 
tion of the word signifer see A. 264. a, 265. 3; B. 158. I. 2. b; G. 
193, 195. i. a, 197. 2. b; H. 369. 4; HB. 214. i, 215. i, 216.3. 

31. primipilo: see Introd., p. 34. P. Sextio . . . viro : the 
brave Publius Sextius Baculus, In Latin an attributive adjective 
seldom limits directly a proper name. 

32. ut . . . posset : a clause of result. What particle introduces 
a -negative clause of purpose ? se sustinere : i.e. to stand. Bacu- 
lusy however, lived to fight again. See Bk. VI, Chap. XXXVIII. 

1Q4 i. tardiores: rather spiritless. deserto loco: abl. abs., 

deserting their posts. 

2. hostis . . . instare : that the enemy did not cease coming up 
in front from the lower ground, and were pressing on from both 


sides. The participle subeuntis agrees with hostis and is closely PAGE 
connected in thought with intermittere, which, however, usually 104 
takes an infinitive in this sense. 

4. rem . . . angusto : that the sitriation was critical. subsi- 
dium : reserve ; the six legions which had preceded the baggage- 
train were all engaged, the cavalry and auxiliaries were in flight, 
and the thirteenth and fourteenth legions had not yet come up. 

5. militi: depends on detracto. A. 381 ; B. 188. 2. d; G. 345, 
347. R. 5 ; H. 427 ; HB. 371. 

6. processit : "The bare scheme of the sentence is as follows 
Caesar . . . ubi . . . rem esse in angusto vidit, . . . processit : 
but strokes of detail are added as the picture grows, until the whole 
becomes a crowded battle-piece with Caesar advancing to the front 
as its central figure." See A. 600 ; B. 351. 5 ; G. 684, '685 ; H. 685 ; 
HB. 630. 

7. nominatim : how many centurions did Caesar have to know 
by name in each legion ? signa inf erre : see Introd., p. 39. 

8. manipulos laxare : to spread out the maniples, open their 
ranks. quo : in order that. uti : the verb ; the conjunction has ii. 

9. inlata : having been inspired in (lit. brought into). militi- 
bus : dat. 

10. cum . . . cuperet : since everybody for himself was eager 
to do his best in the sight of the Commander-in-chief, even in his own 
utmost peril. 

12. tardatus est: an account of this episode in the battle is 
given in Longfellow's " Courtship of Miles Standish," II, " Love and 

XXVI. 13. constiterat : from consisto. 

14. tribunes militum: see Introd., p. 33. 

15. conversa signa inferrent: wheel about and charge. See 
A. 496. N. 2 ; B. 337. 5 (337) 5 G. 664. R. I ; H. 639 ; HB. 604. i. 
See also Introd., p. 39. 

1 6. aliis . . . ferrent : they assisted one another. 

17. aversi : while turned away, in the rear. As the enemy were 
attacking in two divisions ab utroque latere, each legion, i.e. the 
seventh and twelfth, could face a single division, knowing that the 
other legion was protecting it from the other division. circum- 
venirentur : see note on ne . . . adduceretur, p. 90, 1. 6. 

18. legionum duarum: cf. p. 100, 11. 19-21. 

20. proelio nuntiato: getting word that a battle was on. 

21. T. Labienus : he had crossed the river with the ninth 
and tenth legions. See Chap. XXIII, and note on p. 102, 1. 7. 


PAGE 22. quae . . . gererentur : an ind. quest. 

104 23. nostris : what different shade of meaning would ad nostros 
give ? 

24. Qui : i.e. milites decimae legionis. quo . . . esset : in what 
condition tJie battle was. 

25. versaretur: were involved. We might have had versa- 
rentur. A. 317. c; B. 255. i. 2; G. 285. EXC. i; H. 392; HB. 
329. 2. 

26. nihil . . . fecerunt : made all possible haste, lit. made noth- 
ing of remainder for themselves towards speed. 

XXVII. 28. ut : introduces three verbs, redintegrarent, occur- 
rerent, and praeferrent. etiam qui procubuisseut : even those 
who had sunk to the ground. The subjunctive is due to attraction. 
See A. 593; B. 324. i; G. 663. i; H. 652; HB. 539. scutis 
innixi: leaning on their shields. A. 431 ; B. 218. 3 ; G. 401. N. 6; 
H. 476. 3 ; HB. 438. 2. a. 

30. inermes : agrees with calottes, subject of occurrerent. ar- 
matis : sc. hostibus ; dat. depending on occurrerent. 

31. fugae: cf. p. 100, 1. 32. pugnando : abl. of the gerund; 
nearly the same idea would have been expressed by the present 
participle pugnantes agreeing with the subject. 

32. praeferrent : to be understood, perhaps, in a literal as well 
as a figurative sense. The hilly ground was unfavorable for cavalry. 

33. praestiterunt : manifested. ut : introduces insisterent, 
pugnarent, conicerent, remitterent. cum . . . insistereiit : 
when the foremost of them had fallen, those nearest stepped up on 
their fallen comrades. 

105 i. iacentibus: from iaceo. The present participle of iacio is, 
of course, iaciens. 

3. qui . . . tumulo: tJwse who survived, as if from a mound. 
For sitperessent see supersum in Vocab. 

4. intercepta remitterent : caught up and hurled back. What 
literally? Cf. conversa signa inferrent, p. 104,!. 15. ut . . . esse : 
therefore (lit. so that) one must admit that not in vain (i.e. not with- 
out performing worthy exploits, or not without ground for confidence) 
did men of so great bravery dare. This cause of result depends 
logically on the whole preceding account, from at hostes, p. 104,!. 32. 
What is the subject of deberet? Notice the emphatic position of 
non nequiquam, which limits ausos esse, and look up the word 
'litotes 1 in the Latin grammar or English dictionary. 

6. subire iniquissimum locum : to come up into a very unfa- 
vorable place. A. 388. b ; B. 175. 2. a. 2 ; G. 331 ;H. 406 ; HB. 391. 2. 


7. quae . . . redegerat : (deeds) which the greatness of their PAGE 
spirit had rendered easy from most difficttlt, i.e. though actually 105 
extremely difficult. redegerat: A. 267. b; B. 159. 3. N. ; G. 
200. 2. a; H. 375 ; HB. 218. i. b. 

So ended one of the fiercest battles which Caesar fought in Gaul, 
one in which the Roman army only narrowly escaped defeat, perhaps 
annihilation. Caesar gives full credit to the Nervii for their bravery. 

XXVIII. 9. redacto : agrees in gender with nomine, but is to 
be taken also with gente. 

lo. aestuaria ac paludes : i.e. the marshy country along the 
coast, where inlets, filled with water at high tide, cut them off from 
the mainland. 

n. dixeramus : i.e. before describing the battle. Cf. the end of 
Chap. XVI. cum . . . arbitrarentur : since they thought there 
was no obstacle in the way of the victors (lit. nothing was hindered 
for the victors}) no chance of safety (lit. nothing was safe) for the 

13. miserunt: its subject is maiores natu. 

14. DC : sc. senatoribus. Caesar is applying the Roman word 
senator to the councilors of the Nervii. See Introd., p. 27. 

15. vix ad D : i.e. ad vix quingentos (homines). Yet three 
years later they took part in an uprising, and two years later still 
could furnish 6000 men. : qui . . . possent : a clause of charac- 
teristic, to be taken with both numerals. 

1 6. ut usus videretur : sc. esse, that he might be seen (not might 
seem) to have displayed. 

1 8. finitimis : i.e. the neighboring tribes. 

19. ut . . . prohiberent : to keep themselves and their depend- 
ents from (doing) injury and mischief (to the Nervii). Let the 
student rewrite this sentence, transposing iussit and imperavit. 

XXIX. 20. Atuatuci : cf. Chap. XVI. cum : is this a prepo- 
sition or a conjunction ? If a preposition, why is venirent "sub- 
junctive ? 

21. ex itinere : i.e. from the place which they had reached when 
the news of the battle came to them. ' 

22. reverterunt: see note on reverti, p. 95, 1. 15. castellis: 
small fortified places. 

23. oppidum : the site of this town is uncertain. It has been 
identified with the citadel of Namur, but Mont Falhize on the Meuse 
agrees better with Caesar's description. egregie : e, grex, -ius. 
Applying principles previously learned, explain completely the form 
egregie. Consult the grammar, if necessary. 


PAGE 24. Quod cum: now while this. in circuitu: the position of 

105 this phrase gives it almost the force of an adjective limiting partibus. 
rupis deiectusque : i.e. the town was on a hill, steep and diffi- 
cult of access on all sides but one. 

26. amplius : A. 407. c ; B. 217. 3 ; G. 296. R. 4 ; H. 471. 4'; 
HB. 416. d. pedum: gen. of measure. 

28. conlocabant : notice the tense, and cf. munierant above. 
ex Cimbris : abl. of source, or origin, sometimes used without a 
preposition. A. 403. a. N. i ; B. 215. i; G. 395 ; H. 467; HB. 
413. b. See Introd., pp. 4, 5, and cf. Chap. IV and Bk. I, Chap. 

31. agere ac portare: the impedimenta included cattle as well 
as goods. citra : i.e. on the Gallic side. 

32. sex milia: obj. of reliquerant. In predicate apposition 
with it are custodiam (a guard for the impedimenta) and praesidium 
(a military garrison). una : sc. cum impedimentis. 

33. Hi : the sex milia hominum. eorum : the main body of 
Cimbri and Teutoni. See Introd., p. 6. 

106 * alias : an adverb. bellum inferrent : this refers to offensive 
warfare. inlatum : sc. bellum. defender ent : warded off, acting 
on the defensive. 

2. eorum omnium : i.e. fa&finitimi. -hunc locum : the region 
west and north of the Meuse, perhaps extending across the river 
to the eastward. 

XXX. 6. pedum : to be taken with both vallo and milium. 
The wall was twelve feet high and 15,000 feet in extent. 

7. castellis : these served as rallying-points for the soldiers, and 
were used also for the storage of arms. circummuniti : when they 
had been hemmed in. 

8. vineis : see Introd., pp. 46-49, for an account of siege-opera- 
tions. turrim : subject of constitui. 

9. inridere : began to jeer ; a more lively form of expression 
than the indicative. A. 463; B. 335; G. 647; H. 610; HB. 595. 
It is nearly equivalent to the imperfect indicative. 

10. a tanto spatio: so far away, lit. away by so tmtch space; 
see note on a . . . duobus, p. 94, 1. i . institueretur : the mood 
shows that this is part of the taunt. See note on quod vererentur, 
p. 90, 1. 6. Quibusnam: A. 333. a; B. 90. 2. d; G. 106; H. 
184. 5 ; HB. 141. b. 

11. homines tantulae staturae: being men of so very small 
stature. tantulae : a diminutive. See the diminutive endings in 
the grammar. nam . . . est : for our shortness of stature, in 


comparison with the huge size of their own bodies, is generally a sub- PAGE 
ject of contempt to all the Gauls. 106 

13. in muro : verbs of placing, unless active motion is emphasized, 
regularly take the ablative with in. A. 430 ; G. 385. R. i ; H. 418. 3 ; 
HB. 433. c. Cf. the construction with coniectos, p. 105, 1. 10. sese 
. . . confiderent : trust that they could place. The Atuatuci were 
acquainted with towers placed along a line of wall, but probably not 
with movable towers. Hence they affected to assume that this tower 
must be picked up and placed on the wall an idea which struck 
them as very ridiculous. Why is confiderent subjunctive? 

XXXI. 15. moveri: that it was moving. 

17. ad hunc modum : after this fashion, as follows. 

18. qui . . . possent: probably subjunctive in the direct form, a 
causal relative clause. A. 535. e; B. 283. 3; G. 633; H. 592; 
HB. 523. 

19. tanta celeritate : abl. of manner. 

20. Unum deprecari : in the direct form nnum petimus ac 
deprecamur. Petere means to ask ; deprecari, to pray that some- 
thing may not happen. 

21. dementia: see note on sua dementia, p. 98, 1. 6. 

22. audirent: kept hearing about. statuisset: fut. perf. ind. 
in the direct form. esse conservandos : that he oiight to spare. 
What literally ? 

23. ne . . . despoliaret: explains unum, and is therefore virtu- 
ally the object oipetere and deprecari. Sibi : notice the emphatic 
position of this word. The reflexive refers of course to the Atuatuci. 

24. virtuti: A. 367 ; B. 187. II. a ; G. 346 ; H. 426. 2 ; HB. 
362. II. traditis armis : equivalent to si anna tradita essent. 

25. Sibi . . . deducerentur : in the direct form nobis praestat 
(it is better for us), si . . . deducemitr. The subject of praestare 
is pati. 

26. quamvis : any whatever, from quivis. quam : than, after 
the comparative force in praestare. ab his: \hzfmitimi of 1. 23. 

27. consuessent: for constievissent. Consuesco .is an inchoative 
(or inceptive) verb. A. 263. i ; B. 155. i ; G. 133. V, 191. 2 ; H. 
365; HB. 212. 2. Notice that this verb has virtually a present 
meaning in the perfect tense, and cf. cognosco. 

XXXII. 29. priusquam . . . attigisset: before the battering- 
ram touched the wall. Only so could the surrender be considered 
voluntary. See Introd., p. 49. 

31. armis traditis: abl. abs. in Nerviis : in the case of the 

338 NOTES ' II 

PAGE 32. ne . . . inferrent: not to do any injury to those who had 

106 surrendered to (lit. to the captives of) the Roman people. When is 
quis (gut) indefinite? 

107 i. adsuos: why not dative? quae imperarentur : the things 
which were commanded- The clause is the object oifacere. 

2. facere : sc. se as subject^ The future infinitive might have 
been used, but the envoys say, in effect, 'We are already obeying 
your commands.' 

This is a good time to review the principles of indirect discourse 
and the sequence of tenses. In changing a sentence from the 
indirect to the direct form, observe these rules : (i) Change the 
main infinitive to an indicative, except in the case of the conclusion 
of a conditional sentence which requires the subjunctive; use im- 
perfect, perfect, or pluperfect for the perfect infinitive, as the mean- 
ing demands. (2) Put dependent clauses in the indicative, unless 
you know of some reason why the subjunctive should be used ; if a 
tense of completed action is used in the indirect form, use a similar 
tense in the direct form. (3) Let sense determine the choice of 
pronouns and the person of verbs. 

3. sic ut . . . adaequarent: so that the piles of arms almost 
eqttaled in height (lit. equaled the greatest height of} the wall and 
agger. The agger had been carried forward almost to the edge of the 
moat. The verb aequo is derived from the adjective aeqmis. 

5. circiter : is this a preposition or an adverb? 

6. portis . . . usi : they threw open their gates and that day 
enjoyed peace. What compounds of facio baveyfo in the passive? 
A. 204. a. b ; B. 122. Ill ; G. 173. N. 2 ; H. 274; HB. 195. a. 

XXXIII. 8. ne quam : that . . . no. noctu: an adverb. 
9. ante: here an adverb. ut intellectum est: as became 
clear. consilio : abl. abs. with inito. 

10. indiligentius servaturos : would keep less careful watch. 

11. partim, partim: nearly equivalent to alii, alii, some, others. 
quae . . . celaverant : limits Us armis. 

12. scutis . . . factis . . . intextis : abl. abs., yet in effect 
parallel with ciim Us armis. Trans, with shields made of bark or 
woven of (by means of} osiers. 

13. postulabat: rendered necessary. pellibus : abl. of means, 
or possibly dat. with the compound verb. 

14. tertia vigilia: see note on de tertia 'uigilia, p. 61, 1. 24. N 
qua : where. 

15. ascensus: evidently the Roman works were on ground 
higher than that which lay between them and the town. 


16. fecerunt : has the subject of this verb been expressed? 

17. ignibus . . . est: the news being spread by fires, there was 
a rush to that place from the nearest redoubts. The signals in 
this case were probably bonfires. One kind of signal consisted of 
a torch displayed from a wooden or stone tower, the torch being 
thrust forth in the direction from which danger threatened. See 
the picture, p. 107. 

18. pugnatum . . . debuit: i.e. the enemy fought as fiercely as 
brave men ought to have fought, etc. As the English verb ' ought ' 
is defective, we have to translate the present infinitive fotgnari by a 
perfect. A. 486. a; B. 270. 2; G. 254. R. i ; H. 618. 2; HB. foot- 
note 2 on p. 311. 

19. eos qui iacerent: men who were throwing; a rel. clause 
of characteristic. 

20. vallo turribusque : cf. p. 106, 1. 6. Towers were erected 
at intervals along the line of the vallum. cum . . . consisteret : 
at a time when all hope rested in valor alone. Cum is a relative 
word, from the same root as the relative pronoun, and the subjunctive 
is subjunctive of characteristic. 

21. ad : about, used as an adverb. 

22. Postridie eius diei: see note on p. 96, 1. 25. 

23. iam nemo: no one any longer. 

24. sectionem : including both goods and people. vendidit : 
see its derivation in Vocab., and note the quantity of its e. The 
purchasers were mercatores. See Introd., p. 38. Caesars reputa- 
tion for dementia must have suffered, but, after all, such action as the 
townspeople had been guilty of could not be left unpunished. The 
Atuatuci were not all destroyed, for we find them three years later 
storming a Roman camp. 

Caesar's policy of dealing with the tribes of the Belgae one at a time 
had been very successful. He had met with little resistance except 
from the Nervii. 

XXXIV. i. a P. Crasso : abl. of agent with certior factus est. 
This was the Crassus who had commanded the Roman cavalry in the 
battle with Ariovistus. See Bk. I, Chap. LII. legione una: the 
seventh, as we see from Bk. Ill, Chap. VII. 

3. quae : agrees in gender with civitates. A. 306; B. 250. 3; 
G. 614. R. 3. b; H. 396. 2; HB. 326. i. 

5. esse redactas : evidently these tribes were not all thoroughly 
subdued, for several of them were in arms the following year. Some 
of these names of tribes survive in modern names, e.g. Veneti, 
Vannes ; Coriosolites, Corseult ; Redones, Rennes. 


PAGE XXXV. 6. pacata : having been rendered peaceful, i.e. having 

108 been subdued. huius belli : the war with the Belgae. 

,8. incolerent: subj. by attraction. qui pollicerentur : to 
Promise. se : indirect reflexive, referring not to qui, but to the 
logical subject of the sentence; as if Caesar had written, 'The 
states across the Rhine sent ambassadors to promise that they.' 

10. Italiam : Gallia Citerior was beginning to be called Italy. 
See Introd., p. 21. inita proxima aestate : at the beginning of 
the following summer, abl. abs. expressing time. 

11. in ... hiberna: to be taken with deductis. From the name 
Carnutes comes the modern Chartres : from Andes, Anjou ; from 
Turom, Tours and Touraine. 

12. quaeque civitates : and the states which. 

15. quod: the antecedent is not, of course, supplicqtio,\>\& the 
sentence dierum . . . est ; trans, an honor which. .A stipplicatio 
of twelve days was decreed to Pompey after his victory over Mith'ri- 


109 I. i. in Italiam : see the last chapter of Bk. II. 

5. quod . . . volebat : a substantive clause, subject of fuit, 
causa being predicate nominative. iter : subject of patefieri. 
The route through the Great St. Bernard pass is probably meant. 
The growing importance of Gaul rendered an easy communication 
with the country beyond the Alps necessary to Rome. quo: by 
which ; its antecedent is iter. 

6. portoriis : tolls, levied on goods transported through a coun- 
try. patefieri: see note on p. 107, 1. 6. 

7. arbitraretur : although this is not formal indirect discourse, 
yet it does represent indirectly Caesar's word, arbitraberis, uti 
. . . conlocaret: obj. of permisit. 

8. secundis : favorable, a common meaning of secundus. 

1 1 . ipse : agrees with the subject of constituit, but should be 
translated with hiemare. reliquis cohortibus: how many were 
there ? 

13. Octodurus : probably on or near the site of the modern 
Martigny. non . . . planitie : with a small plain adjoining it, 
an abl. abs. 

15. flumine: no doubt the Dranse. alteram, alteram: one, 
the other. 

16. cohortibus : dat. with attribuit. 


.II. 1 8. dies complures: no long time could have elapsed, 
for Galba's preparations for the winter were not complete. 

19. exploratores : see note on p. 61, 1. 21. 

20. ex ea parte : to be taken with discessisse. concesserat : 
why not subjunctive ? 

22. Id : it, subject of acciderat, and explained by the clause tit 
. . . caperent. 

24. quod . . . despiciebant : this clause and the clause quod 
. . . existimabant explain causis. Two more causes are given by 
quod . . . habebant, ip. no, 11. 5-9, which is made grammatically the 
subject of accedebat. legionem . . . plenissimam : a (niere) 
legion, and not a very full one at that. 

25. compluribus : abl. abs. with absentibits. 

1. commeatus petendi: A. 503; B. 339. i ; G. 427; H. 626. 
i; HB. 613. 

2. paucitatem: no doubt one reason for the smallness of the 
legion was that it had suffered severely in the battle with the Nervii. 
Cf. Bk. II, Chap. XXV. 

3. decurrerent: this represents a future indicative, which would 
express the Gauls' thought as they made their plan. 

5. Accedebat quod : there was the additional reason that, etc. 

suos liberos abstractos : sc. esse ; that their children had been 
taken away. A. 572. b; B. 331. V; G. 533; H. 614; HB. 594. 

6. obsidum nomine : as hostages, lit. tinder the name of hostages. 

Romanes . . . habebant : had become convinced (lit. had it 
persjiaded to themselves') that the Romans were trying to seize the 
heights of the Alps not merely for the sake of the passes, but also for 
the sake of a permanent occupation ; and (that they were trying) to 
join this region to the neighboring province. A clause used as a noun 
is always regarded as neuter ; hence persuas^tm, which agrees with 
the clause Romanes . . . conari, object of habebant, is neuter. 

8. finitimae : the Allobroges, recently subdued, were near this 
place. See Introd., p. 6, and cf. p. 109, 1. 3. 

III. 10. opus hibernorum : the b2iilding of the winter camp. 
See Introd., p. 43. 

11. munitiones : the fossa and vallum. 

12. esset provisum : impersonal; trans, by making an abstract 
noun from the meaning of the verb, provision had been made. 

14. consilio : a council of war, probably of the tribunes and the 
centurions of the first rank (see Introd., p. 34), with perhaps the 
cavalry officers. 

15. cum: since, introducing three subjunctives. 


PAGE 16. accidisset : this word is used of an unexpected event, often, 

110 as here, of a misfortune. Compare the English word ''accident.' 
Contingere is more often used of a favorable event. 

17. completa conspicerentur : were seen (to be) covered. 
usque subsidio veniri : sc. posset, lit. and it could not be come (by 
any one to them) for aid; freely, and no aid could come to them. 

19. desperata salute : this passive construction implies an active 
desperare salutem, a construction which is found in some authors. 
Caesar, however, says desperare de, or uses the dative. eius modi : 
of the following sort, explained by the substantive clause ^lt . . . 

21. Maiori . . . placuit: the majority, however, thought it best. 
What is the subject of placuit ? 

IV. 25. conlocandis, administrandis : in agreement with Us 
rebus. Trans, for arranging and executing those things. We have 
here the gerundive construction in the dative. A. 505. N. ; B. 339. 2 ; 
G. 429. i ; H. 627 ; HB. 613. i. 

26. decurrere: historical inf. gaesa: heavy javelins. They 
seem to have been used especially by Alpine tribes ; Vergil speaks 
of Alpina gaesa. See Vocab. 

27. propugnare : observe the force oipro. 

28. ex loco superiore : i.e. from the rampart of the camp. 

29. defensoribus : abl. of separation, with nudata. 

30. eo : i.e. ad earn partem castroriim. hoc superari, quod : 
they were at a disadvantage in this, that ; hoc is abl. of cause ; or 
perhaps abl. of specification, or respect. The subject of this histori- 
cal infinitive, as of the four preceding, is nostri. 

31. pugnae : the fighting. proelio : the battle. integris viri- 
bus : abl. of quality, or description. 

32. quarum . . . poterat : while nothing of this sort could be 
done by our men, by reason of their small numbers. 

33. non modo . . . sed ne . . . quidem: A. 217. e; B. 
343. 2. a ; G. 482. R. i ; H. 656. 3 ; HB. 299. The ne really belongs 
with dabatur, and hence its force supplies the extra negative which 
English idiom requires. Trans, not only was opportunity not given 
to one who was tired, but not even to a wounded man, etc. 

111 i. constiterat: had taken his stand, nearly equivalent to 
stabat, was standing. relinquendi : gerundive agreeing with loci. 

2. sui recipiendi : withdrawing, lit. taking himself back. A. 
504. c; B. 339. 5 ; G. 428. R. i ; H. 626. 3 ; HB. 614. 

V. 3. Cum pugnaretur: when the fight had been going on. 
This use of the imperfect is more common in the indicative. See A. 


471. b; B. 260. 4; G. 234; H. 535. I ; HB. 485. How many verbs 
depend on cum ? 

5. languidioribus nostris : abl. abs., causal. vallum scin- 
dere : i.e. to tear down the palisades on the top of the rampart. 

7. P. Sextius Baculus: cf. Bk. II, Chap. XXV. primi pili 
centurio : i.e. primipilus ; see Introd., p. 34. 

9. tribunus militum : see Introd., p. 33. virtutis : sc. mag- 
nae. Why ? A. 345 ; B. 203 ; G. 365 ; H. 440. 3 ; HB. 355. 

1 1 . extremum auxilium : to abandon camp and attempt to force 
a way to safety was a resource to be tried only when the situation 
became desperate. experirentur : subj. of ind. disc., standing 
for a fut. ind. ; una est spes salutis, si . . . experiemur. 

12. certiores facit: we have had this expression as one of say- 
ing ; here it is equivalent to a verb of commanding, and is followed 
by five subjunctives without ut, each representing an imperative. 
The English verb 'tell' has a similar double meaning. 

13. tela missa exciperent: receive (i.e. guard themselves 
against) the enemy's missiles, without throwing any. 

14. post : an adverb here. 

VI. 16. Quod: obj. of facere understood. 

17. sui conligendi: see note on sui recipiendi, 1. 2. 

18. qui . . . venerant: who had conceived (come into) the hope 
of capturing the camp. Ordinarily only transitive verbs are used in 
the gerundive construction. Cf. potiundi, p. 93, 1. 31. 

21. constabat : it was agreed; its subject is the clause quern nu- 
merum . . . venisse. plus tertia parte : more than a third. 

i. ne . . . quidem : there is a strong temptation here to ignore 112 
the usual rule about ne . . . quidem, and to place the emphasis on 
superioribus. Probably the meaning is that the enemy were allowed 
no foothold whatever. 

3. armis : abl. of separation with exutis, which is in the abl. abs. 
with copiis. 

4. saepius for tun am temptare : observe the emphasis on this 
phrase, causing it to precede the subject, Galba. 

5. alio . . . consilio, aliis . . . rebus : i.e. the design with 
which he had come had been one thing, the situation which he had 
met a quite different thing. The design is stated in Chap. I. Notice 
the absence of a connective (asyndeton) between the clauses. 

8. prohibente : trying to prevent him, abl. abs. with hoste. 

9. in Nantuatis: there were two cohorts here. Cf. p. 109, 
1. ii. 

This campaign really belongs to the year 57 B.C., and the story * 


PAGE should have formed a part of the previous book. But as it occurred 

112 after the close of the regular operations of 57, Caesar preferred to 
place the account of it at the beginning of a new book. 

VII. 12. Germanis: the hordes of Ariovistus. See the latter 
half of Bk. I and Introd., p. 12. 

13. in Illyricum : cf. Bk. II, Chap. XXXV. Caesar appears to 
have started before Galba's difficulties began. 

16. P. Crassus : cf. p. 88, 1. 26. 

17. mare Oceanum : i.e. the Atlantic. The ace. depends on 
proxi7nus. A. 432. a; B. 141. 3; G. 359. N. I ; H. 435. 2; HB. 
380. b. 

19. praefectos : see Introd., p. 34. 

20. quo in numero' : among whom. est missus : to be taken 

21. Esuvios, Coriosolites : look up these tribes on the map of 
Gaul . 

22. Venetos : this and the adjoining tribes in northwestern 
Gaul were classed together as civitates Aremoricae. For the 
meaning of Aremoricae see Vpcab. The region now is called 
Bretagne (Brittany). 

VIII. .23. omnis orae maritimae : i.e. of all the maritime 

24. quod et, et : because, in the first place, and also. The force 
of quod extends through antecedunt. 

25 . quibus : abl. of means, but trans, in 'which. in Britanniam : 
it is said that the Veneti already knew or suspected Caesar's purpose 
(carried out the next year) to visit Britain, and that they wished to 
prevent him from interfering with their trade with that island. 
consuerunt : are accustomed. Why should we not translate ' were 
accustomed ' ? 

27. maris vasti atque aperti : it was a very different kind of 
sea from the land-inclosed Mediterranean. paucis portibus in- 
teriectis : i.e. since there are only a few scattered harbors. 

28. vectigalis : pred. to omnis, the obj. of habent. These 
people were obliged to pay tribute to the Veneti for the use of their 

29. Ab . . . Velani : i.e. they began the detention of envoys by 
detaining Silius and Velanius. 

30. obsides : cf. Bk. II, Chap. XXXIV. 

113 i. Horum: observe the emphatic position of this pronoun, and 
notice the beginning of the two sentences before this. 

2. subita: Caesar often speaks of the changeableness of the 


Gauls, and the ease with which they were influenced to form new 
plans ; e.g. Bk. II, Chap. I, Bk. IV, Chap. V. 

4. acturos : sc. se and esse. The indirect discourse depends on 

5. reliquasque : -que here connects two verbs. What are 
they ? 

6. tit . . . malint: to wish rather to remain in that liberty 
which, etc., than to endure slavery at the hands of the Romans. 
acceperint : why subjunctive ? 

9. Si ... remittat : in the direct discourse, si vis tuos recu- 
perare, obsides nobis remitte. By suos are meant the officers who 
had been seized. 

IX. 12. longius : i.e. too far away to take action himself. He 
seems to have been in Illyricum. navis longas : see Introd., 
p. 51. Ships of burden were wide in proportion to their length. 

15. cum primum : followed by the indicative. A. 545 ; B. 287. i ; 
G. 561 ; H. 600. I ; HB. 557. a. See Introd., p. 13, for an impor- 
tant event in the life of Caesar, which occurred just before this time. 

17. in se admisissent : had taken upon themselves, i.e. had 

18. legates retentos ... coniectos : sc. esse. The clause 
explains /acinus, but takes the form of indirect discourse, as if de- 
pendent on intellegebant. quod nomen : a name -which. Subor- 
dinate military officers sent to procure grain could hardly be properly 
called legati, ambassadors ; but Caesar wishes to put the act of 
the Gauls in the worst possible light, to justify his own subsequent 

21. hoc maiore spe: with the greater hope (Jiope greater by 

22. quod . . . confidebant: explains hoc. natura : fido and 
confido generally take the ablative of things and the dative of 
persons. Find the rules in the grammar. 

23. aestuariis: see note on p. 105, 1. 10. 

26. confidebant : confidently believed. ac . . . acciderent : 
and even though everything should turn out contrary to their expec- 
tation. A. 527. a; B. 308; G. 608; H. 586. II ; HB. 532. 2. b. 

28. locorum : limits vada, portus* insulas. 

29. gesturi essent : the periphrastic conjugation is used because 
the subjunctive is required and the time to be expressed is distinctly 
future ; gererent might mean were waging. longe aliam atque : 
far other than (different from}. A. 407. d; B. 341. I. c; G. 643; 
H. 471. 6; HB. 307. 2. a. 


PAGE 30. concluso mari : what sea is meant ? 

113 3 2 - frumenta : see note on p. 64, 1. 26. 
33. primum : an adverb. 

114 4. posita est : is sfaiated. 

X. 7. iniuria retentorum equitum Romanorum : the in- 
justice of Roman knights detained^ i.e. of detaining Roman knights ; 
freely, the unjust detention of Roman knights. For use of participle 
see A. 497; B. 337. 6 (337. 5); G. 664. R. 2 ; H. 636. 4; HB. 
608. 2. For the meaning of equitum see note on p. 82, 1. i. 
rebellio : notice the derivation. 

8. in primis: especially r , lit. among the first {chief} things. 

9. ne . . . arbitrarentur : this clause, like the nominatives 
which precede, is in apposition with multa. We may translate the 
fear that the other nations might think, etc. hac parte neglecta : 
equivalent to a conditional clause. 

11. novis rebus studere : *were eager for revohition. 

12. natura: abl. of cause. 

13. odisse: hate. See A. 205. b; B. 133. 2; G. 175. 5; H. 
299.2; HB. 199. i. priusquam . . . conspirarent : before more 
states conspired (should conspire}. The verb was probably subjunc- 
tive in the direct form, implying a purpose on Caesar's part to get 
ahead of the plures civitates. A. 551. c; B. 292. i. b; G. 577; 
H. 605. I ; HB. 507. 4. b. 

14. partiendum: sc. esse ; the gerundive is passive, even in 
deponent verbs. 

XI. 1 6. in Treveros : the Treveri had been friendly to the Ro- 
mans. Cf. Bk. I, Chap. XXXVII, Bk. II, Chap. XXIV. 

17. mandat : the three subjunctives depending on this verb may 
be explained in the same way as those on p. in, 11. 13-15. 

1 8. Belgas : the Belgae had been subdued only the year before, 
and were still uneasy. No doubt the Veneti and other Aremo- 
rican states expected help from them. adeat: some compounds 
of eo may be used transitively. 

19. arcessiti: sc. esse. A. 582; B. 332. c; G. 528. i; H. 
6n. i ; HB. 590. i. 

20. P. Crassum: cf. p. 112, 1. 16. 

21. equitatus : cavalry would be useless in the operation against 
the sea-coast states. 

22. ne . . . coniungantur : clauses of purpose. The second 
continues the thought of the first, otherwise neve or neu would be 
used instead of ac. in Galliam : i.e. Celtic Gaul. 

25. qui . . . curet : to see that their forces were kept back. 



What literally ? For the construction of distinendam see A. 500. 4; 
B. 337. 8. b. 2 (337. 7. b. 2) ; G. 430; H. 622; HB. 612. III. 

26. D. Brutum : he afterwards became one of the conspira- 
tors against Caesar. 

27. Pictonibus : the name survives in the modern Poitiers. 

28. praeficit : observe the direct and indirect objects of this verb. 
cum possit: this forms apart of Caesar's order, and hence the 
subjunctive is used. 

29. pedestribus copiis : Caesar had eight legions. Read this 
chapter through carefully and see how many he retained with him- 
self. Some soldiers appear to have been placed on board the fleet. 

XII. 30. ut . . . haberent : a clause of result. 

31. pedibus : on foot, i.e. by land, abl. of means. 

32. quod: the rel. pron., referring to the clause cum . . . incita- 
visset. Id quod or quae res might have been used. 

33. navibus : by ship. quod . . . adflictarentur : because, 
when the tide ran out again, the ships would be stranded on the 
shoals, if they tried to approach. 

1. oppugnatio : how does this word differ in meaning from 
expugnatio ? 

2. superati: agrees with the subject of coeperant. 

3. extruso mari, his adaequatis : ablatives absolute explain- 
ing magnitudine operis. aggere ac molibus : "The forts were 
situated at the ends of spits or promontories, connected with the 
mainland by shoals, which, at high tide, were completely submerged. 
Caesar constructed dykes across the shoals, along v/hich the troops 
marched to attack the town. Before they could deliver the assault, 
however, the garrison took to their ships, and sailed away to the 
nearest fort. 1 ' (Holmes, " Caesar's Conquest of Gaul.") Another 
theory is that Caesar built two parallel walls, or dikes, between 
which the soldiers marched. moenibus : dat., depending on 

4. f ortunis : dat., depending on desperare. What other con- 
structions have occurred with this verb ? 

5. cuiusrei: equivalent to quarum, referring to navium. 

6. deportabant : would carry off. This and the following 
imperfects denote repeated action. 

7. eo facilius : the more easily, explained by the following quod- 

XIII. 12. ipsorum : their own. 

13. carinae aliquanto planiores : the hulls somewhat more flat- 
bottomed. It is unnecessary to supply a verb with this nominative.. 


PAGE 14. quo . . . possent: see note on p. 99. 1. 17. excipere: to 

115 take. The ships did not sink so far into the water as did those of 
the Romans. 

15. admodum: ' to the limit,' i.e. very. 

16. totae : trans, by an adverb, wholly, or throughout. 

17. ad ... perf erendam : how many different ways of express- 
ing purpose can you recall ? quamvis : from q^^.ivis, any whatever 
(lit. what you please}. 

1 8. transtra: the cross-beams which upheld the deck. The word 
often means rowers' 1 benches, but these ships did not employ rowers. 
pedalibus in altitudinem : afoot in thickness (Jieighf). 

19. crassitudine : abl. of quality, or description, limiting clavis. 
It is accompanied by a genitive, digiti pollicis, instead of the more 
usual adjective. pro funibus : for (instead of} ropes. 

20. pelles alutaeque: untanned skins and (pieces of) leather. 

21. eius usus : i.e. of the use of flax in the making of sails. 

22. quod . . . simile : which is more probable. veri : A. 
385. c. 2; B. 204. 3; G. 359. R. i. N. 4; H. 435. 4; HB. 339. c. 
quod . . . arbitrabantur : explains eo. The accusatives in this 
clause are subjects of. posse. 

23. tanta onera navium : for tanti oneris navis, such heavy ships. 

24. Cum . . . praestaret : the encounter of our fleet with these 
ships was such that it excelled in speed alone and (the force given 
by) the impulsion of oars. The Gallic ships had no oars. For 
dassi see A. 377 ; B. 188. i ; G. 350. I ; H. 425. 4 ; HB. 368. 

26. reliqua: (while) everything else. 

27. illis : i.e. navibus Venetorum. 

28. Neque . . . poteraut : for our ships could not harm them 
with the beak. See Introd., p. 51. Why is Us dative ? 

29. altitudinem: cf. erectae, 1. 15. 

30. adigebatur : could be (effectively) hurled. 

31. Accedebat ut : besides, or there was the additional fact that, 
lit. it was added that. Cf. accedebat quod, p. no, 1. 5. 

33. consisterent tutius : more safely rode at anchor. ab 
aestu : abl. of agent, used instead of abl. of means by a sort of 
personification. relictae : sc. naves. nihil: in no respect, not 
at all. 

34. quarum rerum omnium casus : i.e. all these .accidents. 

116 XIV. 3. neque . . . posse: and that no harm could be done 
to them. A. 372; B. 187. II. b; G. 217; H. 426. 3; HB. 364. 2. 

4. convenit : from the Loire, where it had been built. See 
Chap. IX. 


6. armorum: this word, like armamenfis in 1. 19, includes the 
entire equipment of the vessels, not merely weapons. ornatis- 
simae : thoroughly fitted out. profectae . . . constiterunt : 
sailed out of the harbor and came into position fronting our ships. 
This battle was probably fought in Quiberon Bay, near the mouth 
of the Auray River; but arguments .have been adduced to show 
that it took place farther south, between the mouths of the Loire 
and the Vilaine. 

7. tribunis centurionibus : military officers commanded the 
ships of the fleet. 

9. quid agerent : what they were to do. The direct form of this 
indirect question would be quid agamus ? what are we to do f A. 444 ; 
B. 277; G. 265 ; H. 559. 4; HB. 503. 

10. noceri: sc. navibus (dat.) hostium. turribus excitatis, 
has : more regular would be turris excitatas as object of super abat, 
but this expression is clearer. See the illustration, p. 51. 

11. ex navibus : of the ships. 

12. neque : correlative to et,\.i-$,both . . . not . . . and; but 
it is well to omit both in translating. inferiors loco : i.e. the tops 
of the towers. 

13. erat magno usui : was of great use. 

14. falces : in apposition with res. 

15. longuriis : dat., depending on insertae and adfixae. non 
. . . falcium : of a shape not unlike that of wall-hooks. The abl. 
limits falces. For murales falces see Introd., p. 49. His: sc. 
falcibus, abl. of means, or instrument. cum comprehensi ad- 
ductique erant, praerumpebantur : A. 542, 518. b; B. 288. 3; 
G. 567, 584 ; H. 539. 2 ; HB. 579. 

1 6. furies : halyards, by which the yard was held in place or 
raised or lowered. 

17. navigio : does this mean a Roman or a Gallic ship ? 

1 8. cum: causal. Gallicis navibus: for the case cf. classi, 
p. 115, 1.25. 

19. his ereptis : abl. abs., expressing time. 

23. nullum . . . factum: no deed a little braver (than the ordi- 
nary), no specially brave deed. 

24. propinquus despectus in mare: a near view of (lit. 
downlook upoti) the sea. 

XV. 2.6. cum circumsteterant : cf. cum . . . comprehensi 
adductique erant, 1. 15. singulas : sc. navis hostium. Notice the 
three distributive numerals. 

27. circumsteterant: from circumsisto. transcendere in: 


PAGE t b oa rd. The Roman soldiers were much more skilful in fighting 

116 than in naval nianoeuvering. On board the ships of the enemy the 
conflict became a hand-to-hand fight. 

28. Quod: and . . . that this, subject of fieri. 

29. compluribus : very likely the ships of the Gauls out- 
numbered those of the Romans. 

31. in earn partem: in that direction. quo: i.e. in quam 

32. malacia ac tranquillitas : on the coast of Brittany the wind 
in summer often dies down about midday. se movere: the Eng- 
lish verb ' move ' may be either transitive or intransitive. 

117 i. interventu: abl. of time and cause. 

2. cum pugnaretur: the battle having lasted, more literally 
when the battle had been going on. hora quarta : about 9 A.M. 
Into how many hours did the Romans divide the day ? The time of 
year of this battle was probably late August or early September. 

XVI. 5. cum, turn : not only, but also. iuventus : equivalent 
to iuvenes, i.e. all of military age. 

6. aliquid consili: something of wisdom, i.e. some wisdom. 

7. navium quod fuerat: whatever) of ships there had been, 
i.e. all the ships which they had had; obj. of coegerant. 

8. quo . . . habebant: had no place to which they could betake 
themselves, nor any way of defending (Jww they might defend} their 
towns. For the subjunctives see A. 531. 2; B. 282. 2; G. 631. 2; 
H. 591. i ; HB. 517. 2. 

11. vindicandum: sc. esse, punishment must be inflicted. 
quo diligentius : why is quo used, instead of ut f 

12. ius legatorum : see note on quod nornen, p. 113, 1. 18. 

13. senatu: Caesar applies the Roman name to the Gallic 
council of leaders. sub corona : into slavery. Captives were 
crowned with chaplets when sold as slaves. The selling was in 
charge of the quaestor. 

After this war no important naval power was left in Transalpine 

XVII. 14. Sabinus: cf. p. 114, 1. 23. 

1 8. copias: troops, not organized into a regular army. his 
paucis diebus : within a few days, i.e. just before the arrival of 
Sabinus. Aulerci Eburovices : there were several divisions of 
the Aulerci. See the map of Gaul. 

19. senatu interfecto: the senates, it appears, were between 
two fires. We remember how Caesar treated the senate of the 


22. perditorum hominum: scoundrels. quos : i.e. ii conve- 
ner ant quos. 

24. omnibus rebus: abl. of specification, or respect. loco 
castris : both may be explained as locative ablatives. 

25. spatio : abl. of degree, or measure, of difference with contra. 

27. ut . . . veniret : this clause of result evidently cannot de- 
pend on facer 'et. On what does it depend ? hostibus : in the eyes 
of the enemy, a dat. of reference. 

28. nostrorum . . . carperetur: was criticized somewhat in 
our soldiers' 1 talk (by the voices of our soldiers) . 

29. opinionem praebuit : produced an impression. 
31. eo : the man, i.e. Caesar. 

1. teneret : subj. because subordinate in ind. disc. 

2. legato: A. 374; B. 189. i ; G. 355 ; H. 431 ; HB. 373. I. 

XVIII. 4. auxili causa : as auxiliaries. 

6. uti . . . transeat : to go across. 

7. quibus . . . prematur: ind. quest., depending on docet. 

8. neque . . . educat : lit. and that it ivas not farther off", 
that on the next night Sabinus would lead, etc., or, more shortly, 
and that not later than the next night Sabinus would lead. The 
wz-clause is subject of abesse, which is in ind. disc, depending on 
docet. A. 558 ; B. 298 ; G. 555 ; H. 595. i ; HB. 502. 3. b. 

9. proxima nocte : abl. of time. 

12. iri: observe the impersonal passive; it depends on oportere, 
which is also impersonal. Trans, they ought to go. 

13. Multae res: five are named, the last being the clause quod 
. . . credunt. 

1 5 . cui rei erat provisum : for which provision had been made. 
spes Venetici belli : their hopes regarding the war with the 

Veneti. Cf. especially 11. 7, 8. 

1 6. quod homines credunt : the fact that men believe. 

17. non prius quam : not sooner than, i.e. not . . . until. 

1 8. sit concessum : permission had been granted. See A. 
551. b. N. 2 ; B. 292 ; G. 577. 2. N. 2 ; H. 605. I ; HB. 507. 4. c. 

19. ut: as if. The abl. abs. expresses a condition. 

20. quibus compleant: with which to fill zip, a rel. clause of 

XIX. 22. acclivis : rising, or sloping upward. 

23. mille : an adj. quam minimum : as little as possible. 
25. cupientibus : dat., sc. Us or militibus. 

27. Factum est : what is its subject ? 

30. ac : biit. When a negative clause is followed by an affirm- 


PAGE ative which carries on the thought of the negative clause, 'and' 

118 is often used in Latin where English idiom requires 'but.' Quos, 
eorum : these refer to the same persons. 

32. equites : nom. ex fuga : from the general rout. 
35. Titurio : who was Titurius ? How many names did a Roman 
regularly have ? A. 108 ; B. 373. I ; G. p. 493 ; H. 354. 3 ; HB. 678, 

Nam. ut . . . est : for though (lit. as) the spirit of the Gauls is 
quick and ready, etc., yet (lit. so) their will is weak and very far 
from firm to endure disasters. 

119 XX. 3. Aquitaniam : see Introd., p. 23. 

4. tertia pars : a glance at the map will show that this estimate 
was far from exact. 

6. L. Valerius Praeconinus : nothing more is known of him 
than is stated here. 

7. proconsul : i.e. governor. Manlius was defeated in 78 B.C. 
by an army commanded by a subordinate of Sertorius, a Roman 
general who fought in Spain against his country. 

10. comparato : agrees^ with equitatu, but is to be taken with 
auxiliis as well. viris : abl. abs. with evocatis. See Introd., p. 34. 

Tolosa : Tolosa (modern Toulouse) was a town of Gallic origin. 

11. Narbone : Narbo (modern Narbonne) was a Roman colony, 
founded in 118 B.C. It was an important commercial city. G-al- 
liae provinciae : gen., limiting civitates. 

18. ostenderunt: i.e. brought into action. 

XXI. 20. victoriis: A. 431. a; 6.218.3; G. 401. N. 6; H. 
476. i ; HB. 432. 

21. nostri autem : while our men, on the other hand. quid . . . 
possent : an ind. quest., grammatically the subject of the inf. 

22. adulescentulo : a mere boy, diminutive of adulescens. Ob- 
serve in this sentence the important distinction between imperator 
and dux. 

24. ex itinere : cf. p. 92, 1. 30. 

25. Quibus : and since they, i.e. the Sotiates in the town. The 
town is thought to have been the one now called Sos (from Sotiates) . 

26. cuniculis : these were to enable the Sotiates to destroy, by 
fire or otherwise, the agger and vineae. See Introd., pp. 47-50. 

27. cuius rei : in which, i.e. the digging of mines or tunnels. 

28. aerariae secturaeque : copper-mines and quarries, prob- 
ably, though the meaning of secturae is not altogether certain. 

29. diligentia, rebus : are these two ablatives of the same kind? 
31. faciunt: i.e. anna tradunt. 


XXII. 2. Adiatunnus cum sescentis devotis : it will be 
necessary to look forward a long way to find anything with which to 
connect these words ; so far, in fact, that they are repeated in cum 
his Adiatunnus, 1. 9. What conies between is a long parenthesis 
describing the devoti. In idiomatic original English this description 
would probably come after the narrative part of the chapter. The 
narrative might run, perhaps, somewhat as follows : ' While the 
attention of all our men was fixed *on this proceeding, Adiatunnus, 
who held supreme command, with six hundred devoted followers, 
whom they call solditrii, tried to make a sally from another part of 
the town. A shout was raised from that part of the fortifications. 
The soldiers ran to arms', and after a fierce contest Adiatunnus was 
driven back,' etc. Let the student complete the translation in this 
way, making two or three sentences of the description of the 

4. condicio : position. ut : introduces three verbs, fruantur, 
ferant, consciscant. The clauses are substantive clauses explaining 
condicio. in vita : the position of this phrase, between omnibus 
and commodis, gives it almost the force of an adjective. com- 
modis : why ablative ? 

5. dediderint: subj. by attraction. si quid: if anything. 
his : i.e. the men to whose friendship the soldurii have devoted 

6. una: together (with them) . 

8. qui . . . recusaret: A. 535. a; B. 283. 2; 0.631.2; H. 
591. i ; HB. 521. i. 

12. uti . . . uteretur: obj. of impetravit. Crassus dealt more 
leniently with Adiatunnus than Caesar had dealt with the Atuatuci. 
Cf. Bk. II, Chap. XXXIII. 

XXIII. 1 6. paiicis diebus quibus : within the few days 'with- 
in which. In force quibus nearly equals postquam, and may be 
translated after. A. 423 ; B. 231 ; G. 393 ; H. 488. 3 ; HB. 550. c. 

17. expugnatum : sc. esse. 

20. citerioris Hispaniae : Hither Spain comprised that part 
of Spain extending from the Pyrenees Mountains to the Hiberus 
(Ebro) River. finitimae : nom. Aquitaniae : dat. 

21. magna-cum auctoritate : abl. of manner, while magna 
multitudine is abl. of means. Both are to be connected with 
helium gerere. 

23. Q. Sertorio : see note on p. 119, 1. 7. 

24. omnis annos : the Sertorian War lasted for about ten years, 
ending with the assassination of Sertorius in 72 B.C. 



PAGE 26. castra munire : until taught by Roman example, the Gauls 

120 did not intrench their temporary camps. 

27. Quod ubi : so when, lit. as to which thing when. Cf. the 
common quod si, but if. 

30. in dies : from day to day. 

31. non . . . decertaret: he thought he must not delay to fight 
a decisive battle, lit. fight it out with a battle. For the 07#!-clause 
see note on p. 118, 1. 8. It is subject of cunctandum (esse). 

32. consilium : a council of war. 

121 XXIV. i . duplici acie : thus his twelve cohorts would present 
a wider front than if drawn up in a triplex acies. See Introd., 

P- 44- 

2. auxiliis : the auxilia were usually placed on the wings. 

3. caperent : would adopt. veterem : old-time. 

4. tuto : an adverb. A. 214. e; B. 77. 2 ; G. 91. 2. c; H. 
307. 2; HB. 126. 3. 

5. obsessis viis, commeatu intercluso: ablatives absolute, 
expressing means. 

7. impeditos : sc. eos, i.e. Romanes. 

8. animo : in spirit, with infirmiores. adoriri: though not 
strictly in indirect discourse, this verb expresses indirectly the 
thought of the enemy, and hence throws the dependent verb coepis- 
sent into the subjunctive. 

1 1 . sua : can this refer to Crassus ? opinione timoris : i.e. 
apparent fear. Their conduct led the Romans to believe that they 
were afraid. 

13. exspectari . . . iretur: that they ought not to delay longer 
about going against the camp. The three verbs, exspectari, opor- 
tere, and iretur, are all impersonal. What is the subject of exspec- 

15. contendit: some troops were left in camp, as we see from 
Chap. XXVI. 

XXV. 18. quibus : dat, see note on natura, p. 113, 1. 22. 
lapidibus telisque subministrandis : by handing stones and 
weapons ; gerundive construction, abl. of means. 

20. opinionem pugnantium praeberent : produced the impres- 
sion of fighting men, not ' of fighting,' which would be expressed by 

21. non timide: an example of the common rhetorical figure 
known as litotes. Cf. non frustra in the next line. ex loco 
superiore : the rampart and the high ground of the camp. 

22. circumitis castris : freely, having ridden around the camp. 


23. eadem diligentia : abl. of manner. ab decumana porta : PAGE 
i.e. on the side where the decuman gate was. Where was the decu- 121 
mana porta situated? 

XXVI. 27. devectis : having been brought over from the 
Roman camp. 

28. praesidio castris : both are dative. relictae : a participle 
expressing cause. intritae : an adj. 

29. circumductis : with Us cohortibus. 

31. munitiones : i.e. the part near the decuman gate. prius : 
do not translate this until qiiam is reached, then translate pritts 
quam together before. 

32. videri : sc. possent, from posset of the next line. The indica- 
tive here would simply state a fact. The subjunctive hints at the 
desire or purpose of the Romans to escape notice. Always try to 
see the meaning of a mood or a case. That is more important than 
a mere classification. 

1. quod: a thing which, or as. The antecedent of qtiod is 122 
the idea contained in the words redintegratis viribits. 

2. consuevit : is wont. 

5. apertissimis campis : abl. of the way, or route, but with an 
implication of cause. Because the country was open, the cavalry 
could easily hunt down the fugitives. ex numero : connect this 
with quarta parte. * 

6. quae : ace., subject of convenisse. Its antecedent is milium. 

7. multa nocte : late at night. 

XXVII. ii. paucae ultimae nationes : a few very remote 

XXVIII. 14. exacta erat : was ended. 

1 6. essent, misissent : subjunctives of characteristic. 

18. exercitum: i.e. six legions and eight cohorts, if Sabinus 
with his three legions had rejoined Caesar. Cf. Chap. XL qui : 
the Morini, whom alone, it appears, Caesar actually attacked. alia 
ac : other than (differ ettt frorti). See note on p. 113, 1. 29. 

19. quod : introduces two verbs. 

20. continentis : of wide extent. 

24. opere : i.e. the building and fortifying of the camp. 

25. evolaverunt: sc. hostes as subject. 
27. longius : rather too far, with sec^lti. 

XXIX. 29. deinceps : aa, adverb, but its position makes it 
nearly equivalent to an adjective, successive. 

30. quis : with impetus. 

32. conversant ad hostem : the tops of the trees were outside, 


PAGE the butts inside. pro vallo: as a rampart on either side, as he 
123 advanced into the forest. 

2. extrema impedimenta : the rear of the baggage-train. 

3. eius modi : of such a sort, i.e. so violent. 

5. sub pellibus : winter was approaching, and a permanent 
camp, with warmer, drier quarters than skin-covered tents, was 
necessary for soldiers who came from Italy. 

7. exercitum reduxit : i.e. from the Morini. 

8. reliquis civitatibus : the Venelli and others. 


124 I. i. annus : owing to the confusion of the calendar, the offi- 

cial beginning of the year, January I, actually fell in November. 
Hence this entire winter was included in the year of the consulship 
of Pompey and Crassus. See Introd., pp. n, 13. 

3. Rhenum transierunt: German hordes from across the 
Rhine formed a constant menace to Roman power in Gaul. 

4. quo : into which. 

8. centum pagos : this probably refers to the separate com- 
munities, members of which were connected by ties of blood. 

11. anno post: a year later, that next year. Why is anno 
ablative ? 

12. ratio atque usus : system and practice. 

13 . privati agri : the land was occupied and cultivated in common. 

15. maximam partem : mostly. A. 397. a; B. 185. i; G. 
328. i. b; H. 416. 2; HB. 387. III. 

16. quae res : and this manner of life. 

17. a pueris: from childhood. nullo officio: A. 409; B. 
222. A (218. 7) ; G. 401. N. 2 ; H. 476. 3 ; HB. 431. 

19. et . . . efficit : both feeds their strength and makes (thei) 
men of gigantic size of body. 

20. consuetudinem : explained by the following substantive 

21. neque: correlative to et. haberent: have. The present, 
or definite, perfect usually takes the secondary sequence. 

23. lavarentur : bathe', passive used reflexively. Compare the 
middle voice in Greek. A.i56.a; 6.256.1; G.2i8; H-5i7;HB. 
288. 3. 

II. 24. Mercatoribus : see note on p. 98, 1. 17. ut . . . 
habeant : a conjunction or relative regularly is to be taken with the 


verb which comes next after it ; but if another relative or conjunc- PAGE 
tion intervenes, the verb of the latter will precede that of the 124 
former. Here, therefore., ut must introduce habeant, which is a 
subjunctive of purpose. 

25. quibus vendant: (those} to 'whom they may sell. quam 
quo desiderent : than because they desire, a reason introduced ex- 
pressly to deny it. The comparative implies denial, magis quam 
being nearly equivalent to non. A. 540. 2. N. 3 ; B. 286. I. b; G. 
541. N. 2; H. 588. II. 2; HB. 535. 2. b. 

1. iumentis : abl. with utimtur. quibus: abl. with delect antnr. 125 

2. pretio: A. 416; 6.225; 0.404; H. 478; HB. 427. I. 
importatis : "contrasted with quae . . . nata. 

4. haec ut sint efficiunt: these they make (to be). laboris : 
capacity for work, a pred. gen. of quality, or description. 

5. pedibus : on foot, abl. of manner; cf. p. 114, 1. 31. 

8. ephippiis : the ancients did not use true saddles or stirrups. 

9. quemvis : whatever, ace. of qui-vis. quamvis : an adverb, 
limiting paucL 

10. adire : i.e. in a hostile encounter. Vinum : compare a 
similar statement about the Nervii, Bk. II, Chap. X.V. The drink 
of the Germans was a kind of beer. 

III. 1 6. Publics: i.e. to them as a state. 

18. vacare agros : for the lands to lie waste, subject of esse. 

22. una ex parte : in one direction, but notice carefully the Latin 

23. succedunt Ubii : the Ubii were a little south of Cologne. 

24. captus : capacity, i.e. for dignity and prosperity (cf. ampla 
atqueflorens~). paulo : with humaniores. 

26. ventitant: A. 263. 2. a; B. I5'5. 2. a; G. 191. A. i ; H. 
364. i ; HB. 212. i. N. 

27. Gallicis moribus adsuefacti: used to Gallic ways. See 
note on millo officio, p. 124, 1. 17. 

30. humiliores redegerunt: reduced (so that they were) less 
important, i.e. rendered less important. 

For a further description of Germany and the Germans see Bk. 
VI, Chaps. XXI-XXVIII, and also the "Germania" of Tacitus. 

IV. 32. causa : case, or sittiation. 

2. quas regiones : the district which. 126 

5. trans flumen: i.e. from the standpoint of Gaul. 

6. praesidiis : this word is used especially of bodies of troops 
detailed to defend some point. 

7. vi contendere : force their way across. 


PAGE 9. reverti se : ind. disc., depending on simulaverunt. 

126 ii. equitatu: abl. of means. The foot-soldiers, women, and 
children of course returned more slowly. 

15. certior fieret : could be informed. 

17. se . . . aluerunt: lived on their supplies. 

V. 20. nihil his committendum : that nothing ought to be left 
to them. Caesar's action is given in the next chapter. 

21. Est . . . consuetudinis : for there is this Gallic custom ', 
consuetudinis is pred. gen. uti: introduces four verbs, cogant, 
guaerant, circumsistat, cogat. 

22. quaque : abl. fern, of quisque. 

26. quorum . . . est: of which they must repent (lit. it must 
repent them) immediately. A. 354. b ; B. 209. I ; G. 377 ; H. 457 ; 
HB. 352. i. Observe that eos is object oipaenitere, not subject. 

27. rumoribus : dat. 

28. ad ... ficta : things made up to their wish. 

VI. 29. ne . . . occurreret : that he might not have to meet a 
more dangerous war, a war from Gauls and Germans united. 

30. ad exercitum : apparently Caesar had spent the winter, as 
usual, in Cisalpine Gaul. 

31. ea . . . cognovit: he found that his suspicions had been 
realized, lit. he found that those things had been done -which he had 
suspected would take place. 

32. missas : notice its emphatic position. 

127 i. ab Rheno discedereiit : i.e. come farther into Gaul from the 
Rhine. Omnia . . . parata: depends on invitatos; they had been 
invited with the promise that everything, etc. 

2. fore parata : nearly equivalent to paratum zrz, fut. pass. inf. 

3. Eburonum et Condrusorum : these were so-called German 
tribes living among the Belgae. They may have been late immi- 
grants from the eastern bank of the Rhine. The Eburones caused 
Caesar much trouble the next year. 

4. Principibus evocatis : Caesar held such meetings of the 
leading men of Gaul from time to time. 

6. imperato : having been levied. The number of Caesar's 
horsemen in this campaign is given in Chap. XII as 5000. 

VII. 9. audiebat : notice the tense. News kept coming to him. 

11. neque priores : i.e. they were not acting on the offensive. 
With this speech compare that of Ariovistus, Bk. I, Chap. XLIV. 

12. neque tamen: but yet . . . not. 

13. quin contendant : to fight. 

14. quicumque . . . deprecari: to resist those who (lit. who- 


ever) made war itpon them and not to try to beg off. Why is PAGE 
infer ant subjunctive ? 127 

15. dicere : sc. se as subject invitos : do not confuse this 
word with invitatos. 

17. attribuant: let them assign, probably imperative (attribrtite) 
in the direct form, though possibly subjunctive. 

1 8. possederint: from possido. unis Suebis : to the Suebt 

19. reliquum . . . possint: in the direct form reliquus quidem 
in terris est nemo quern non superare possimus. The last verb is 
subjunctive of characteristic. The order of words shows the chief 
emphasis to be on reliquum, there was no one else. 

VIII. 21. visum est: sc. respondere as subject. exitus: 
the conclusion. 

23. verum : just. suos . . . potuerint : this alludes to the 
words elect os domo, 1. 15. 

24. alienos: the possessive of alms. A. 113. d; B. 354. 4; G. 
108 5 H. 93. 3 ; HE. 339. a. occupare : its subject is the omitted 
antecedent of qui. 

26. Ubiorum finibus : see note on p. 125, 1. 23. 

IX. 30. post diem tertium : on the next day but one. pro- 
plus se: the comparative propius takes an accusative, like the 
positive prope. Cf. proximus mare, p. 112, 1. 17. 

i. trans Mosam: they must have crossed to the west bank of 128 
the Meuse, but the exact location of the Ambivariti is unknown. 

X. 5 . Vacalus : now the Waal. It is larger in volume than the 
northern arm of the Rhine. insulam Batavorum: the island is 
bounded on the north by the northern arm of the Rhine, on the south 
by the Waal and the Meuse, and on the west by what is now the 
North Sea. See the map. inde : i.e. from the eastern end of the 

7. longo spatio : in a long course. 

8. Nantuatium: the Nantuates previously spoken of (Bk. 
Ill, Chap. I) dwelt near Lake Geneva and the Rhone. The 
tribe here meant may have been a branch or offshoot of the 

9. citatus : trans, by an adverb, swiftly. 

13. multis capitibus : by many mouths. Either end of a river 
might be called cap^lt, but the word was more often applied to the 

XI. 1 6. congress! : sc. cum Caesar e. 

19. sibi pot est at em faceret mittendi: give them an oppor- 


PAGE tumty to send. legates mittendi: what would this be if the 

128 gerundive were used instead of the gerund ? 

20. fidem fecisset : gave (should have given} a pledge. 

21. ferretur : Caesar's proposal is given in the last three lines of 
Chap. VIII. 

22. daret : this represents an imperative of the direct form. 

23. eodemillo: to that same point, explained by the following 

24. qui: the antecedent of this pronoun is not eorum. 

26. quam frequentissimi : these words indicate that Caesar 
already had in mind the plan which he afterwards executed. 

29. qui nuntiarent : (inen*) to say. et : but. 

31. accessisset: this is subordinate to sustinerent, which rep- 
resents a command. In the direct form it was either a future 
perfect indicative or a perfect subjunctive denoting anticipation or 

129 XII. 3. equites: obj. of haberent ', its case is not affected by 
the comparative ampfats. 

6. indutiis : for a truce. impetu facto : this attack, which 
was probably made without the orders of the German leaders, gave 
Caesar an excuse for his act of treachery. 

7. rursus his resistentibus : when the latter rallied. 

8. suffossis equis : may be translated actively, stabbing the 
horses from below, or in the belly. 

9. ita perterritos : in such terror. egerunt : the German 
cavalry was very effective. Caesar afterwards made considerable use 
of German cavalry and tactics. Cf. Bk. I, Chap. XLVIII, and see 
Introd., p. 30. 

12. Piso Aquitanus : a foreigner who received Roman citizen- 
ship usually took the name of the person from whom he received it. 
Probably that was the case with Piso. genere : A. 403. a ; B. 
215; G-395; H.469. 2; HB. 413. 

13. reguum: monarchy was disappearing in Gaul in Caesar's 


16. quoad: as long as, not as on p. 128, 1. 30. A. 555; B. 
293. II; G. 569; H. 603. I; HB. 550. 

1 8. procul : from a distance. incitato . . . est: spurring on 
his horse, he dashed upon the enemy and was slain. 

XIII. 22. per dolum: it is quite possible that the German 
cavalry had not heard of the truce. Caesar wishes to excuse and 
justify his action of the next day. 

23. dura . . . auger entur : until the enemy's forces should be 


increased. A. 553; B. 293. III. 2; G. 572,- H. 603. II. 2; HB. PAGE 

57- 5- 129 

24. summae dementiae : the height of madness, lit. of the 
highest madness. A. 343. c ; B. 203. 5 ; G. 366 ; H. 447 ; HB. 355. 

26. auctoritatis : with quantum. quibus : i.e. the Gauls. 

28. consilio: his purpose, explained by the clause ne . . . prae- 

30. quod . . . venerunt : explains opportunissima res. 

33. purgandi sui causa: to clear themselves. A. 504. c; B. 
339.5; G. 428. R. i ; H. 626. 3; HB. 614. contra atque: con- 
trary to what. Cf. the use of atque with alius. The subjunctive is 
due to the fact that Caesar is giving the reason assigned by the 

1. ut . . . impetrarent : that, if they could (get) anything, 130 
they might by deceiving get (something) in regard to a truce. This 
translation will show the construction. 

2. Quos : subject of oblatos (esse). The clause depends on 
gavisus. A. 572. b; B. 331. V; G. 533; H. 614; HB. 594. 

3. retineri: to be detained. This was treachery on Caesar's 
part, for the Germans came at his request. An enemy of Caesar, 
Cato, proposed in the Roman senate that Caesar should be given up 
to the Germans for this breach of faith. 

XIV. 6. Acie triplici: see Introd., p. 44. 

7. quid ageretur: ind. quest., obj. of s -entire. 

8. omnibus rebus : partially explained by the following 

9. suorum : i.e. those who had gone to Caesar's camp. 

10. consili habendi: for holding a coimcil of war. pertur- 
bantur, -ne . . . an : were in great perplexity as to whether 
. . . or. 

13. pristini diei : of the day before. 

17. domo excesserant : had emigrated. 

XV. 20. clamore : sc. puerorum mulierumque. 

22. confluentem Mosae et Rheni : if this reading is right, the 
point meant is probably the junction of the Meuse and Waal. Cf. 
Chap. X. But there are rather strong reasons for thinking that this 
massacre of the Germans actually took place farther up the Rhine, 
in the neighborhood of Coblenz. If so, Mosae must be a mistake 
for Mosellae. 

25. ad unurn omnes incolumes : without the loss of a man. 
That incolumes does not here mean ' safe and sound ' is shown by 
the words which follow it. 


PAGE 26. ex: after. 

130 27. ccccxxx milium : probably an excessive estimate. 
31. libertatem : permission to do so. 

The sacrifice of life in this campaign was enormous ; the. Ger- 
mans were thoroughly cowed, and gave no further trouble. These 
two tribes were not annihilated, as we see from the next chapter. 
Besides the cavalry who escaped, there were also, no doubt, some 
survivors from the battle. 

131 XVI. 2. suis quoque rebus : for their own possessions, too. 
cum intellegerent : when they shoidd learn. The use of the 
subjunctive is due to the fact that the clause represents Caesars 
thought, 'They will fear when (if) they shall learn.' 

4. Accessi,t quod : there was the additional reason that. 
9. eos . . . dederent : that they should give up to him those 
who, etc. 

11. si se invito existimaret : direct, si te invito existimas. 

12. cur . . . postularet: why should he ask. that anything 
across the Rhine be subject to his authority or power. The verb pos- 
tularet is in the subjunctive because this is a question in indirect dis- 
course. sui imperi: pred. gen. of possession. 

15. legates miseraut: cf. p. 127, 1: 27. 

18. Id : does this refer to exercitum f 

21. ad: among; the reputation had spread to the remotest tribes. 

22. tuti esse : be protected. 

XVII. 27. suae dignitatis : consistent with his dignity, a pred. 


29. proponebatur : presented itself. 

30. id contendendum : that that effort (i.e. to build a bridge) 
must be made. 

32. Tigna . . . iungebat: logs a foot and a half in thickness, 
sharpened a little at the bottom (and~) of lengths corresponding 
to the varying depths of the river, he joined in pairs at a dis- 
tance of two feet from each other. bina : two by two, i.e. in pairs. 

dimensa : passive in meaning, though from a deponent. Cf. di~ 
menso, p. TOO, 1. 27. 

33. intervallo : for the case see A. 412; B. 221; G. 399; 
H. 473. 3 ; HB. 422. I. 

132 i. cum : whenever, or after. See note on cum, etc., p. 1 16, 1. 15. 

machinationibus : the machinatio probably consisted of a pair 
of rafts fastened together, with an open space between. Over this 
open space and supported by both rafts would be erected a scaffold- 
ing with tackle for holding and letting down the logs, and ma- 


chin ery for driving them home. immissa defixerat: had let PAGE 
down and set. 132 

2. modo : not the adverb. derecte ad perpendiculum : 
straight to the plummet. 

3. prone ac f astigate : leaning forward and sloping like the 
rafters in a gable-roof.. ut . . . procumberent : a clause of 
result. secundum naturam : with -the cztrrent. 

4. duo : sc. tigna, obj. of statuebat. 

5. intervallo : connect this with statuebat. quadragenum : 
A. 49. d; B. 63. 2 (25. 6) ; G. 97. R. I ; H. 169; HB. 71. 4. All 
things considered, it is most reasonable to believe that the forty feet 
were measured at the surface of the water. If so, the distance at 
the top, fixing the width of the bridge, would be less than this. 
ab inferiore parte : sc. fluminis, down-stream. 

6. Haec utraque : these two fairs. 

. 7. trabibus immissis : abl. abs. quantum . . . distabat: 
explains immissis, i.e. the beams were let in from above as far as the 
cross-tie (iunctura) was distant from the top of the pier made of 
the two logs. Some, perhaps rightly, connect the clause with 
bipedalibus and explain it to mean equal to the distance between 
the logs, lit. as much as the joining of those logs stood apart. 

8. binis . . . distinebantur : were held apart (kept from 
falling towards each other) at the top by a pair of fasteners on either 
side. It is entirely uncertain what ^& fibulae were. The form 
shown in the picture would be effective, and this form seems to fit 
Caesars description as well as any that has been proposed. Cross- 
pieces are placed in the acute angles formed by the pier and the two- 
foot beam on the up-stream side of the bridge, and these are 
fastened together by strong ropes or bands of iron. Others, simi- 
larly fastened together, are placed in the obtuse angles formed by 
the pier and the beam on the down-stream side of the bridge. 
A little reflection will show that the force of the current of the river, 
causing the up-stream pier to bend farther away from the perpen- 
dicular and the down-stream pier to become more nearly vertical, 
will tend to carry these cross-pieces farther apart and stretch and 
tighten the rope or metal fastenings. Cf. 11. 10-12. 

9. quibus . . . revinctis : and as these (the opposite pairs of 
logs) -were thus kept apart and furthermore made fast in the appo- 
site direction, i.e. so that they would not pull apart. 

10. ea: sitch. 

n. quo . . . hoc: the . . . the. 

12. Haec : the trestles, each consisting of two piers with the con- 



PAGE necting beam. The wi'dth of the river was probably about one 

132 fourth of a mile. If we assume that the trestles were twenty-five 
feet apart, fifty to sixty would be needed. The building of the suc- 
cessive trestles is indicated by the imperfects of the description. 
derecta . . . contexebantur : were connected (woven together) 
by joists laid on straight, i.e. lengthwise of the bridge. 

13. cratibus : these took the place of flooring. nihilo setius : 
i.e. though the work was so strong, yet. 

14. oblique agebantur : these words seem to mean that the 
sublicae were driven in so as to lean not directly against the cur- 
rent of the river, but diagonally athwart the current. pro ariete 
subiectae : placed underneath as a prop, but where and how they 
were placed can only be conjectured. Certainly an effective arrange- 
ment would have been that shown in the picture. Sublicae placed 
this way would not only brace the bridge against lateral swaying 
caused by the current, but also counteract longitudinal movement 
of the. bridge. 

1 6. aliae supra pontem : these sublicae were probably vertical. 
There may have been a continuous line of them across the river, or, 
more likely, two or three in front of each trestle, perhaps as in the 

1 8. neu : regularly used for et ne. 

This bridge was probably built near Neuwied, eight miles north of 
Coblenz, which is at the confluence of the Rhine and Moselle. 
Napoleon placed it at Bonn, and various other places have been 
fixed upon by others. In the dredging of the river near Neuwied 
remains of piles have been found, which are thought to have be- 
longed to this bridge. Somewhat less than a mile up-stream other 
piles have been found, and excavations near the river reveal the 
remains of fortifications. These are thought to belong to the bridge 
and fortifications built by Caesar at the time of his second crossing 
of the river, two years after the first crossing. See Bk. VI, Chaps. 
IX and XXIX. 

133 XVIII. i. quibus: after, lit. within which; see note on p. 
120, 1. 16. materia: do not translate this 'material.' coepta 
erat: notice that this verb is regularly passive when the infini- 
tive depending on it is passive. 

3. praesidio : see note on p. 126, 1. 6. A castellum'wzs no doubt 
built at each end of the bridge. 

7. quo: when. 

8. ex ... TTsipetibus : the cavalry and the survivors from the 
battle described in Chaps. XIV and XV. 


XIX. 5. auxilium suum pollicitus : i.e. se 'auxilium latiirum PAGE 
Pollicitns', hence the subjunctive premerentur, which stands for a 134 
future indicative. 

9. omnes : subject of convenirent. 
ii. medium : in the center, a pred. adj. 

13. constituisse : sc. S^lebos as subject. rebus : explained by 
the following z//-clauses. 

15. ulcisceretur : for their insolence. Cf. p. 131, 11. 8-14. 

1 6. obsidione : from oppression. 

1 8. profectum: from proficio ; its subject is satis. 

Not until many years later were the Germans conquered in their 
own country by the Romans. We shall meet with the Suebi and 
the Ubii again in Bk. VI. 

XX. 21. ad septemtriones vergit : cf. Bk. I, Chap. I. 

23. subministrata auxilia : for the fact see Bk. Ill, Chap. IX. 
Caesar's real reasons for invading Britain are not far to seek. His 
accounts of his two expeditions, given in this book and the next, are 
among the most interesting parts of his story. Before Caesar's time 
Britain was a land practically unknown to the civilized world. See 
Introd., pp. 29, 30. 

25. fore: that it would be; the subject of fore is implied in the 
following conditional clause. 

26. adisset, perspexisset, cognovisset : subj. of ind. disc. 

28. temere : easily, a common rendering for temere when it is 
used with a negative. 

30. Gallias : Gaul as a whole had several divisions. See Bk. I, 
Chap. I. 

2. usum belli : skill in war. 135 

4. ad ... multitudinem : ~w'\\hidonei; A. 385. a; B. 192. 2.N. ; 

G - 359- R - 3 5 H. 435- J 5 HB - 3 6 4- 6. 

XXI. 6. priusquam faceret: before making. A. 551. b; B. 
292. i. a ; G. 577 ; H. 605. II ; HB. 507. 4. a. 

7. idoneum : in agreement with C. Volusenum. navi longa : 
a war-ship. In war-ships the ratio of length to breadth was 
about 7 or 8 to i ; in ships of burden, about 4 to I . See Introd., 
p. 51. 

9. in Morinos : cf. Bk. Ill, Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX. 

ii. quam classem : i.e. earn classem qtcam. 

15. polliceantur : observe the mood. dare: A. 580. c. N. ; 
B. 328. i ; G. 531. N. 4; H. 619. i ; HB. 593. a. Verbs of promis- 
ing generally take the future infinitive in indirect discourse. 

17. eos: the legati. 


PAGE 18. ibi: among the Atrebates. There was in Britain a tribe 

135 called Atrebates, probably kindred to those in Gaul. Hence Com- 
mius was a suitable person to send. 

19. consilium: shrewdness. 

21. magni: of great value. A. 417; B. 203. 3; G. 379; H. 
448; HB. 356. i. adeat: depends on imperat. What construc- 
tion is used after iubeo ? 

22. fidem sequantur : place themselves tmder the protection. 
se : refers to Caesar. 

23. Volusenus . . . revertitur: Volusenus, having examined 
the country, so far as one could (lit. how much of opportitnity could 
present itself to one) who did not dare, etc., returned $ quantum is 
the subject oipotuit. 

25. auderet: subj. of characteristic. 

XXII. 27. Dum: while. Learn from the grammar (use the 
index) the different constructions used with dum. in his locis: 
i.e. among the Morini. 

29. superioris temporis consilio: their actions as given in 
Bk. Ill, Chap. XXVIII. homines barbari: being barbarians. 

30. consuetudinis : gen. with imperiti. What adjectives take 
the genitive ? The custom is probably that of granting more 
favorable terms to those who submitted voluntarily. bellum 
fecissent: this expresses from Caesar's point of view the 
statement of the legati; hence the word barbari and the subjunc- 
tive fecissent. 

31. sefacturos: cf.dare,!. 15. 

34. tantularum rerum : of so trifling matters. 

35. Britaiiniae: dat. with anteponendas . The meaning is, of 
course, 'the expedition to Britain.' 

136 i. Quibus : the hostages. eos: the Morini in general. 

2. quot . . . existimabat : a number which (Jww many) he 
thought was enough for, etc. Each ship, then, would carry some- 
thing like one hundred men. The two legions were the seventh and 
tenth. Where have we met these legions before ? 

3. quod . . . habebat : all the war-ships which he had besides. 

4. quaestori, legatis : see Introd., p. 32. praefectis: com- 
manders of the auxilia. See Introd., p. 34. 

5. Hue accedebant : to these were added. Notice this use of 
the adverb for a pronoun, a very common use. 

6. a ... octo: eight miles away. See note on p. 94, 1. i. 
quominus possent : so that they could not. A. 558. b ; B. 295. 3 ; 
G. 549; H. 568. 8; HB. 502. 3. b. 


10. ducendum : to be led. A. 500. 4 ; B. 337. 8. b. 2 (337. 7. b. 2) ; PAGE 
G. 430; H. 622; HB. 612. III. 136 

1 1 . quod . . . arbitrabatur : How do you know that this 
clause is not a part of the order given to Rufus ? 

XXIII. 14. tempestatem : weather, which may be either good 
or bad. tertia fere vigilia : this means 'about midnight.' Ex- 
plain why. solvit : set sail ; sc. navis. The point of departure 
was probably Portus Itius, identified by some with Boulogne, by 
others with Wissant. The ulterior portus would then be Amble- 
teuse (somewhat less than eight miles from Boulogne) or Sangatte 
(nearly eight miles from Wissant). 

2. esset administration : the order had been executed. hora 137 
qtiarta : not far from 9 A.M. It was towards the end of August. 

3. Britanniam attigit : somewhere near Dover, it is thought. 

4. expositas : arrayed. 

5. haec : such. montibus : cliffs, coming close to the water's 

7. ad egrediendum : sc. ex navibus, for disembarking. 

8. dum : until; the best rendering would be for the rest of the 
ships to arrive. 

10. quae cognovisset et quae vellet: objects of ostendit. 
monuit : advised, instead of the stronger imperavit. 

11. ut . . . maxime ut . . . postularent: as . . . (and) es- 
pecially as . . . demanded. The clause depends on ad nutum . . . 

12. ut . . . haberent: being, as they are, things which (lit. as 
things which) involve quick and unsteady motion. A. 535. e. N. i ; 
B. 283. 3. a; G. 626. R. N. i ; H. 592. i ; HB. 523. b. The tense 
of haberent follows the rule for sequence, but English idiom re- 
quires the present tense. ad nutum . . . administrarentur: 
depends on monuit. 

14. secundum : to be taken with ventum as well as with aestum. 
See Vocab. for derivation and meaning. 

16. aperto: i.e. not shut in by cliffs. navis constituit: 
various considerations make it probable that Caesar landed between 
Deal and Walmer. The tidal current, which had been running 
towards the southwest, turned between four and five o'clock in the 

XXIV. 18. quo genere : the kind (of troops) which. A de- 
scription of the method of fighting from chariots is given in Chap. 

19. navibus egredi: from disembarking. 


PAGE , 22. militibus . . . pugnandum : i.e. the soldiers, weighed down 

137 by their armor, were obliged, etc. 

24. consistendum : i.e. get a foothold. erat: to be taken with 
all three gerundives. cum illi : while the enemy. Notice the 
phrases in this clause which balance phrases in the preceding clause. 

26. insuefactos : well-trained. The word occurs only here. 

28. omnino : altogether. generis : gen. with imperiti. 

XXV. 30. navis longas : subject vlremoveri and the two fol- 
lowing infinitives. 

31. motus expeditior: these ships were more easily handled 
than the transports, since they were propelled by oars. They were 
capable of great speed. 

33. latus apertum: the exposed flank ', i.e. the right side, which 
was not protected by shields. 

138 I- tormentis : see Introd., pp. 50, 51. Tormenta were placed 
on Roman war-ships, as heavy guns on modern war-ships. 

5 . pedenx rettulerunt : fell back. What would terga verterunt 
mean ?_ 

10. aquilam: see Introd., p. 38. obtestatus deos ut: beseech- 
ing the gods that. 

15. rei publicae atque imperatori : the position of these words, 
between meitm and officium, shows that they are closely connected 
in thought with officium. 

21. inter se: one another, practically the obj. vicohortati. 

22. tantum dedecus : the loss of the eagle. 

24. ex proximis navibus : an adverbial phrase connected 
with conspezissent, but we may say those in the nearest ships. 
26. hostibus : dat. with appropinquavemnt. 

XXVI. 31. firmiter : for formation of this word see A. 214. c; 
B. 77. 4; G. 92. 2; H. 309; HB. 126. 2. 

32. alius . . . adgregabat: one from one ship, another from 
another (i.e. soldiers from different ships), they joined whatever 
standards they came to. Notice in this chapter several instances of 
the imperfect indicative in a principal clause with the pluperfect in- 
dicative in a subordinate clause, both denoting customary or re- 
peated action. 

33. notis vadis : abl. abs. 

35. impeditos: at a disadvantage. 

139 i . in universes : at the main body. 

3. speculatoria navigia : small, swift vessels for reconnoiter- 
ing and carrying despatches. They were often painted blue or 
green, so as the more easily to escape detection. 


5 . simul : for siimd atque, as soon as. PAGE 

7. neque : but . . . not. eqtiites : they were detained at the 139 
tdterior -portus. See Chap. XXIII and the first part of Chap. 
XXVIII. Cavalry were necessary for the pursuit. 

8. capere: reach. 

9. fortunam : though he ultimately triumphed, fortune was not 
always with Caesar in his campaigns. 

XXVII. 12. quaeque : equivalent to et (ed) quae. 

13. Commius : see Chap. XXI. 

14. demonstraveram : for tense cf. dixeramus, p. 90, 1. 4. 

15. illi : i.e. Britanni. oratoris mo do : as (in the manner 
of) an ambassador. Caesar chooses to regard him as an envoy, 
that his seizure may be treated as a violation of international law. 

. 17. eius rei culpam : the blame for that act. 

1 8. propter . . . ignosceretur : that pardon might be granted 
on the ground of ignorance. With ignosceretnr sc. sibi, or perhaps ei 
rei. The verb is impersonal. A. 372 ; B. 187. II. b ; G. 346. R. I ; 
H. 302. 6; HB. 364. 2. 

19. cum: although. 

20. sine causa : from Caesar's standpoint the attack of the 
Britons on the Romans was entirely unprovoked. Why is intu- 
lissent subjunctive ? 

21. imprudentiae : dat. with ignoscere. 

23. arcessitam : the action denoted by this word must, of course, 
precede that denoted by daturos. 

XXVIII. 26. post diem quartum quam: an idiomatic ex- 
pression equivalent to quarto die postquam. Cf. post diem tertium, 
p. 127, 1. 30. The time, according to our method of reckoning, 
would be three, not four, days after. 

28. sustulerant: had taken on board. superiore portu: 
called ulterior portus in Chap. XXIII. 

30. tempestas: storm] cf. p. 136, 1. 14. 

31. eodem : to the same place. 

1 . inf eriorem partem : southwest of where Caesar had landed. 140 

2. occasum : ace. with propius. suo periculo : danger to 
themselves. The possessive takes the place of an objective 

3. cum fluctibus complerentur : is cum a preposition or a 
conjunction ? See A. 409. a; B. 218. 8 ; G. 405 ; H. 477. II ; HB. 

4. adversa nocte : in the face of the night. 

XXIX. 5. Eadem . . . plena : on this passage rests the deter- 



PAGE mination of the chronology of the expedition to Britain. We know 
140 (cf. Chap. XXXVI) that the full moon here mentioned was the one 
next preceding the autumnal equinox. The calculations of astrono- 
mers show that this full moon occurred August 31, about 3 A.M. 
Hence this storm occurred August 30. As this was four days (three 
by our method of counting) after Caesar's arrival in Britain, the 
date of his arrival would be August 27. To get this date we must 
assume the absolute accuracy of Caesar's statements. But, as a 
matter of fact, the highest, tides in these regions occur a day and 
a half after full moon. Here is a discrepancy, and all that can be 
said is that Caesar's arrival must have taken place within a day 
or two of August 27. dies : used in the astronomical sense, to 
include also the night. 

6. in Oceano : the Romans were most at home in the Mediter- 
ranean, where there are practically no tides. They must, however, 
have had experience with high tides in the war with the Veneti. Cf. 
p. 115, 1. 10. 

9. in aridum subduxerat : ships were beached out of the reach 
of ordinary waves and tides. complebat : notice the tense. 

10. deligatae : used adjectively. The transports were not drawn 
up on land like the galleys. 

11. administrandi aut auxiliandi: those on board could not 
manage the vessels, and those on shore could not go to help. 

12. funibus . . . amissis : the abl. abs. gives the reason why 
the rest of the ships were useless. 

13. id ... accidere : as could not fail to happen. Give the 
syntax of each word. Observe that quod is not the subject of erat. 

15. Neque: correlative with et, et following. possent: subj. 
of characteristic. The subject of the verb, milites, is to be sup- 
plied from exercitus. 

1 6. usui: for use, i.e. useful. 

17. omnibus constabat: everybody agreed. What literally? 
hiemari : impersonal passive. ' It is the subject of oportere. 

18. in hiemem : against the winter. 

XXX. 21. Romanis : A. 373. b ; B. 190 ; G. 349. R. 4 ; H. 
429; HB. 362. 

23. hoc angustiora : smaller on this account. 

24. factu: A. 510; B. 340. 2; G. 436; H. 635. I ; HB. 619. I. 

25. prohibere, producere : subjects of esse. 

26. reditu : from returning, abl. of separation. 

28. rursus : i.e. changing from a state of peace to one of prepa- 
ration for hostilities. 


XXXI. 3 1 . ex e ventu navium suarum : from what had PAGE 
happened to his ships. ex eo, quod : from the fact that. 140 

32. fore . . . accidit : that the thing would come about which 
really did happen. Notice the mood si accidit. 

33. casus : emergencies. subsidia : explained by the following 

2. acre : less liable than iron to rust. "^ 

3. quae : sc. as antecedent ea, subject of comparari. Observe 
the mood of erant. 

4. cum : causal. 

5. reliquis . . . effecit: he rendered it possible for a 
voyage to be made fairly well in the rest (lit. by means of 
the rest). 

XXXII. 8. frumentatum : a supine, expressing purpose. 
septima : the numbers of legions, like names, were permanent. 
neque ulla : equivalent to nullaque. Observe that the negative and 
the connective usually combine. 

9. interposita : having arisen. hominum : the Britons. 
10. ventitaret: see note on ventitant, p. 125,!. 26. 

12. quam . . . ferret: than c^lstom warranted (i.e. than 

13. id ... aliquid : suspecting (as was the case) that some. 

15. in stationem succedere : to replace them on guard. 

1 6. armari : to arm themselves ; see note on lavarentur, p. 124, 
1. 23. 

17. paulo longius : some distance. suos : those who were out 

21. disperses: sc. eos, i.e. nostros, obj. Qiadorti. 
23. incertis ordinibus : cf. conferta legione above. 

XXXIII. 25. ex essedis : connect this with pugnae. The 
British war-chariot was open in front, and probably carried two men. 
Whether it was armed with scythes is uncertain. Caesar makes no 
mention of scythes. The Gauls did not use war-chariots in Caesar's 

26. terrore equorum : fear of the horses ; equorwn is an obj. 

28. equitum turmas : this description was probably not written 
until after the campaign of the next year. In writing it Caesar ap- 
pears to have forgotten that at this time his cavalry was not with him. 
Some refer the words to the cavalry of the Britons themselves, which 
would thus serve to protect the charioteers when dismounting, and 
there is much to be said in favor of this view. 


PAGE 29. pedibus : on foot, abl. of manner. Aurigae : the 

141 drivers. 

30. illi : the fighters who have left the chariots. 

142 i. mobilitatem : mobility. stabilitatem : steadiness. 

2. declivi ac praecipiti : steep down-hill. 

3. incitatos equos sustinere : to drive at breakneck speed, lit. 
to hold their horses urged fo full speed. brevi : sc. tempore, in an 
instant. moderari: to rein in. 

4. per ... recipere : to run out along the pole, step on the 
yoke, and from there return very swiftly into the chariot. 

XXXIV. 6. Quibus rebus: abl. of means. nostris: sc. 
militibus, dat. novitate : abl. of cause. 

13. alienum: unfavorable. 

18. occupatis : busy. reliqui: pred. adj. agreeing with qui. 
discesserunt : the subject is the antecedent of qui. Cf. Chap. 
XXXII, near the beginning. 

19. quae continerent : i.e. severe enough to keep. 

22. praedicaverunt : made much of. 

23. sui liberandi : see note on sui recipiendi, p. in, 1. 2. 

24. expulissent : for fut. perf. of the direct form. 

XXXV. 27. idem : subject of fore. The clause ut . . . effu- 
gerent is in apposition with it. 

29. equites : what these horsemen had been doing in the mean- 
time is not stated. 
32. ac: but. 

143 i. tanto spatio: we might expect here the accusative. 
quantum: i.e. having pursued them as great a distance as their 
strength enabled them to run. 

2. occiderunt : carefully distinguish compounds of caedo from 
those of cado. 

XXXVI. 7. pro pin qua die : since the day was near. It has 
been calculated that the autumnal equinox of 55 B.C. fell on Septem- 
ber 26. Caesar probably returned to Gaul a week or ten days 
earlier than this. hiemi subiciendam : ought to be exposed to bad 
weather (wintry weather), i.e. the heavy storms which often accom- 
pany or follow the equinox. 

9. navis solvit: cf. p. 136, 1. 14. 

1 1 . reliquae : sc. ceperunt. 

12. paulo infra: i.e. towards the south. 

XXXVII. 14. in castra: the camp held by Rufus and the 
garrison of soldiers at Portus Itius. Cf. Chap. XXII, end. 

1 6. non ita magno : no very large. 


17. sese : subject of interfiti, but it may be omitted in transla- PAGE 
tion. orbe facto : see Introd., p. 45. 143 

21. horis : what other case might have been used ? 

XXXVIII. 28. siccitates : the plural is used to show that all 
the swamps were dry. A. 100. c; B. 55. 4. c; G. 204. N. 5 ; H. 
138. 2 ; HB. 103. N. 

29. quo se reciperent: see note on p. 117, 1. 8. quo perfugio 
erant usi : the refuge which they had ^lsed. For the fact cf. Bk. 
Ill, Chap. XXVIII. 

7. dierum xx supplicatio : cf. Bk. II, end. Caesar by his 144 
passage of the Rhine had checked for a time the onward movement 
of the Germans ; and, though he accomplished nothing in this ex- 
pedition to Britain, he gained knowledge and experience which were 
useful to him in the expedition of the next year. 


I. i . L. Pomitio . . . consulibus : 54 B.C. Asyndeton (omis- 145 
sion of connective) is common in such formulas as this. 

3. quos legionibus praefecerat: cf. Bk. I, Chap. LII, begin- 
ning. Caesar now had eight legions. 

4. navis aedificandas curent : have ships built. 

5. modum formamque : fashion and shape. subductionis : 
see note on p. 140, 1. 9. 

6. humiliores : i.e. lower and shallower. quam quibus : 
than (those) which. iiostro mari: the Mediterranean. 

7. atque id : and that too (he did). 

8. minus magnos fluctus fieri: shallowness of water, as well 
as the meeting of opposing tidal currents in the English Channel, 
brings. this about. 

9. paulo latiores : sc. eas facit. 

11. actuarias : driven by oars and sails. imperat fieri: im- 
pero usually takes the subjunctive with ut or ne. It allows the in- 
finitive of passive or deponent verbs, very rarely an active infinitive. 

12. ex Hispariia : Spain furnished metals and ropes. 

13. conventibus : see note on p. 89, 1. 25. 
15. civitatibus : i.e. of Illyricum. 

19. Percepta oratione : having heard their plea. 
21. fecerint: subj. of -hid. disc. 

23. arbitros dat : he appoints referees. litem : the damage 
(value of property destroyed) . poenam : the recompense^ inqlud- 

374 NOTES V 

PAGE ing no doubt the value of the property and an additional sum as 

145 penalty. 

146 II. 3. circumitis : circumeo is transitive, though eo is intransi- 
tive. singular! studio : limits instructas. 

4. in : in spite of. 

5. cuius : sc. generis, descriptive gen. (gen. of quality) limiting 
navis, the omitted obj. of demonstravimus . 

6. neque . . . possint: and were not far from this point, that 
they could be launched in a few days. The clause quin . . . possint 
is in loose apposition with eo, but has the form of a clause dependent 
on 11011 multum abesse. Cf. quin . . . educat, p. 118, 1. 9. 

8. portum Itium : see note on solvit, p. 136, 1. 14. 

10. milium passuum xxx : limits traiectum. 

11. huic rei: i.e. for finishing the preparations, bringing the 
ships round to portus Itius, and guarding them while there. 

13. concilia: stated assemblies of Gallic leaders held under 
Caesars auspices. 

III. 16. equitatu : cf. p. 103, 1. 17. 

17. supra: cf. p. 114, 1. 16. 

1 8. principatu : not an official position, but leadership due to 
personal popularity and influence. By espousing the cause of one 
contestant, Caesar turned such quarrels as this to his own profit. 

19. Cingetorix: he was son-in-law of Indutiomarus. alter: 
to which does this refer ? . Cf. 1. 23. 

24. iisque : -que connects cogere and parare, Us . . . pertinet 
being parenthetical. 

25. silvam Arduennam : the Forest of Ardennes still exists, but 
it is not as large as in ancient times. 

29. de privatis rebus petere : contrasted with civftaticonsulere. 

30. quoniam . . . possent : whose reason is this ? Notice the 
mood of the verb. 

31. consulere : this word may take, with a difference in mean- 
ing, either the dative or the accusative. A. 367. c; B. 175. i, 
187. II. a; G. 346. N. 2; H. 426. 4; HB. 367. 

32. idcirco : explained by the clause of purpose quo . . . con- 

147 i . itaque : i.e. because he had remained at home. 

IV. 5. instituto consilio : cf. bellum par are instititit, p. 146, 


1 1 . principibus, hos : these two words refer to the same 

12. Cingetorigi conciliavit : this looks very like double dealing 


on Caesar's part. quod : subject of fieri. cum, turn : not only, PAGE 
but also. eius : i.e. Cingetorigis. 147 

13. magni . . . perspexisset : he thought it of great conse- 
quence that that marts influence among his own people should be as 
strong as possible, whose friendliness toward himself (i.e. Caesar), 
etc. What is the subject of inter esse? 

1 6. qui . . . fuisset: a clause of concession, or opposition. 
Trans, qui, whereas he. 

17. multo gravius exarsit : one can hardly blame him. 

V. 19. Meldis : there was a tribe of Meldi living inland near 
the Marne and Seine. Some think that there was a maritime tribe of 
this name, or that the Meldi here meant were a subdivision of the 
Morini. * 

24. perpaucos : what is the force viper- ? 

25. obsidum loco : as hostages. 

26. cum abesset : while he was (should be) away. 

VI. 28. Du'mnorix: we have met with him before, in Bk. I, 
Chaps. IX, XVIII-XX. 

30. eum : this word has four predicates, cupidum, cupidum, 
magni animi, magnae auctoritatis . magni animi: of a proud 

3. regnum deferri: a statement possibly true, though probably 148 
not. The Haedui were governed by an elective magistrate. Cf. 

p. 65, 1. 4. 

4. neque : but yet . . . not. 

7. insuetus navigandi : unaccustomed to sailing. 

8. religionibus : by religious duties. diceret : sometimes in 
the statement of a quoted reason the vei'b of saying or thinking 
is put in the subjunctive by a kind of attraction. Cf. existima- 
rent, p. 68, 1. 29. 

1 1 . territare : historical inf. 

12. fieri: inf. in ind. disc., depending on the idea of saying in 
metu territare. Its subject is ut . . . spoliaretur. 

13. quos : its antecedent is hos. 

14. traductos necaret: i.e. take across and murder. fidem 
. . . poscere : pledged his faith to the rest and demanded an oath 
from them. In other words, Dumnorix began to form a 'conspiracy.' 

15. ex usu Galliae : to the advantage of Gaul. 

VII. 1 8. quod . . . tribuebat: Caesar treated the Haedui 
with so much honor that it would not do to have them set a bad 
example to the other states of Gaul. 

19. coercendum atque deterrendum: Caesar did not wish to 

376 NOTES v 

PAGE adopt extreme measures, because harshness might alienate the friends 

148 of Dumnorix. 

20. quod : (and} because. 

21. prospiciendum . . . posset: he must look out that he 
(Dumnorix) should not have the power to do any harm to him and 
the (Roman) state. 

23. Corus ventus : a wind blowing approximately from the 

28. impeditis : the hampering effect of the work on their minds 
prevented them from noticing other things. 

32. retrain : see note on imperat fieri, p. 145, 1. n. neque 
pareat : and refuse to obey. 

33. nihil pro sano : nothing as a man of rational mind, i.e. noth- 
ing rational. 

34. praesentis : not se praesente (cf. se absente above), because 
it limits imperium. 

149 3- interficiunt: so Caesar had no more trouble from Dumnorix. 
He was guilty of no crime, so far as Caesar tells us, but that of being 
a patriotic Haeduan, anxious to save his country from a foreign yoke. 
That was crime enough, and his death served as a warning to others. 

VIII. 8. consilium . . . caperet: i.e. meet any emergency 
which might arise. 

9. pari quern : equal (to that) -which. 

10. navis solvit : with wind from the southwest and tidal cur- 
rent running in the opposite direction, the fleet sailed northwesterly. 
When the wind died away, the current, which had turned, bore the 
fleet towards the northeast. In early morning the current changed 
again, and following the change the Romans moved back to their 
landing-place of the previous year. This is the view usually held. 
There are, however, reasons for thinking that the landing was some- 
what further north than in the previous year, somewhere between 
Deal and Sandwich. 

11. Africo : why should the south west wind btAfricus to a Roman ? 

12. sub sinistra relictam : he had been carried too far north- 
east, and was drifting away from land. 

15. qua: where. 

1 6. virtus: pluck. vectoriis . . . adaequarunt: in their 
heavy transport-ships, not ceasing the. labor of rowing, kept itp 
with, etc. 

18. Accessum est : the date has been usually supposed to have 
been July 21 ; but there are strong arguments in favor of placing it 
two weeks earlier, or about July 7. 


22. quae, amplius DCCC : more than eight hundred of which, PAGE 
lit. which,- more than eight hundred. For case of quae see A. 346. e ; 149 
B. 201. i. b; G. 370. R. 2; H. 442. 2; HB. 346. c. privatis : 

those of wealthy officers accompanying the expedition, or of merca- 

23. sui quisque : observe the order of these words, which is 
the regular one. 

IX. 28. cohortibus decem : not a legion, but cohorts selected 
from different legions. 

29. de tertia vigilia : during the third watch, i.e. not long after 
midnight. Into how many watches was the night divided ? 

30. navibus : dat. 

2. ad flumen : according to Napoleon, the Little Stour ; but 150 ' 
Holmes thinks that the Great Stour is the river referred to. ex 
loco superiors : the Britons had occupied the opposite bank of 
the river. Probably there were hills on this side, but ex loco superiore 
may refer to the advantage those standing on the bank would have 
over those crossing. 

6. arboribus succisis : they had made barricades of trees. 

7. ex silvis rari propugnabant : kept sallying forth from the 
woods in small parties. 

8. legionis septimae: so the seventh legion got revenge 
for hard usage of the previous year. See Bk. IV, Chap. 

9. testudine : see Introd., p. 46. aggere . . . adiecto : car- 
rying an agger up to the fortifications. This must have been a 
very rough-and-ready piece of work. 

1 1 . prosequi : with iubeo and veto an infinitive is often used with- 
out an expressed subject, if the chief stress is on the action com- 
manded or forbidden, or if the subject is obvious. 

13. castrorum: plainly not the same as the camp mentioned at 
the beginning of the chapter, for that must have been on the sea- 
shore (cf. navis ctim castris coniungi, 1. 31), while this was a 
considerable distance inland. 

X. 15. expeditionem : notice derivation and meaning. 

1 6. cum lam extremi: while still the rear, i.e. of Caesar's 

17. ad Caesarem: Caesar evidently had not accompanied one 
of his flying columns. 

19. adflictas . . . esse : had been shattered and thrown up on 
21. concursu : bumping together. 

378 NOTES V 

PAGE XI. 24. resistere : i.e. to act only on the defensive. 

150 26. sic ut : i.e. he saw that the ships were in such a state that. 

27. magno negotio : though with great difficulty. fabros : in 
early times there were in the Roman army centuries of artisans 
(fabri). Caesar seems to have had no regularly organized body 
of workmen distinct from the legionary soldiers. 

28. ut ... instituat : scribit is here equivalent to a verb of 

29. legionibus : abl. of means. How many legions had Labienus ? 
31. cum castris : this camp was no doubt partially fortified on 

the afternoon of the army's landing. Whatever further work was 
needed was probably done the next day by the ten cohorts left as a 

151 i ne . . . intermissis : not even the night-time being lost for 
(allowed to cause interruption to} the soldiers 1 work. 

2. Subductis navibus : if the ships were arranged in a double, 
or even in a triple row, the frontage on the beach must have been 
from one to two miles. 

7. Cassivellauno : Caswallon, " first of the roll of English 

8. milia passuum LXXX : this probably gives the distance 
from Caesar's landing-place to the point where he himself crossed 
the Thames into the territory of Caswallon. Too much stress should 
not be laid on distances given by Caesar, as they can be only rough 

10. continentia: i.e. without any interval between them. 

XII. Chapters XII-XIV contain an interesting description of 
Britain, in which, however, there are some statements demonstrably 
false, and others which we have no means of verifying. 

12. quos . . . dicuiTt : who they say it has been handed down by 
tradition were born (i.e. originated} in the island itself', quos is 
subject of natos (esse), and this clause forms the subject viproditum 
(esse~). We may translate more freely, whom they say tradition 
declares to have originated in the island itself. 

14. qui: and they. 

15. quibus ex civitatibus : with orti, which agrees with the 
subject of pervenerunt. There were Atrebates, for example, on 
both sides of the Channel. 

18. aedificia: the houses of the Gauls were built of timber and 
wickerwork, round, with conical or dome-shaped roofs. 

19. taleis . . . examinatis: iron bars regulated (weighed} to 
a definite weight. 


20. Nascitur : is found. plumbum album: tin. Long be- PAGE 
fore Caesar's time the Phoenicians went to Britain for tin ; but Corn- 151 
wall, the chief place of supply, is not 'mediterranean.' 

22. aere importato : notice the position of each word ; the 
copper that they vise is imported. 

23. fagum, abietein: the beech and fir are both said to be in- 
digenous to Britain. 

24. fas non putant : they co2int it a sin. haec : Why neuter? 

25. animi voluptatisque causa: i.e. as pets. Loca : the 
Latin has no word for ' climate.' 

26. remissioribus frigoribus : the seasons of cold (the frosts) 
being less severe. There are no great extremes of heat and cold in 
Britain, owing to the warm seas that surround it and the winds from 
the Atlantic. 

XIII. 27. natura: the word seems superfluous, but may be 
translated in shape. unum latus : Caesar regards this side as 
extending from northeast to southwest. 

30. inferior: sc. angulus, now Land's End. tenet: embraces, 
or extends. 

31. Alterum: sc. latus, the second side. ad Hispaniam: 
Spain is considered as being west of Britain, with Ireland lying 
between. Tacitus in the " Agricola" repeats this error. 

32. dimidio: abl. of degree, or measure, of difference. 

33. pari . . . Britanniam : but it is at a distance (from Britain) 
equal to that from Gaul to Britain', spatio is an abl. of quality, or 
description, and the gen. transmissus depends upon it. For pari 
atque see note on p. 72, 1. 4. 

2. Mona : the Isle of Man. minores insulae : the islands 152 
west of Scotland. 

3. non nulli: the scriptores were probably Greeks, who may 
have heard strange stories from voyagers to far-off northern 

5. certis . . . mensuris : by means of accurate measurements 
with the clepsydra. The clepsydra, or water-clock, measured time 
by the emptying of a vessel through a small orifice. Caesar must 
have found the summer nights in Britain more than an hour shorter 
than at Rome. 

14. vicies . . . passuum : straight lines connecting Caesar's 
' angles ' would measure somewhat less than this distance ; but if 
indentations be followed, the coast-line of Britain is more than 
2000 miles. 

XIV. 1 6. humanissimi : most civilised. Shakspere mentions 

380 NOTES V 

PAGE this statement of Caesar's in the Second Part of " King Henry VI," 

152 Act 4, Scene 7. 

21. lacte et carne vivunt: cf. Bk. IV, Chap. I, where Caesar 
is speaking of the Suebi. These people had not passed from the 
pastoral into the agricultural stage of civilization. 

23. capillo promisso: abl. of quality, or description. 

25. Uxores communis: this statement could have been true 
only of the more remote Britons, if it was not altogether a mistake. 

27. quo : to whom, or to whose home. 

28. deducta est: was led (as a bride), a regular meaning of 
this verb. 

XV. 29. Equites hostium : the story is resumed from Chap. XI. 

30. ita tamen ut : yet m such, a way that, freely but the result 
was that. 

31. fuerint: for tense see A. 485. c. N. i; B. 268. 6; G. 5-13; 
H. 550 ; HB. 478. 

153 i. intermisso spatio : a rendering of the ablatives absolute of 
this sentence may be found in A. 420. 5. N. 

4. duabusque : -que connects piignaverunt and perrupernnt. 

5. primis : the first cohort of a legion contained the best sol- 
diers of the legion. 

6. loci spatio : loci defines spatio, which often, as a few lines 
above, means time. The two cohorts probably attempted to get 
in the rear of the assailants, thus cutting off their retreat ; but as 
they did not come sufficiently close together, the enemy slipped 
away through the interval. novo genere pugnae: cf. Bk. IV, 
Chap. XXXIII. 

9. submissis : notice the force of sub, i.e. as a support, or help. 
Cf. subsidio above. 

XVI. 12. nostros : sc. milites, foot-soldiers, contrasted with 
equites in 1. 15. 

1 6. illi: the enemy. consulto cederent : gave way intention- 

17. removissent, desilirent: these verbs would be in the per- 
fect and present indicative in direct discourse. 

1 8. dispari proelio : the enemy were at a decided advantage, 
because supported by their chariots ; while the Roman horsemen 
could not have the support of the legions. 

19. cedentibus: i.e. the Roman cavalry were pursued, if they 
gave way, by the, British cavalry. 

20. Accedebat hue ut : besides. 

21. stationes : reserves. 


22. alios . . . exciperent : i.e. they relieved one another. PAGE 

XVII. 25. rari: here and there. 153 
27. C. Trebonio : it was Trebonius who, in 55 B.C., proposed the 

law by which Caesar's term as governor of Gaul was extended for 
five years. 

29. sic uti non absisterent : so (furiously) that they did not 
keep back from. 

31. quoad: until, introducing egerunt, dederunt. subsidio: 
abl., or possibly dat. See note on natnra, p. 113, 1. 22. 

32. praecipitis : pell-mell, a pred. adj. 

I. summis copiis : with their full force. -^4 

XVIII. 4. lino omnino loco : of course not literally true. 
This was the only ford which Caesar found. Its location is unknown, 
but it was some distance above London, perhaps near Kingston or 

5. hoc : sc. loco. 

8. praefixis : driven in front (of the bank). defixae : driven 

II. eo impetu: with sitch a rush. The stakes must have been 
removed in some way, but we are not told how. cum : though. 
capite solo : in modern times a river more than three feet deep 
is generally considered unfordable by an army. 
13. dimitterent : abandoned. 

XIX. 16. milibus . . . essedariorum : from these words some 
infer that Caswallon had 4000 war-chariots, others that the number 
was 2000, since each chariot carried two men, a driver and a fighter. 

19. atque : connects the verb preceding it with compellebat. 

24. hoc metu : i.e. hums ret metu. Notice the idiom carefully. 

Relinquebatur ut : the fatal result was that. 

25. disced! : impersonal, sc. ab equitib:is. 

26. tantum hostibus noceretur : (only) so much damage was 
inflicted on the enemy ; but noceretur is impersonal, and tantum is 
ace., not nom. 

27. quantum : obj. of efficere. 

XX. 29. Trinovantes : in Essex. 

30. adulescens : this word is regularly used to distinguish a 
younger from an older person of the same name, somewhat like our 
' Junior.' Probably some older relative was named Mandubracius. 

Caesaris fidem secutus : seeking Caesar* s protection. 

2. sese : obj. of dedituros. 155 

3. Cassivellauni : subjective gen.: niittat, qui praesit : send 
him, to govern. Caswallon had met with reverses, and now his old 

382 NOTES V 

PAGE enemies wished to revenge themselves upon him, even to the extent 

155 of handing Britain over to the Romans. Cf. p. 151, 11. 9-11. Caesar 
was very ready to accept the assistance of the Trinovantes, as he 
had that of the Haedui in Gaul. 

5. exercitui : for the army. 

XXI. 8. militurn : at the hands of the soldiers, subjective gen. 
9. Bibroci: some think that this name is preserved in the mod- 
ern name Berkshire. 

ii. oppidum Cassivellauni : according to some authorities, 
located in the vicinity of St. Albans. 

13. Oppidum vocant: call it a town; oppidum is a pred. ace. 
The Gauls, on the other hand, had real towns. Observe here the 
perfect indicative in the <w2-clause with a present indicative in the 
main clause, generalizing the statement. 

XXII. 25. castra navalia : cf. Chap. XI. adoriantur: this 
word is often used of a secret or unexpected attack. 

30. civitatum : those mentioned in the preceding chapter, who 
followed the lead of the Trinovantes. 

33. id ... posse : this (the little remaining) could easily be 
frittered away. The death of Julia, Caesar's daughter, wife of 

Pompey, had just occurred, and even before this bond was broken 
Pompey had begun to be jealous of Caesar. Caesar had reason to 
fear the effect upon his political fortunes of a prolonged absence in 
distant Britain. 

34. quid vectigalis : what (of} tribute. No measures were 
taken to collect this tribute, which was probably never paid. 

35. penderet : should pay. interdicit atque imperat : notice 
the fullness of expression. We may translate, with ne noceat, strictly 
forbids to injure, or orders positively not to injure. 

156 XXIII. 3. Obsidibus acceptis : besides hostages Caesar car- 
ried back slaves, and perhaps other booty. Dion Cassius says that 
Caesar himself remarked on the desolation he left behind him in 

5. deperierant: had been utterly destroyed. 

6. commeatibus : trips (goings forward and back}. 

9. inanes : two classes of vessels were sent to Caesar inanes : 
first, those from which the soldiers carried on the first trip had been 
landed ; second, those which Labienus had had built. Of the latter 
the verb mitterentur would properly be used. 

15. angustius milites conlocavit : he crowded the soldiers into 
rather narrow quarters. 

16. secunda . . . vigilia : i.e. though he had not sailed until 


after the 'beginning of the second watch. terrain attigit : the time PAGE 
of his return was probably about the middle of September. Caesar 156 
had very likely intended, if circumstances permitted, to winter in 

Not for nearly a hundred years did a Roman force again land in 
Britain, and the actual conquest of the island was not completed 
until many years later. 

XXIV. 1 8. Samarobrivae : the name means Somnie-bridge. 
It is generally identified with Amiens. 

19. siccitates : in the previous year also Gaul had suffered from 
droughts. Cf. p. 143, 1. 28. 

23. Q. Ciceroni: brother of the orator. He was Caesar's legatus 
several years. Some of his letters written from Gaul and Britain 
are mentioned in the extant collection of Cicero's correspondence. 

26. M. Crassum : an older brother of the P. Crassus mentioned 
in Bk. I, Chap. LII. 

27. Uiiam legionem: this legion was perhaps enrolled in the 
spring of this year, and was probably numbered XV. Caesar there- 
fore should have had nine legions. Only eight and one half are 
here accounted for. One explanation is that the five cohorts men- 
tioned in 1. 28 belonged to XIV, and that the other five cohorts 
of XIV were used to fill gaps in other legions. 

28. in Eburones : to Atnatuca, identified by Napoleon with the 
modern Tongres. Many scholars do not accept the identification. 
Some place it east of the Meuse. Caesar's purpose undoubtedly was 
to command the road from northern Gaul to the Rhine. 

Into the discussion of the exact location of most of the winter 
camps mentioned in this chapter it is unnecessary to go. Of those 
who have studied the question most carefully, hardly any two agree 

4. mederi : meet, lit. remedy. 157 

6. milibus passuum c continebantur : this probably means 
that the distance between any two camps was not more than 100 
miles, but the number is certainly too small ; for Samarobriva, where 
it appears Trebonius was located, and Atuatuca must have been 
more than 100 miles apart. 

8. cognovisset: see note on p. 128, 1. 31. 

XXV. 10. Carnutibus : on the Loire, round Orleans and 
Chartres. loco: abl. of source, or origin. 

13. fuerat usus : for erat tesus, emphasizing the fact that this 
action preceded that of restituerat. 

14. multis ex civitate : many citizens ; these resented Caesar's 

384 NOTES V 

PAGE interference, and wished to preserve the independence of the 

157 state. 

17. L. Plancum : he had been sent among the Bellovaci. 

1 8. cognoverit: he should learn. 
21. hibernis: dat. 

XXVI. 22. quibus : after. 

25. praesto fuissent : had met. 

26. Indutiomari : see Chaps. Ill and IV. 

29. Hispanis equitibus : of what nation were the most of 
Caesar's cavalry ? 

158 i. aliqui: aliqui is usually an adjective, and the pronominal 
form is aliquis. 

XXVII. 5. eques Romanus : a Roman knight. 

8. Sese : it should be easy now for the student to turn indirect 
discourse into direct, and it is recommended that the translation also 
be given in the direct form. Pro Caesaris in me beneficiis phirimum 
ei confiteor (ine) debere, I admit that I owe much to Caesar for his 
kindnesses to me. 

10. ei : we might have had the reflexive, but a Caesare saves ei 
from ambiguity. Is ei equivalent in meaning to ad eiim ? 

14. sua imperia : his own powers. 

16. porro : in the next place. Having presented his own apology, 
Ambiorix proceeds to offer one for the state. 

18. imperitus rerum: cf. p. 83, 1. 28. 

20. hibernis oppugnandis : for assaulting the winter camps. 
24. Quibus : dat., to be connected with satisfecerit '. pro pie- 
tate : i.e. to meet the demands of patriotism. 

27. consulat : have regard for. 

28. biduo: next day. See note on p. 85, 1. i. Ipsorum esse 
consilium : i.e. in the direct form, ; It is for you (the Romans ) to 

33. Quod cum faciat : and in so doing. 

159 i. quod levetur: because it would be relieved. In the tenses 
of this speech we have numerous instances of present and perfect 
subjunctives in secondary sequence. 

XXVIII. 8. credendum : credible. 

10. primorum ordinum centuriones : see Introd., p. 34. 
13. rem. i.e. what had occurred, given in the following ^od'-clause. 

14. ultro : they had borne the attack, and wounded many of the 
enemy besides. 

17. quid ess e: direct, quidest? A. 586; B. 315. 2 ; G. 651. R. 1 ; 
H. 642. 2; HB. 591. a. 


XXIX. 19. facturos : sc. illos and esse ; &\r&c.t,facietis. PAGE 
22. Caesarem: subject of profechim (esse). 159 

24. fuisse captures : direct, cepissent -, apodosis of a condition 
contrary to fact (unreal), the protasis of which is contained in the 
adverb aliter. A. 589. b ; B. 321. A. 2 ; G. 656. 2 ; H. 647 ; HB. 
581. b. i. 

25. ventures: sc.fuisse. Some supply esse, and the manuscripts 
do not have ' vent^lros. Sese ' but * ventures . esse] making the direct 
form venirent. Sese . . .. spectare : he looked not to the enemy 
but to the facts as his authority. 

27. Ariovisti mortem : this has not been mentioned before. 
He escaped safely to Germany, according to Bk. I, Chap. LIII. 
Yet these words seem to indicate that he had been killed by 

28. ardere : was ablaze. 

30. quis . . . persuaderet: 'who could convince himself of this f 
i. consentiret: pres. ind. in the direct form. 160 

3. consilium : ace., subject of habere. 

XXX. 6. in utramque partem : pro and con. 
7. resisteretur : is its subject Sabinus ? 

9. exaudiret : notice the force of ex. 

12. perendino die : i.e. tertio die, the day after to-morrow. 
14. fame : notice the peculiarity in the declension of this word. 

XXXI. 15. comprehendunt : the liveliness imparted to the 
narrative by the asyndeton and by the use of historical presents 
should be noticed. 

20. dat manus : yields ; originally manus dare meant offer one's 
hands to be bound. Probably Cotta had been directed by Caesar, 
in the event of a difference, to yield to Sabinus. 

25. quare . . . augeatur : why they could not remain without 
peril, and the peril would be increased, etc. 

26. sic ut quibus esset persuasum: as men who had been 
convinced. The subj. is characteristic. 

28. longissimo . . . impedimentis : they did not take the or- 
dinary precautions of an army on the march. Most of these troops 
were probably newly enlisted. See p. 156, 1. 27, and the note. 

XXXII. I . a : away. ^.61. 

5. nostris : dat. with iniquissimo. 

XXXIII. 7. providisset : subj. of characteristic, not strictly 
causal, but with a strong implication of cause. 

9. ut . . . viderentur : freely, so that it was plain he had lost 
all presence of mind. 


386 NOTES V 

PAGE 10. in ipso negotio : in the midst of action. 

161 14. imperatoris : depends upon officia. 

1 6. per se omnia obire : attend personally to everything. 

18. orbem: see Introd., p. 45. 

22. factum: sc. esse. 

23. ab signis discederent : i.e. left their places in the ranks. 

24. quaeque : equivalent to et (ea) qnae. 

26. fletu : yet they fought with desperate courage. 

XXXIV. 29. Illorum, illis : emphatic. 

30. proinde : sv, frequently used with imperative expressions. 
32. a fortuua : notice the preposition. Fortune is, as it were, 
personified. Fortuna was worshiped as a goddess by the Romans. 

162 5. Levitate . . . posse: a declarative sentence in indirect 
discourse, inserted parenthetically. The dative his refers to the 
Eburones (vobis in the mouth of Ambiorix) . 

6. rursus. . . insequantur : and that they should follow them 
'when they again fell back (se recipientis) to their standards. 

XXXV. 9. quaepiam : some, from quispiam. 

10. earn . . . erat : that part was necessarily exposed. The 
part of the orbis from which the cohort had gone forward is perhaps 
meant, though most refer the words earn partem to the cohort itself. 
The phrase latere aperto seems to have its usual meaning, the right 
side (i.e. the side unprotected by shields). 

11. Rursus: from re- + versus ; it implies a reversal of action. 
13. sin . . . vellent: contrasted with cum reverti coeperant. 

The subjunctive is occasionally used to denote repeated action in 
a subordinate clause, instead of the more usual imperfect or plu- 
perfect indicative. 

18. ipsis : depends on indignum. See A. 418. b ; B. 226. 2 ; G. 
397. N. 2 ; H. 481 ; HB. 442. 

19. T. Balventio: A. 377 ; B. 188. I.N. ; 0.350. i ; [.425.4. N. ; 
HB. 368. 

20. primum pilum : from pilus. Apparently Balventius was no 
longer primipilus, and presumably he was serving as evocattts. See 
Introd., p. 34. 

21. eiusdem ordinis : strictly this should mean that Lucanius 
was an ex.-primipilus, but no doubt it means that he was actually 
primipihiS) as Balventius had been the year before. 

23. in adversum os : right in the face. 

XXXVI. 27. Cn. Pompeium : probably an enfranchised Gaul 
who had taken a Roman name. 

29. quod . . . pertineat: subject of posse. 


30. ipsi . . . iri : but no harm would be done to him, i.e. to PAGE 
Sabinus. What form of the verb is nocitum iri f 162 

31. suam fidem interponere: pledged his word. cum Cotta 
communicat, ut : conferred with Cotta, (suggesting) that, 

35. in eo perseverat : persisted in that (resolution}. 

XXXVII. i. in praeseutia : at the moment. 163 
5 . consulto : an adv., purposely. 

7. victoriam conclamant : shout ' Victory ! ' 

15. ad T. Labienum: Labienus was among the Remi, near the 

The loss at Atuatuca was the severest blow Caesar had thus 
far suffered. Suetonius says, Diligebat usque adeo \inilit es~\ ut 
audita clade Tituriana barbam capillumque submiserit, nee ante 
dempserit quain vindicasset. He chastised the Eburones the follow- 
ing year, but could never catch Ambiorix. 

XXXVIII. 19. in Atuatucos: cf. Bk. II, Chaps. XXIX- 

21. in Nervios : according to Bk. II, Chap. XXVIII, the Nervii 
were 'almost annihilated' in the year 57 B.C. 

22. sui liberandi, ulciscendi : dependent upon occasionem. 
25. esse : the subject is legionem . . . interfici. 

XXXIX. 29. eorum : i.e. Nerviorum. 

2. Huic quoque : i.e. to Cicero, as well as to Sabinus and Cotta. 164 
Cf. Chap. XXVI. 

3 . munitionis : material for building defenses. 

8. sustentatur: cf. the impersonal use, p. 93, 1. 2. 

9. adepti : conditional, if they should gain. The accusative 
case agreeing with se might have been expected instead of the nomi- 

XL. ii. adCaesarem: Caesar was probably at Samarobriva. 

12. pertulissent : why subjunctive? Cicero may have said to 
his. messengers, Magna praemia vobis dabo si litter as pertuleritis . 

14. turres : the towers were wooden frames raised from the ram- 
part at intervals of perhaps forty feet, with floors, or platforms, on 
which the soldiers could stand. Such towers were often built with 
more than one story, and corresponding stories of adjacent towers 
were sometimes connected by galleries. admodum : fully. 

21. opus: predicate, necessary, lit. a necessity. praeustae 
sudes : stakes sharpened at the end and hardened in the fire would 
make a very good substitute for javelins. 

22. muralium pilorum : no doubt these were heavier than the 
ordinary javelin ; they were intended to be hurled downwards. 

388 NOTES V 

PAGE turres contabulantur : this refers to the putting in of the floors 

164 mentioned in the note on 1. 14. 

23. pinnae loricaeque : each story, or platform, was protected in 
front and at the sides by a continuous parapet of wickerwork (lorica) . 
At intervals in this rose battlements {pinnae), of the same material, 
to the height of six or seven feet. Between these the soldiers dis- 
charged their missiles. 

26. sibi: dat., depending on parcere. 

XLI. 28. causam amicitiae : grounds of friendship * 

33. Ambiorigem : Ambiorix would not have been present, un- 
less the camp in the country of the Eburones had been destroyed. 
eos : Cicero and his soldiers, while Us refers to the soldiers in the 
other camps. 

34. suis rebus : their own safety. 

165 2. incolumibus : in agreement with tilts. A. 455 . a ; B. 327. 2. a ; 
G. 535-R. 3; H. 612. 3; 118.585.0. 

7. se : subject of sperare. 

XLII. 10. pedum xv : when only one (unnamed) dimension 
of a trench is given, width is meant. 

11. consuetudine : intercourse. 

12. nulla copia : since there was no supply. 

13. quae essent : such as were. 

17. turris : these were movable. f aids : these were to be 
used to tear down the rampart of the camp. See the picture on p. 50. 

18. testudines: movable sheds, protected by which soldiers 
could approach the wall. 

XLIII. 21. glandis : how red-hot balls of clay could be thrown 
by leather slings is "another story." The leather may have been 
lined with metal. Some think of hooks attached to the balls. 
fervefacta iacula : either wound with inflammable material, or else 
themselves actually kindled at the end. 

22. casas : the soldiers 1 quarters. 

25. parta atque explorata : gained and decided. 

166 2. recessum . . . dab ant : those farthest off did not allow 
those in front to fall back. 

6. si vellent : in case they wished. Si vultis, introite was the 

8. deturbati: sc. sunt. 

XLIV. 12. de loco : for position, or promotion. 

17. inrumpit : sc. in earn partem. 

18. Ne . . . continet : then Vorenus did not remain inside the 
rampart either. 


19. Mediocri spatio relicto : i.e. between himself and the PAGE 
enemy. 166 

21. hunc : refers to the same person as quo. We might have 
expected quern percussum protegunt, but Jmnc is used to mark the 
contrast with ilium following. 

23. Pulloni: dat. of reference. balteo: see Introd., pp. 35, 


24. conanti : sc. ei. 
28. ilium: Pullo. 

30. in ... inferiorem : stumbling into a. hollow. 

31. anibo : both. 

1. utrumque: each. inimicus : emphatically contrasted with ^.67 
the two words following. 

2. antef erendus videretur : .seemed superior (to be preferred} . 
XL V. 8. a prima obsidione : at the beginning of the siege. 

10. praestiterat : had made manifest. 

11. in iaculo : perhaps concealed in the shaft, or placed under 
the detachable head. 

12. versatus : mingling. 

XL VI. 1 8. cum nuntio : i.e. as soon as he received the order. 

20. sciebat : Caesar is the subject. 

21. Labieno : cf. p. 156, 1. 24. rei publicae commodo: con- 
sistently with the interests of the state. 

23. equites cogit: it appears that in the fall the greater part of 
his Gallic cavalry was dismissed. 

XL VII. 27. Samarobrivae : it is pretty certain that Caesar 
was here when he received the message from Cicero. Trebonius 
with one legion was at or near Samarobriva. It is believed that 
Caesar on setting out took this legion with him, leaving orders for 
Crassus with his legion to garrison the town. 

31. in itinere : not to be connected with moratus. 

2. quos sciret : since he knew that they. Igg 

5. tria milia passuum longe : three miles far, i.e. away. 

XL VIII. 7. opinione deiectus reciderat : lit. thrown down 
from his expectation he had fallen back. 

15. G-raecis litteris : apparently Latin words in Greek characters. 
Caesar sometimes made use of a cipher. 

20. amentum : a thong, attached to the dart. Experiments 
have shown that the range of a dart may be increased fourfold and 
the aim made much more accurate by the use of the thong in 

24. biduo : for two days. 


PAGE 25. perlectam : what is to be supplied ? Examine the preced- 

168 ing sentences. 

27. incendiorum : not signal-fires, nor yet camp-fires, but the 
fires of burning buildings. 
XLIX. 31. G-allum repetit : asks for another Gaul. 

169 i. discessisse, convertisse : hostis is the subject of both these 

8. aequo . . . celeritate : he might with a clear conscience 
relax his speed. The meaning of necessity or obligation which we 
have found attaching to the gerundive in the periphrastic conjugation 
is neither original nor invariable. 

11. milium septem : besides the two legions there were four 
hundred cavalry. Previous campaigns had reduced the size of the 

12. angustiis viarum: i.e. by making the streets of the camp 

13. hostibus : in the eyes of the enemy. 
L. 16. ad aquam : i.e. adrivum. 

1 8. Caesar: sc. sese suo loco continet. On this depends the 
clause of purpose ut . . . contenderet. 

24. consulto : cf. p. 153, 1. 16. 

26. quam maxime concursari : the soldiers should run to and 
fro as much as possible. 

LI. 29. iniquo loco : for the Gauls, but suo loco for Caesar. 
32. seu . . . Romanus : if any one, Gaul or Roman. 

34. Ac : and what is more. in speciem : merely for show. 

35. ea: that way, there. 

170 5- armis : abl. of separation. 
LII. 8. turris : cf. p. 165, 1. 17. 

9. non decimum quemque : not one in ten. 

17. quod detrimentum : the disaster which. legati: 

19. expiato incommodo : abl. abs. 

LIII. 21. per Remos : the method of spreading news in 
Gaul is given on p. 200, 11. 18-20. In this case the news must have 
traveled nearly seven Roman miles an hour. 

26. Indutiomarus : see Chaps. Ill and IV. 

171 i . tribus legionibus : the three originally assigned to Crassus, 
Trebonius, and Cicero. trinis : why is not tribus used? 

4. perlato : having been reported far and wide. 

6. reliqui: 

9. intercessit : notice the literal meaning ; almost no time free 


from anxiety came between the anxious times. quin acciperet: PAGE 
without his receiving. 171 

12. Aremoricae: see note on p. 112,1.22. 

LIV. 17. territando : an enemy of Caesar might say by bully- 
ing. denuntiaret: denuntio often conveys a covert threat. 

19. Senones : mentioned in Bk. II, Chap. II. The verbs be- 
longing to this noun are a long distance off, but the student should 
follow the Latin order in determining the meaning of the sentence. 

26. dicto : dat. with audientes, obedient. They perhaps had 
heard of Caesar's treatment of the Germans the year before. See 
Bk. IV, Chap. XIII, end. tantum valuit : i.e. it made so great 
an impression. The subject of vahiit is the clause esse . . . infer- 

29. Haeduos et Remos : the Haedui joined the great uprising 
of Gaul two years later, but the Remi remained faithful even then. 

31. nulla non: the two negatives make an emphatic affirmative. 
We may reproduce the effect by translating there was almost no 
state that was not suspected. 

32. nobis: A. 375; B. 189. 2; G. 354; H. 431. 2; HB. 373. 2. 
Idque . . . sit : and I do not know whether that is so very much 
to be wondered at. 

1. compluribus aliis de causis: large amounts of grain and 172 
immense sums of money had to be furnished by them to the Ro- 
mans ; whole districts were laid waste ; their cities and homes were 
pillaged and burned ; but no doubt, as Caesar thought, the loss of 
national honor was the greatest blow of all. 

2. praeferebantur : used to be considered superior. tantum 
. . . deperdidisse ut perferreut : that they had lost so much of 
that prestige as to (be obliged to) endure. For se deperdidisse see 
A. 572. b; B. 331. V; G. 533 ; H. 614; HB. 594. 

LV. 8. multo minorem superesse : no doubt an inaccurate 
estimate, though Caesar had suffered fearful losses in this year's 

10. Ariovisti bello: see Bk. I, Chaps. XXX-LIV. 

11. Tencterorum transitu : see Bk. IV, Chaps. I-XV. 

12. copias cogere: seep. 147, 11. 7, 8. Probably the hostages 
had been given back by Caesar; otherwise Indutiomarus would 
hardly have dared to make open war. 

14. tota G-allia : the locative ablative usually omits in when totus 
is used. 

LVI. 1 8. ultro ad se veniri: i.e. that the Gauls were rallying 
round him. 


PAGE 19. conscientia : not 'conscience.' For the 'crime' of the 

172 Senones see Chap. LIV; of the Carnutes, Chap. XXV. 

22. Hoc : not abl. quo : an adv., to such a council* 

24. novissimus : last. 

25. Cingetorigem : see Chaps. Ill and IV. 

29. arcessitum : i.e. to aid them. 

30. hue : i.e. ad has civitates. 

31. priusquam id faciat: before doing that. What forms of 
the verb might be used with priusquam in the direct form of this 
speech ? castra Labieni : among the Remi. 

173 LVII. 3. ne dimitteret : not to let slip', the clause depends on 

4. a : from. 

6. certain diem dicit : fixes a day. 

8. sub castris : on what kind of ground did the Romans usually 
build their camps ? 

ii. timoris opinionem augebat: a common manoeuver; see 
Chap. L, and also Bk. Ill, Chaps. XVII and XVIII. 

LVIII. 15. arcessendos curaverat: had caused to be sum- 

22. dispersi . . . discedunt: notice the occurence of dis- three 
times in four successive words. 

23. praecipit atque interdicit : cf. inter dicit atque imperat, 
p-. 155, 1. 35. Notice that the words here are followed by a command 
and a prohibition. 

24. quod . . . videbat : which he saw would be (happen}, just 
as it did happen. 

26. neu quis . . . viderit : and that no one shotild wound any 
one (else) before he saw him (Indutiomarus) killed. 

27. mora . . . nactum : i.e. winning time through the delay 
caused by the pursuit of the rest. 

30. fluminis vado : it is implied that if he had crossed the river 
he would have been safe. 
32. equites : nom. 


174 I. I. Multis de causis : the reader of Bk. V can enumerate 

some of the causes. 

2. M. Silanum, C. Antistium Reginum, T. Sextium : these 
legati are mentioned here for the first time. 


3. Cn. Fompeio : as proconsul, Pompey had been appointed to PAGE 
govern Spain, but he still lingered near Rome. See Introd., p. 15. 174 

4. ad urbem : possessing the military imperium and having an 
army, he could not legally enter the city. rei publicae causa : 
he was superintending the importation of grain to supply the needs of 

5. sacramento rogasset : Pompey, as consul, in 55 B.C., had 
been allowed to levy soldiers wherever he pleased, even in another's 
province. The soldiers enlisted in Caesar's province Caesar now 
wished to receive. 

6. convenire : the subject is eos understood, antecedent of quos. 
The soldiers were on furlough. magni interesse existimans: 
thinking that it was of great importance. 

7. Galliae : subjective gen. 

8. si quid detriment! : if any loss. 

9. sarciri: be made good. 

10. augeri : may be translated A? overbalanced. Quod: refers 
to the request introduced by petit, 1. 4. 

1 1 . amicitiae : there was still friendship, nominally at least, be- 
tween Caesar and Pompey. 

12. ante exactam hiemem : before the end of 'winter. 

14. quas . . . amiserat: the loss was fifteen cohorts. See 
Bk. V, Chaps. XXIV and XXVI-XXXVII. How many legions 
had Caesar now? See Introd., pp. 36, 37. 

II. 16. Indutiomaro: see Bk. V, Chap. LVJII. 

20. inter se confirmant : give assurances to one another. ob- 
sidibus . . . cavent : i.e. they give hostages binding themselves 
not to default in payment of the money promised. 

21. Ambiorigem: the hero, from the Gallic point of view, of 
Bk. V. societate et foedere : the terms of the alliance (societas) 
were defined by the treaty (foedus}. 

I. ad imperatum : at his command. 175 

3. consilia communicare : were making common cause. 

4. sibi cogitandum : sc. esse, that he must make his plans. 

III. 5. proximis quatttior legionibus : probably the three 
which were wintering about Samarobriva and the one among the 
Morini which Fabius commanded. See Bk. V, Chaps. XXIV and 

8. ea : fern, sing., to agree with praeda ; but it refers to the cattle 
and people captured, and we may translate these . . . as booty. 

14. ut . . . videretur : that he might be seen to make everything 
(else) 'subordinate. Lutetiam Farisiorum : to the Littetia (which 


PAGE is a town) of the Parisii. There may have been other Lutetias. 

175 Caesar's Lutetia is Paris, named from the Parisii. This is the first 
mention of Paris we have in history. 

15. civitatem coniunxerant : i.e. with the state of the Senones, 
a close alliance, or federation. 

1 6. ab hoc consilio afuisse : to have had no part in this design, 
i.e. of revolt. 

17. pro suggestu: see Introd., p. 42. 

IV. 20. princeps : leader. 

21. oppida : walled towns, in which the people assembled in time 
of danger. Conantibus : dat., agreeing with a pron. depending on 
nuntialur ; lit. to them making the attempt. 

24. per Haeduos : the Haedui served as mediators, to introduce 
the envoys to Caesar. quorum in fide : under whose protection. 

26. instantis belli esse : belonged to the impending war. The 
war is the one against the Treveri and Ambiorix. See 11. 32, 33 

27. quaestionis : this was postponed until later ; see Chap. XLI V. 

28. custodiendos : A. 500. 4 ; B. 337. 8. b. 2 (337. 7. b. 2) ; 
G. 430 ; H. 622 ; HB. 605. 2. 

29. Remis : the Remi, as well as the Haedui, were friendly to the 

V. 33. Cavarinum : see Bk. V, Chap. LIV. 

176 2. quod meruerat odio : hatred which he had earned, by his 
harshness and cruelty, no doubt. 

7. hospitium : see note on p. 73, 1. 23. 

8. per Treveros : not to be connected with cognoverat. ve- 
nisse : sc. as subject Ambiorigem. 

9. illi : from him, lit. for him (to his disadvantage). 

15. loci praesidio : protection of their natural situation. 

VI. 17. partitis : passive in meaning. 

1 8. tripartite: in three columns, commanded respectively by 
Caesar, Fabius, and Crassus. 

23. Commium: seep. 135, 1. 18.. 

24. custodis loco : as a guard. 

VII. 29. cum cognoscunt: A. 546. a; B. 288. 2; G. 581; 
H. 600. I. i ; HB. 566. a. 

30. a milibus passuum xv : fifteen miles away. 
33. impedimentis : cf. I. 12. 

177 5. Augebatur spes : in the minds of the Treveri. 
6. Loquitur : sc. Labienus. 

8. et: but. 


10. Gallorum equitum : the cavalry of Labienus, made up PAGE 
mostly of Gauls. ' 177 

11. primis ordinibus : centurions of the first rank. 

1 6. in ... castrorum : as the camps were so near each other. 

VIII. 20. perterritis Romanis : now that the Romans were 
thoroughly frightened. 

21. exspectare : subject of esse. 

24. Quae fore suspicatus : suspecting that this would happen. 

28. petistis : for petiistis, petivistis. 

29. ducibus : pi. because nobis is pi., but both refer to Labie- 
nus himself. The plural pronoun of the first person is not seldom 
used of a single person. Note the distinction between dux and 

35. quos fugere . . . ire : that those whom they believed to be 
fleeing were coming, etc. 

4. civitatem recepit : recovered the state, which had revolted. 178 

7. comitati eos : accompanying them. 

8. Cingetorigi: see p. 146, 1. 19, and p. 172, 1. 25. 

IX. 10. in Treveros : cf. p. 176, 1. 25. 

12. ad eos receptum: a retreat to them, i.e. a place of refuge 
among them. 

13. supra eum locum: see note on p. 132, 1. 18. 

15. Nota: the plan was known from the experience of two years 
before. Cf. Bk. IV, Chap. XVII. 

18. obsides dederant: see Bk. IV, Chap. XVI. 

19. purgandi sui causa: to clear themselves. 

23. amplius obsidum : more hostages. velit: subj. of im- 
plied ind. disc. 

24. Cognita causa : having investigated the case. 

X. 33. ad ... condicionem : i.e. to fight under unfavorable 

8. pro . . . obiectam : intervening as a natural wall. See 179 
the map of Gaul. 

XI. 12. locum: i.e. in the story. alienum: inapposite. 

17. principes sunt . . . redeat: those who in the judgment 
of the people (eorum*) are considered to have the greatest influence 
are the leaders, to whose will and judgment the control, etc. The 
subj. is characteristic. 

21. auxili: A. 356; B. 212. I ; G. 383. i ; H. 458. 2; HB. 347. 
23. Haec . . . Galliae : there is this same system in the general 
arrangement of Gaul as a whole. 

Caesar devotes eighteen chapters to a description and comparison 

39 6 


PAGE of Gaul and Germany. His description of Britain in Bk. V occupies 
179 only three chapters. Both Gaul and Germany were nearer at hand 
than Britain, and information regarding them was more easily acces- 
sible. Yet Caesar's informants seem to have deceived him occa- 

XII. 25. principes: with this chapter compare the speech of 
Diviciacus, Bk. I, Chap. XXXI. 

28. clientelae : dependencies, i.e. subject tribes. 
IQQ I . antecesserant : sc. Sequani. 

4. occupatam possiderent: seized and held. 

7. infecta re: unsuccessful. Adventu Caesaris : Caesar 
drove out Ariovistus and the Germans, who supported the claims 
of the Sequani against the Haedui, though they also ill-treated the 

10. eorum: i.e. Haeduorwn. 

13. quos . . . intellegebatur : and because it was understood 
that they (the Remi) were equally (with the Haedui) in favor with 
, 19. obtinerent : held. 

XIII. 20. aliquo numero :. of some account. 

21. plebes : what other nominative form has this word ? 

22. nulli adhibetur consilio : is admitted to (a share in) no 

25. quibus sunt : who have. 

27. druidum: see Introd., pp. 27,28. equitum: knights, an 
order of nobility, which seemed to Caesar to correspond to the 
equestrian order at Rome. 

28. procurant: attend to, perform. religiones: z'.. questions 
concerning the will of the gods as shown by signs and omens, and 
the duties of mankind towards the gods. 

30. hi : the druids. apud eos : i.e. apud Gallos. 

181 2. sacrificiis: abl. of separation. Haec poena: excommuni 

cation would be a modern equivalent. 
3. Quibus : dat. 

5. incommodi: limits quid. 

6. neque ius redditur : i.e. they are outside the pale of law. 
9. plures : more (than one), several. 

lo. armis : in modern times, too, appeals have sometimes been 
made from the ballot to arms. 

15. in Britannia reperta: this may or may not be true. Some 
think that when the Celts entered Gaul (see Introd., p. 24) they 
found druidism already existing there. 


XIV. 24. ea : the precepts of their religion. litteris man- PAGE 
dare : to commit to writing. cum : though. 181 

25. rationibus : accounts, transactions. 

26. in vulgus eff erri : to become public. 

27. velint : why subjunctive ? 

28. minus memoriae studere : to cultivate the memory less. 

30. remittant: relax. hoc persuadere : to inculcate this doc- 

31. animas: souls, or the soul. transire : the doctrine of 
the transmigration of souls is especially prominent in the Hinduism 
of India. 

33. Multa . . . disputant: it seems, then, that the druids 
studied astronomy, geography, and natural science, as well as 

XV. I. Alterum: cf. p. 180, 11. 26, 27. 182 

3. iniurias inferrent : this refers to offensive war, and inlatas 
(sc. iniurias} propulsarent to defensive war. 

4. ut : in proportion as. 

6. ambactos : slaves, a Gallic word. clientis: dependents, 
having more freedom than slaves, yet owing certain services to their 
patromis. Cf. the noun clientela, p. 179, 1. 28. Hanc . . . 
no verunt : this is the only form of personal influence and power 
with which they are acqiiainted. 

XVI. 8. religionibus : to religious observances. 

1 1 . homines immolant : there seems little reason to doubt this 
statement. Cf. Bk. V, Chap. LVI. The Romans offered human 
sacrifices as late as the battle of Cannae, if Livy is to be believed. 

14. placari : to be propitiated. publice : besides those just 
mentioned, which seem to have been sacrifices offered by powerful 

XVII. 22. Mercurium: Caesar gives to the Gallic divinities 
names belonging to gods worshiped by the Romans. 

24. viarum atque itinerum : roads and journeys. 
30. ceperint: subj. of informal ind. disc. 

3. ut . . . auderet : subject of accidit. 183 

4. capta . . . occultare : to conceal at his own hoiise things 
which had been captured. posita: things which had been placed 
in the consecrated spots. 

XVIII. 6. ab Dite prognatos : this perhaps means that they 
considered themselves to have sprung from the earth. Cf. p. 151, 

1. 12. 

8. noctium : cf. the English ^fortnight,' i.e. fourteen nights. 


PAGE 9. rioctem dies subs e qua tur : i.e. the complete day consists 

183 of a night and the following period of daylight. They held night 
in such honor because they considered themselves descended from 
the god of the lower world, or world of darkness. 

13. puerili aetate : abl. of quality, or description. 

14. adsistere : to take his place, i.e. to show himself. 

XIX. 15. d otis nomine : as dowry. 

17. communicant : place in a common fund. 

18. fructus : the income, or profits. vita super avit : survives. 
It would be interesting to know by whom this joint estate was man- 
aged, and whether the provisions here mentioned were always 
strictly carried out. 

20. in uxores : over their wives. 

21. decessit: dies. 

22. si ... venit : i.e. if there is suspicion of foul play. 

23. de uxoribus: notice the plural. in servilem modum: 
the Roman way of examining slaves was by torture. 

24. compertum est : the subject of this impersonal' is easily 
supplied. excruciatas interficiunt: they torture them and put 
them to death. 

26. cordi fuisse : were (for) a delight. A. 382. i ; B. 191. 2. a ; 
0.356; H. 433; HB. 360. 

27. hanc memoriam : i.e. hominum qui nunc sunt memoriam. 

28. iustis funebribus : the regular funeral rites. 

29. una cremabantur : it was thought that these slaughtered 
dependents would be useful to the master in the life after death. 

XX. 30. Quae civitates : trans, as if eae civitates quae, and 
notice once more this Latin idiom. 

31. habent sanctum: have (if) ordained', sanctum agrees with 
the object of habent, which is the substantive clause uti . . . com- 
municet. As the condition si . . . acceperit is subordinate to 
deferat and communicet, translate as if uti preceded si quis. 
32. rumore ac fama : the former is the vaguer of the two words. 

33. neve . . . communicet : and not impart it to any one 
else. Since neve contains the particle ne, quo (from quis) is the 
proper indefinite. 
184' 2. cognitum est: it is known (has been learned}. 

3. visa sunt : sc. occultanda. ex usu : of advantage. 

4. nisi per concilium : i.e. no private discussion of affairs of 
state is allowed. 

XXI. 7. praesint : manage, or direct. 
8. student : pay attention to. 


9. Vulcanum : fire, or the fire-god. PAGE 

10. ne . . . acceperunt: they have never even heard of. A 184 
later writer, Tacitus, makes the religion of the Germans more elabo- 
rate than Caesar represents it. Caesar's information may have been 
defective, or the religious system may have developed during the 
century and a half that separated the two writers. 

1 1 . venationibus, studiis : pluralizing these abstracts turns 
them into concretes. a parvis : from babies, \.z.from babyhood. 

13. hoc : abl. of means. 

XXII. 20. agri: of land. 

23. quique una coierunt: sc. Us ; and to those who have 
banded together. quantum visum est agri : as much land as 
seems best. 

24. alio : an adv. 

25. ne . . . commutent : this and the four clauses which follow 
are explanatory of causas. adsidua consuetudine capti : under 
the influence of (taken by) long-continued familiarity , i.e. with some 
definite tract of land. studium . . . commutent: give up an 
interest in warfare for agriculture. For the ablative see A. 417. b ; 
B. 222. A (218. 5) ; G. 404. N. i ; H. 478. 4; HB. 431. 

28. aedificent : build houses. Notice the derivation of the word. 

30. animi aequitate contineant : keep contented (lit. hold in 
check by means of contentment of spirit). 

31. cum suas quisque videat : everybody seeing his own. In 
Italy at this time the small landholders had been nearly all driven 
out of their possessions by the potentissimi. This concentration of 
wealth in the hands of the few seems an almost inevitable accom- 
paniment of advancing civilization. cum potentissimis : i.e. ciim 
potentissi7norum opibus. 

XXIII. 33. proprium: a characteristic (indication); 

i. expulsos . . . consistere: this explains hoc, p. 184,1.33. 185 

4. def endit : notice the literal meaning of defendere, to strike 
down (or away). 

5. praesint : why subjunctive ? deliguntur : perhaps by lot. 

7. ius dicunt : declare the law, i.e. administer justice. 

8. Latrocinia : marauding expeditions. They see no distinc- 
tion between these and legitimate warfare. 

10. ubi quis : whenever any one. 

11. profiteantur: represents an imperative. 

14. omnium ... derogatur: confidence is withdrawn from 
them thereafter in all matters ; his is dat. 

18. communicatur : is shared. The laws of hospitality are 


PAGE often more strictly observed by primitive peoples than by the more 

185 civilized. 

The ancestors of the English were Germans. Scholars have been 
interested in tracing the traits of the ancient Germans to their devel- 
opment in England, as well as on the continent of Europe. 

XXIV. 20. ultro bella inferrent: waged offensive wars 
against them. 

23. Hercyniam silvam : this extended from the Black Forest 
eastward to the Carpathians. Hercynius is said to mean 'high,' 
or 'mountainous.' Eratostheni: a scholar of Alexandria, of the 
third century B.C. He wrote a work on geography, one of the earli- 
est scientific works on that subject. 

24. Volcae Tectosages : a Gallic tribe of this name dwelt near 
the Pyrenees. Doubts have been cast on Caesar's statement that the 
Volcae Tectosages in Germany came from Gaul. They may have 
been descended from a remnant of the tribe left behind in Germany 
in the general Celtic migration westward. See Introd., p. 24. 

28. patientia : endurance of hardship. qua ante : as before. 

29. Gallis : dat., depending on largitur. 

30. provinciarum : Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul and Hither 

3 1 . adsuef acti : sc. hi, or Galli. 

32. cum. illis : i.e. cum Germanis. 

186 XXV. 2. expedite : for one unencumbered, i.e. a rapid walker, 
traveling, perhaps, twenty-five miles a day. 

3. mensuras itinerum : e.g. miles, or paces. 

4. recta . . . regione : by the straight direction of the Danube, 
i.e. following the line of the Danube. 

6. sinistrorsus : to the left. River and forest part company, 
the river turning towards the south. 

8. Iiuius Germaniae : of this part of Germany, the part nearest 

9. initium : we should call the most remote point the end rather 
than the beginning. 

10. multa genera ferarum: the misinformation which follows 
may be due to intentional deception on the part of Caesar's informants. 

12. memoriae pro denda : worthy of mention. 

XXVI. 14. bos : so also the elephant was called bos by the Ro- 
mans. Probably the reindeer furnished the basis of this description. 

15. his ., . . cornibus: i.e. the horns of the animals which we 

.16. sicut palmae ramique : branching antlers shaped like the 


human hand (lit. as if hands and branches). These two words PAGE 
illustrate the rhetorical figure called hendiadys. 186 

17. maris : gen. of mas. The horns of the female reindeer 
are, as a matter of fact, shorter than those of the male. 

XXVII. 19. Sunt item : then again there are. 

20. capris : i.e. caprarum figurae. varietas : mottled color- 
ing. magnitudine paulo antecedunt : they go ahead of them 
a little in size. 

21. mutilae cornibus : the antlers of the European elk, which 
resembles our moose, are broad and blunt. nodis articulisque : 
knuckles and joints, the nodi being the outer manifestations of the 

24. sunt pro : serve for. se applicant : i.e. they lean against 
the trees. 

25. paulum modo : just a little. 

27. quo . . . consuerint : an ind. quest. 

28. tantum . . . relinquatur : only far enough so that the 
perfect appearance of standing trees is still preserved. 

XXVIII. 32. uri : probably the aurochs, a species of bison, now 
nearly extinct. 

33. specie . . . tauri: three ablatives of quality, or description, 
limited by a genitive 

I . quam conspexerunt : which they have once caught sight of. 187 

4. relatis in publicum cornibus : exhibiting the horns. 

5. adsuescere ad homines : to get accustomed to men. 

6. ne . . . excepti : not even if caught when very little. 

8. Haec : i.e. cornua. ab labris : at the lips, i.e. the brim, or 
larger end, of the horn. 




acriter, sharply. 
acerbus, bitter. 
acerbe, bitterly. 
acerbitas, bitterness. 
acies, sharp edge, battle-line. 
aciitus, sharpened. 


ago, drive. 

agito, set in violent motion, discuss. 

actuarius, driven, swift. 

agmen, marching army. 

ad-igo, drive to, drive. 

cogo (co- + ago), drive together, 


cogito (co- + agito), consider thor- 

. coagmento, fasten together. 
ex-agito, drive about. 
ex-cogito, think out. 
ex-igo, drive out, pass. 
nav-igo (V NAV), sail. 
per-ago, carry through, finish. 
red-ig5, drive back, rediice. 
sub-igo, drive up, subdue. 
ager, land, territory. 
alarms, belonging to the wing. 


alter, the other of two. 
alternus, one after the other. 
alius, another. 
alias, at another time. 

alio, to another place. 

aliter, otherwise. 

alienus, another's. 

alieno, make another 1 s t alienate, 

drive insane. 
ali-quis, some one. 
ali-quam-divi, for some time. 
ali-quando, at some time or other. 
ali-quantus, some. 
ali-quanto, somewhat. 

4. V AR, FIT 

artus, close. 

arte, closely. 

articulus, small joint. 

ars, skill. 

arti-ficium (V FAC )> handicraft, 


in-ers, vvithout skill. 
sollertia, skill. 
arma, arms, weapons. 
armo, arm, equip. 
armatus, armed, equipped'. 
armamenta, equipment. 
armatura, armor, equipment. 
in-ermis, imarmed. 


augeo, increase. 
auctor, author. 
auctoritas, authority. 
auxilium, help, support. 
auxilior, give help. 
auxiliaris, atixiliary. 





cado, fall. 

cadaver, corpse. 

casus, falling, event. 

ac-cido (ad + cado),y#// to, hap- 

con-cido (com- + cado), fall, be 


de-cido, fall down. 
in-cido, fall upon, occiir. 
oc-cido (ob + cado), fall, die, set. 
oc-casio, opportunity. 
oc-casus, setting, west. 
re-cido, fall back. 


caedo, cTit, fell. 

caedes, killing, massacre. 

abs-cido, cut away, lop off". 

ex-cido, cut out, destroy. 

in-cido, cut into, notch. 

oc-cld5 (ob + caedo), cut down, 

suc-cldo (sub + caedo), ctit ojf 'be- 

low, cut down. 


Kalendae (Calendae), day of proc- 

lamation, Calends. 
con-cilio (com-), call together, make 


con-cilium, assembly. 
clamor, shout. 

clamito, call repeatedly, cry out. 
clarus, clear, loud. 
de-claro, declare. 
classis, thing summoned, fleet. 


capio, take. 
captus, capacity. 
captivus, captive. 

ac-cipio (ad + capio), receive. 
ac-ceptus, acceptable. 
de-cipio, deceive. 
ex-cipio, take oiit, capttire. 
ex-cepto, take tip. 
in-cipio, take hold of, begin. 
prae-cipio, take in advance, direct. 
prae-ceptum, direction. 
prae-cipuus, special. 
prae-cipue, especially. 
re-cipio, take back. 
re-ceptus, retreat. 
re-ceptaculum, place of refuge. 
sus-cipio (subs- = sub + capio), 

caput, head. 
an-ceps (for ambi-ceps), with two 

heads, doubtful. 
prae-ceps, headlong. 
prae-cipito, throw headlong. 
oc-cupo (ob), take up, seize. 
oc-cupatus, taken up, busy. 
oc-cupatio, business. 
dein-ceps, taken next, in turn. 
prin-ceps (primus), foremost, chief. 
prin-cipatus, chief place. 

10. V CED, GO 

cedo, go, yield. 

ac-cedo (ad), go towards, be added. 

ante-cedo, go 'before. 

con-cedo (com-),^ aiuay, yield. 

de-cedd, go away. 

de-cessus, going away, ebbing. 

dis-cedo, go in different directions. 

dis-cessus, departure. 

ex-cedo, go out. 

inter-ced5, come between. 

prae-cedo, surpass. 

pro-cedo, go forward. 

re-cedo, go back. 

re-cessus, retreat. 

suc-cedo (sub), go up, succeed. 

suc-cessus, approach. 




ex-cello, be eminent. 
ex-celsus, elevated. 
collis, hill. 
culmen, summit. 

12. V CLI, LEAN 
clivus, hill. 

ac-clivis (ad), sloping upward. 
ac-clivitas, ascent. 
de-clivis, sloping downward. 
de-clivitas, slope. 
pro-clino, bend forward. 
re-clino, bend back. 

13. V COL, TILL 

colo, ////, honor. 
in-colo, inhabit. 
colonia, colony. 
Cultura, tillage. 
cultus, care, way of living. 

14. V CVR, RUN 

currus, wagon, chariot. 
cursus, speed. 

ac-curro (ad), run toward. 
ante-cursor, forerunner. 
con-curr5 (com-), run together. 
con-cursus, running together. 
con-curso, run about. 
de-curro, run down. 
ex-cursio, sally. 
in-cursio, inroad, raid. 
in-cursus, attack. 
oc-curro (ob), run against, meet. 
per-curro, run throiigh. 
prae-curro, run before. 
prS-curro, rtm forward. 
suc-curro (sub), run to help. 

15. V DA, GIVE 
do, give. 

de-do, give tip, surrender. 
de-ditio, surrender. 
de-ditlcius, prisoner of war. 

man-do (manus), give into one's 

hands, enjoin. 
man-datum, charge. 
com-mendo, intrust. 
pro-do, give forth, betray. 
pro-ditor, traitor. 
pro-diti5, treason. 
red-do, give back. 
tra-do (for trans-do), give over, 

dos, dowry. 
donum, gift. 
dono, give, present. 
con-dono (com-),^'^!?, remit. 
sacer-dos (\/ SA.C) , friest. 

1 6. V DA, PUT (only in compounds) 

ab-do, put away, hide. 

ab-ditus, hidden. 

ad-do, put to, add. 

circum-do, put around, surround. 

credo, piit confidence in, believe. 

in-credibilis, incredible. 

e-do, put forth. 

e-ditus, elevated. 

per-ditus, lost, corrupt. 


dico, say. 

dico, proclaim, dedicate. 

dictum, saying. 

in-dictus, not said. 

dictio, pleading. 

dicio, bidding, sway. 

con-dicio (com-), condition. 

in-dlco, proclaim. 

in-dicium, information. 

inter-dico, forbid. 

ifi-dico (V TV}, judge. 

iu-dicium, judgment. 

ad-iudico, adjudge, award. 

prae-dico, announce. 

praeco (for praedico), herald. 




divinus, divine. 

deus, god. 

ditissimus, richest. 

dies, day. 

men-dies (for medi-dies, medius + 

dies), midday, south. 
meri-dianus, of noon. 
postri-die (posterus), on the next 


pri-die (VrRl), on the day before. 
diurnus, pertaining to the day. 
inter-diu, in the daytime. 
bi-duum (bis), two days. 
tri-duum (tres), three days. 


duo, two. 

du-plex (plango, strike), twofold. 

du-plico, double. 

dubius, dotibtful. 

dubito, doubt. 

dubitatio, doubt. 

dis-, inseparable prefix, apart. 

bis (for duis), twice. 

bi-, inseparable prefix, two, twice. 

bini, tivo at a time. 

bl-duum (V Div), two days. 

20. V -DVC, LEAD 

duco, lead. 

ductus, leadership. 

dux (for dues), leader. 

ab-duco, lead away. 

ad-duco, lead to. 

con-duco (com-), lead together, 


de-duco, lead* down. 
di-duco, lead apart. 
e-duco, lead out. 
in-duco, lead in. 
ob-duco, lead to meet, extend. 

per-duco, lead through. 
prae-diico, lead forward. 
re-duco, lead back. 
sub-duco, lead off, draw up. 
tra-duco (for trans-duco), leaa 

21. V EM, TAKE 

emo, buy. 

ad-imo, take to oneself. 

co-emo, pttrchase. 

demo (de + emo), take down. 

ex-emplum, example. 

ex-imius, taken out, exceptional. 

praemium (for prae-emium), ad- 
vantage, prize. 

promptus (pro + emptus), fcrottgh 
forth, manifest, ready. 

red-imo, buy back. 

sumo (sub + emo), take itp, as- 
sume, spend. 

sumptus, expense. 

sumptuosus, costly. 

con-sumo (com-), use up. 

22. V ES, BE, LIVE 

sum, be, live. 

ab-sum, be away. 

ab-sens, absent. 

ad-sum, be near. 

de-sum, be wanting. 

pos-sum (for potis, able + sum), bt 

powerful, be able. 
potens, powerful. 
potentia, power, authority. 
potentatus, power. 
prae-sum, be at the head of. 
prae-sens, present. 
prae-sentia, presence, present. 
pro-sum,, be of advantage. 
sub-sum, be tinder, be at hand. 
super-sum, be over, be left. 



23. 'V FA, SPEAK 

f atum, utterance, fate. 
in-fans, unable to speak, infant. 
fama, story, report. 
in-famia, evil repute. 
fas, divine law. 
ne-fas, impioits act. 
ne-farius, execrable. 
con-titeor (com-), confess. 
pro-fiteor, declare publicly. 

24. V FAC, MAKE 

facio, make, do. 

factum, deed. 

factio, faction. 

facilis, easy. 

facile, easily. 

facultas, ability. 

dif-ficilis' (dis- + facilis), difficult. 

dif-ficulter, with difficulty. 

dif-ficultas, difficiilty. 

per-facilis, very easy. 

in-fectus, not done. 

pate-facio (pateo), lay open. 

satis-facio, do enough, give satisfac- 

satis-factio, apology. 

facinus, deed, crime. 

ad-ficio, do to, affect. 

con-ficio (com- + faci5), make com- 

de-ficio, break loose from, revolt. 

de-fectio, revolt. 

ef-ficio (ex + facio), cause, make. 

In-ficio, stain, paint. 

inter-ficio, put to death. 

per-fici5, make thoro^tghly, bring 

prae-ficio, set over. 

prae-fectus, overseer, commander. 

pro-ficio, make headway, effect. 

pro-ticiscor, set out. 

pro-fectio, departure. 

re-ficio, remake, recrztit. 
suf-ticio (sub + facio), be sufficient. 
arti-ficium ( V AR), handicraft, craft. 
bene-ficium, good deed, favor. 
male-ficium, evil deed, injury. 
of-ficium (ops), service, drity. 
sacri-ficium (V SAC), sacrifice. 
magni-ficus (A/ MAG), splendid. 
aedi-fico (aedes, building), build. 
aedi-ficium, building. 
signi-fico (slgnum), make signs, 

signi-ticati5, sign, expression. 


de-fendo, ward off, defend. 

de-fensio, defense. 

de-fensor, defender. 

of-fendo (ob), strike against, offend. 

of-fensio, striking against, offense. 

26. V FER, BEAR 

fero, bear. 
ferax, fertile. 
fertilis, fertile. 
f ertilitas, fertility. 
ad-fero, bear to. 
ante-fero, bear before. 
con-fero (com-), bear together. 
de-fero, bear off. 
ef-fero (ex), bear out. 
In-fero, bear in. 

of-fero (ob), bear before, present. 
per-fero, bear through, endure, an- 

prae-fero, bear before, prefer. 
pro-fero, bear forth, reveal. 
re-fero, bear back. 
trans-fero, bear over. 
aquili-fer (aquila), eagle-bearer. 
fors, chance. 
fortulto, by chance. 



fortuna, fortune. 
fortiinatus, fortunate. 
furtum, theft. 


fides, trust, faith. 

fidelis, trustworthy. 

In-fidelis, untrustworthy. 

fiducia, trust, reliance. 

con-fido (com- + fido, trusf), have 

trust in. 

per-fidia, faithle ssness. 
foedus, agreement, alliance. 


fruor, enjoy, reap the benefit of. 
fructus, enjoyment, friiit. 
fructuosus, fruitful. 
frux (for ttVLgz), fruit, produce. 
frumentum, grain. 
frumentor, get grain, forage. 
frumentatio, foraging. 
frumentarius, of grain, fertile. 


gens, race. 

in-gens, not natural, enormotts. 

genus, family, nation, kind, class. 

generatim, by kinds, by nations. 

nascor (for gnascor), be born. 

natus, birth, age. 

pro-gnatus, descended. 

natalis, of birth. 

natio, race, people. 

co-gnatio, kindred: 

natlvus, natiiral. 

natura, nature. 

e-nascor, grow out. 

30. V GNO, KNOW 

nosco (for gnosco), learn. 
co-gnosco, learn. 

i-gnosco (in- + (g)nosco), over- 

notus, known, familiar. 

notitia, knowledge. 

i-gnotus (in- + (g)notus), w\ 


nobilis, well-known, noble. 
nobilitas, nobility. 
i-gnobilis (in- + (g) nobilis), UK 

known, obscure. 
nomen, name, renown. 
nomino, name. 
nominatim, by name. 
i-gnominia (in-), disgrace. 
i-gnoro (in-), not know. 


ad-gredior, move toward, attack. 
con-gredior (com-), come together 

join battle. 

con-gressus, meeting, encounter. 
e-gredior, go out, disembark. 
e-gressus, going out, disembarkation 
in-gredior, go in, enter. 
pro-gredior, go forward, advance. 
trans-gredior, step across, pass ovei 

32. V HAB, HAVE 

habeo, have, hold. 

ad-hibeo, hold to, make ^ese of. 

debeo (for de-hibeo), withhold 

praebeo (for prae-hibeo), hold be 

fore, offer. 
pro-hibeo, hold back, impede, pre 


33. V I, GO 

iter, way, march. 
ab-eo, go away. 
ad-eo, go to, get at. 
ad-itus, approach, access. 
circum-eo, go around, surround. 
co-eo, go together. 
com-es, companion. 



com-itia, assembly, election. 

com-itor, accompany. 

ex-eo, go out. 

ex-itus, departure, conclusion, out- 

in-eo, go into. 

in-itium, entrance, beginning. 

inter-eo, perish. 

inter-itus, destruction, death. 

intro-eo, go within, enter. 

intro-itus, entrance. 

ob-eo, go to meet. 

ob-itus, death. 

per-eo, pass aivay, be killed. 

praetor (for prae-itor), leader, prae- 

praetorius, praetorian. 

prod-eo (pr5), go forward, proceed. 

red-eo, go back. 

red-itus, retiirn. 

red-itio, return. 

sed-iti5, dissension, insurrection. 

sed-itiosus, factious, turbident. 

sub-eo, go tinder, enter, approach, 

sub-itus, sudden. 

sub-ito, suddenly. 

trans-eo, go across. 

trans-itus, crossing. 


iacio, throw. 

iactura, throwing away, loss. 

iacto, keep throwing. 

iaculum, missile. 

ab-icio, throw away. 

ad-ici5, throw to, add to. 

con-icio (com- -f- iacio), throw 

together, put together. 
con-iectura, giiess. 
de-icio, throw down. 
de-iectus, declivity. 
dis-icio, throw apart, rout. 
e-icio, throw out. 

ob-icio, throw before, interpose. 
pro-icio, throw forward, hurl down. 
re-icio, throw back. 
sub-icio, throw under, siibject. 
tra-icio (trans + iacio), throw 

across, pierce. 
tra-iectus, passage. 
iaceo, lie prostrate. 
ad-iaceo, lie near. 


ius, that which is binding, right, law t 

iustus, lawful, just. 

iustitia, justice, uprightness. 

iuro, take oath. 

ius iurandum, oath. 

con-iuro (com-), take oath together t 

con-iuratio, conspiracy. 

iu-dico (V T>lC),jtidge. 

iu-dicium, judgment. 

ad-iudico, adjudge, award. 

iugum, yoke, ridge, hill. 

iungo, join. 

iunctura, joining, joint. 

iumentum, yoke-animal, pack-ani- 

ab-iungo, separate, ciit off. 

ad-iungo, join to. 

con-iung5 (com-),_/oz. 

con-iunx, husband, wife. 

iuxta, close by. 


legio, levy, legion. 
legionarius, belonging to a legion. 
con-ligo(com- + lego), collect, rally. 
de-ligo, choose, select. 
dl-ligo, single out, love. 
di-lectus, choosing, levy. 
di-ligenter, carefully. 
di-ligentia, carefulness. 
in-dlligens, careless. 



in-diligenter, carelessly. 
in-diligentia, carelessness. 
intel-lego (for inter-lego), perceive, 

neg-lego (nee- = ne-), pass over, 

be indifferent to. 
per-lego, read through. 

37. V LIC, LET 

licet, it is permitted. 

liceor, bid. 

licentia, license. 

pol-liceor (por- = pro), offer, 

pol-licitatio, promise, pledge. 


re-linquo, leave behind. 
re-liquus, remaining. 
de-Uctum, fault, -wrong. 



lux (for lues), light. 
liina (for lucsna), moon. 
in-lustris, brilliant, noble. 

40. V MAG, BIG 

magnus, large, great. 
magnitude, greatness, might. 
magni-ficus (y' FAC), splendid. 
magn-opere (opus), with great 

labor, greatly. 
per-magnus, very large. 
magis, more. 

magistratus, ptiblic office, magistrate. 
malo (for magis volo), wish rather, 


maior, greater. 
maiestas, greatness, dignity. 
maxime, in the highest degree. 


manus, hand. 

man-do (\/ DA., give}, give into one'i 

hands, enjoin. 
man-datum, charge. 
mani-pulus (V PLE), kattdful, 


mani-pularis, soldier of a maniple. 
man-suetudo (suesco, become accus- 

tomed'), tameness, mercy. 
mansue-facio (V FAC), make tame. 
corn-minus, hand to hand. 
e-minus, at a distance. 


maneo, stay. 

per-maneo, remain, continue. 

re-maneo, stay behind. 

mens, mind, purpose. 

mentio, calling to mind, mention. 

de-mentia, folly. 

meminT, remember. 

re-miniscor, recall to mind. 

moneo, remind, warn. 

de-monstro, point out, show. 

43. V MIT, SEND 

mitt 6, send. 

missus, sending. 

a-mitto, send away, lose. 

ad-mitto, send to, admit, incur. 

com-mitto, send together, intrust. 

com-missura, joining. 

de-mitto, send down, drive. 

de-missus, loiv-lying. 

dl-mitt5, send in different directions, 


e-mitt5, send out, hurl, let go. 
im-mitto (in), send in, insert, 

throw at. 
inter-mitto, let go between, leave off, 




intro-mitto, send within, admit. 
o-mitto (ob), let go, lay aside, neg- 

per-mitto, let pass, yield, allow. 
prae-mitto, send before. 
praeter-mitto, allozv to go by, neglect. 
pro-mitto, send forth, let grow. 
re-mitto, send back, relax. 
re-missus, gentle. 

sub-mitto, send under, send to help. 
trans-mitto, send across. 
trans-missus, passage. 

44. V MOE, MV, WALL 

moenia, city walls. 

munio, wall, fortify. 

munitus, fortified. 

munitio, fortification. 

munlmentum, fortification, defense. 

com-munio, fortify co>npletely,sec^lre. 

murus, wall. 

muralis, of a wall, mural. 

45. V MOV, MOVE 

moveo, move. 
motus, motion, disturbance. 
momentum, movement, importance. 
mobilis, movable, changeable. 
mobiliter, rapidly, easily. 
mSbilitas, mobility, changeableness. 
com-move5, disturb, impel. 
per-moveo, move deeply, frighten, 


pro-moveo, move forward. 
re-moveo, move back. 
re-motus, distant. 
sub-moveo, drive off. 

46. V MV, SHARE 

munus, service, gift. 
com-munis, common. 

com-munico, impart, share. 
im-munis (in-), without obligation. 
im-munitas, exemption. 
re-muneror, repay, reward. 

47. V NA, NAV, SWIM 

tra-no (for trans-no), swim over. 

navis, ship., of ships. 

navicula, boat. 

nav-igo ( VAG), sail. 

nav-igatio, sailing. 

nav-igium, vessel. 

nauta (for navita), sailor. 

nauticus, of sailors, of ships. 

48. V NE, NEC, NOT 

ne, not, that not, lest. 

ne-ve or neu, and not, nor, and lest. 

ne-cubi (for ne ub.i), lest somewhere, 
that nowhere. 

ne-quaquam (quisquam), in no way. 

ne-quiquam, to no purpose. 

ne-que or nee, and not, nor. 

nec-ne, or not. 

ne-fas (V FA), impious act. 

ne-farius, execrable. 

ne-uter, neither. 

neg-lego (for nee-lego), pass over, 
be indifferent to. 

nemo (for ne-homo), no one. 

no!5 (for ne-volo), not wish, be un- 

niillus (for ne-ullus), not any. 

numquam (for ne-umquam), never. 

nego, say not, deny. 

de-nego, refuse, deny. 

neg-otium, no leisure, business. 

neg-otior, carry on bztsiness. 

nihilum, nothing. 

nihil, nothing. 

nimis, beyond measicre, too. 

nimius, excessive. 



ni-si (si), if not, unless. 
non, not. 
non-dum, not yet. 


nex (for necs), death. 
neco, kill. 

inter-necio, slaughter, extermina- 

per-nicies, destruction. 
noceo, harm. 
nocens, harmful, guilty. 
in-nocens, harmless, innocent. 
in-nocentia, harmlessness, innocence. 
noxia, harm, offense. 

50. V NV, NOV, NOW, NEW 

num, interrogative particle implying 
a negative answer. 

nunc, now, Tinder these circum- 

nuper, newly, lately. 

novus, new, fresh. 

re-no vo, renew, begin again. 

nuntius (for novi-ventius, V YEN), 
bearer of tidings, news. 

ntlntio, announce, relate. 

de-nuntio, announce, order, threaten. 

e-nuntio, tell in public. 

pro-nuntio, proclaim. 

re-nuntio, report, declare elected. 

51. \/ PA, FEED 

pabulum, fodder. 
pa bulor, forage. 
pabulator, forager. 
pabulatio, foraging. 

52. V PAC, PAG, FIX 

pax (for pacs), agreement, treaty, 

paco, make peaceful, conquer. 
pacatus, peaceful, conquered. 
pactum, agreement. 
pagus, district, canton. 


paro, prepare, obtain. 
ap-paro (&&), prepare for, prepare. 
im-pero (in + paro), command, de- 

im-peratum, command. 
im-perator, commander, general. 
im-perium, command, authority. 
,se-paro, prepare apart, separate. 
se-paratus, separate. 
se-paratim, separately. 
pario, prodtice, effect. 



paucl, few. 

paucitas, fewness. 

paulum, a little. 

paulo, by a little, somewhat. 

paululum, a very little. 

paulatim, little by little. 

paulisper,^;- a little while. 


pes (for peels), foot. 

pedalis, a,foot in measure. 

pedes, foot-soldier. 

pedester, of foot-soldiers, on foot, 


peditatus, infantry. 
ex-pedio, unfetter, make ready. 
ex-pedltus, unencumbered, lightly 


ex-peditio, expedition. 
im-pedio (in), fetter, hinder. 
im-peditus, burdened, pathless. 
im-pedimentum, obstruction. 



op-pidum (ob), walled town, strong- 
op-pidanus, of a town., 


pello, drive. 

ap-pello (ad), drive to. 

com-pello, drive together, collect. 

de-pello, drive down, remove. 

ex-pello, drive out. 

im-pell5 (in), drive on, infiitence. 

im-pulsus, pressure, influence. 

pro-pello, drive forth, drive away. 

pro-pulso, drive forth, repel. 

re-pello, drive back, repel. 

pulvis, dust. 


per, through. 

peren-dinus (dies), after to-morrow. 

per-fidia (fides), faithlessness. 

per-paucl, very few. 

perltus, experienced, skilled. 

im-perltus (in-), unskilled, un- 
acquainted with. 

periculum, trial, danger. 

periculosus, full of danger. 

perlclitor, try, risk. 

com-perio, find o^lt. 

ex-perior, try, endure. 

re-peri6,y?;2flT again, find: 

pro-pero, hasten. 

porta, gateway, gate. 

porto, carry, convey. 

com-porto, carry together, collect. 

im-porto (in), carry in, import. 

portus, harbor. 

portorium, customs, tariff. 

op-portfinus (ob + portus), fit, 
fortunate, opportiine. 

op-portune, opportzmely. 

, opportitnity. 


plenus, full. 

pleri-que, very many, most. 

plerum-que, mostly, generally. 

plebes or plebs, the masses, the com- 
mon people. 

com-pleo,_/?// tip, crowd. 

ex-pie o, fi II out, make good. 

re-pleo,y?// again, replenish. 

sup-plementum (sub), that which 
fills up, reinforcements. 

plus, more. 

com-plures, many, several. 

plurimus, most, very mzich. 

populus, people, nation. 

mani-pulus (manus), handful, 

mani-pularis, soldier of a ?naniple. 


potius, rather, more. 
potior, become master of. 
potestas, power, dominion. 
possum (for potis, able + sum), be 

powerful, be able. 
potens, powerful. 
potentia, power, a^^thority. 
potentatus, pozoer. 
hos-pes (hostis), host,giiest, stranger. 
hos-pitium, hospitality, friendship. 

60. V PRO, PRI, PRAE, 


pro, before. 

pro-tinus (V TEN), straight for- 
ward, without pause. 
procul, far away. 
prone, with a forward slope. 
proprius, own, special, characteristic. 
prior, former, in advance. 
prius, before. 
primus, first. 
primS, at first. 



primum, first of all. 

pri-die (dies), on the day before. 

prin-ceps (primus + capi5), fore- 
most, chief. 

prin-cipatus, chief place. 

pnstinus, previous, old. 

privatus, private, isolated. 

privatim, privately, individually. 

prae, before, in comparison with, on 
account of. 

praeter, beyond, except. 

praeter-ea (is), besides. 

prae-cipio (capio), take in advance, 

prae-ceptum, direction. 

prae-ceps (V CAP), headlong. 

prae-cipuus (V CAP), special. 

prae-cipue, especially. 

praeco (prae + dico), herald. 

praemium (for prae-emium), ad- 
vantage, prize. 

praesertim, especially. 

praesto, at hand, present. 

praetor (V i), leader, praetor. 

praetorius, praetorian. 


pugno, fight. 
pugna, fight. 

de-pugnd, fight a decisive battle. 
ex-pugno, take by storm. 
ex-pugnatio, taking, storming. . 
im-pugno (in), assail. 
op-pugno (ob), assault. 
op-pugnatio, assault. 
pro -pugno, repel attack. 
pro-pugnator, defender. 
re-pugno, make resistance. 


rapina, robbery. 
rapiditas, rush, swiftness. 
ad-ripio (rapio, snatcJi), snatch. 

di-ripio, tear to pieces, plunder. 
e-ripio, snatch out, rescue. 


rego, direct, control. 

rectus, straight. 

recte, rightly, safely. 

regio, direction, neighborhood, re- 

de-rigo, straighten out. 

de-rectus, straight. 

de-recte, straight. 

e-rigo, raise up. 

pergo (per + rego), press on, pro- 

por-rigo (por- = pro + rego), 
stretch forth, extend. 

rex (for regs), king, chief. 

regius, of a king.. 

regnum, kingly power, kingdom. 

regno, be king. 


cor-rumpo (com- + rumpo, break), 

destroy, ruin. 
e-rumpo, cause to break out, rtish 


e-ruptio, sally, sortie. 
in-rumpd, break in. 
in-ruptio, breaking in, incursion. 
per-rumpo, break through. 
prae-rumpo, break off. 
prae-ruptus, abrript, rugged. 
rupes, cliff, rock. 


sacer-dos (V DA, give} , priest. 
sacramentum, oath. 
sacri-ficium (V FAC), sacrifice. 
sancio, make sacred, enact. 
sanctus, consecrated, inviolable. 
ob-secro, beseech, conjure. 




scio, distinguish, know. 
scienter, skilfully. 
scientia, knowledge. 
con-scientia, consciousness. 
con-scius, conscious, aware. 
in-sciens, not knowing: 
Tn-scientia, lack of knowledge, inex- 


In-scius, not knowing. 
a-scisc5 (ad -f scisco, approve}, 

receive to oneself, accept. 
con-scisco (com- -f- scisco, ap- 

prove}, approve of, decide upon. 
re-scisco, find out, learn. 
scindo, split, tear up, break down. 
re-scindo, cut down, tear apart. 


scutum, shield. 
custos, guard. 
custodia, guard. 
custodio, guard. 


sequor, follow. 

secundus, following, second, favor- 


secundum, following, along, besides. 
sector, follow eagerly, hunt. 
con-sequor (com-), follow, come up 

with, obtain. 

ex-sequor, folloiu out, carry out. 
In-sequor, follotv upon, pursue, press 

per-sequor, follow through, pursue, 


pro-sequor, follow fonuard, see off. 
socius, associate, ally. 
societas, association, league. 

69. V SEC, CUT 

sectio, booty. 

sectura, digging, quarry, mine. 
de-seco, cut off. 
securis, ax. 

saxum (for secsum), large stone, 

70. V SED, SID, SIT 

sedes, abode. 

ad-siduus, sitting beside, incessant. 

con-sido (com-), take a position, 

make a home. 

de-sidia, idleness, indolence. 
In-sidiae, ambush, artifice. 
in-sidior, lie in ambush. 
ob-sideo, besiege, obstruct. 
ob-sidio, siege. 
ob-sessio, siege. 
ob-ses (for ob-sids), hostage. 
pos-sideo (por- = pro), occupy, man. 
pos-sessio, ownership, property. 
pos-sido, take possession of, seize. 
prae-sidium, defense, garrison. 
re-sideo, be left, abide. 
re-sido, settle down, grow calm. 
sub-sidium, reserve, aid, relief. 
sub-sido, settle down, stay. 
super-sedeo, sit above, refrain from. 


semel, once. 
semper, always, ever. 
similis, like. 

con-similis (com-), very similar. 
simul, at once, at the same time. 
similitud5, likeness. 
simulo, counterfeit, pretend. 
dis-simulo, disguise, keep secret. 
siniulatio, pretense. 
simulacrum, likeness, effigy. 
simultas, rivalry. 
singull, one at a time. 
singularis, solitary, remarkable. 
singillatim, one by one. 




species, appearance, display. 

specto, /0>, consider. 

speculor, observe, spy. 

speculator, j#y. 

speculatorius, y^r spying. 

con-spicio (com-) , get sight of, notice. 

con-spectus, sight. 

con-spicor, get sight of, notice. 

de-spicio, look down on, despise. 

de-spectus, prospect, view. 

di-spicio (dis-), descry. 

ex-specto, look out for, await. 

in-specto, look at, watch. 

per-spicio, look through, see clearly. 

pro-spicio, look forward, watch, pro- 

pro-spectus, outlook, sight. 

re-spicio, look back, contemplate, 

su-splcio (sub), mistrust, distrust. 

su-spicor, suspect, conjecture. 


sto, stand. 

con-sto, stand together, be established. 

con-stanter, consistently, firmly. 

con-stantia, firmness. 

ex-sto, stand forth. 

in-sto, press on, be at hand. 

per -sto, stand firm, persist. 

prae-sto, stand before, excel, main- 

stabilio, make firm. 

stabilitas, _^7'jwy.r. 

In-stabilis, unsteady. 

Static, station, guard. 

statim, on the spot, instantly. 

status, attitude. 

statiira, height, stature. 

statuo, set up, decide, order. 

con-stituo (com- + statuo), station, 

de-stituo, set down, abandon. 

in-stituo, put in place, begin, teach. 

in-stitutum, custom, habit. 

re-stituo, replace, restore, renew. 

ab-sisto, hold aloof. 

ad-sisto, stand near. 

con-sisto (com-), take one's stand, 

de-sisto, stand off, give up. 

ex-sisto, come forth, spring up. 

In-sisto, take a stand on. 

ob-sisto, stand in the way, with- 

re-sisto, stay behind, make a stand, 

re-sistens, enduring, resolute. 

sub-sisto, stand firm, resist. 

de-stin5, make fast, detail. 

ob-stinate, firmly. 


tenuis, stretched, thin, feeble. 

tenuiter, thinly. 

tenuitas, thinness, scarcity, poverty. 

tener, tender, flexible. 

teneo, hold. 

abs-tineo, hold away, refrain. 

con-tine5 (com- + teneo), hold to- 
gether, surround, keep. 

con-tinens, contiguous, uninter- 

con-tinens, mainland. 

con-tinenter, uninterruptedly. 

con-tinentia, self-control. 

con-tentus, satisfied. 

con-tinuus, successive. 

con-tinuo, without delay. 

con-tiuuatio, duration. 

ob-tineo, hold, maintain. 

per-tineo, extend, tend, pertain. 

per-tinacia, persistence, obstinacy. 

pro-tinus, straight forward, -without 

re-tineo, hold back. 



sus-tineo (subs- = sub + teneo), 
hold up, check, -withstand. 

sus-tento, sustain, hold out. 

tendo, stretch out. 

con-tendo (com-), strive, hurry, 

con-tentio, struggle. 

os-tend 5 (obs-=ob), stretch toward, 
show, declare. 

os-tento, show, display. 

os-tentatio, display, pride. 


traho, drag. 

con-trahd (com-), draw together, 

collect, contract. 
de-traho, drag down, remove. 
dis-traho, draw apart, pull to pieces, 

tear away. 

ex-traho, draw out, waste in delay. 
re-traho, drag back, bring back. 
sub-traho, draw from below, take 



vehementer, violently, greatly. 

vectorius, for transport. 

vectlgalis, paying tribttte, tributary. 

vectlgal, tribute, tax. 

vexo, harass. 

velum (for vexlum), sail. 

vexillum, banner. 

con-veho (com-), carry together, 


de-veho, carry down, convey. 
pro-veho, carry forward. 
sub-veho, bring ^tp, transport. 
sub-vectio, transportation. 

77. V VEN, COME 

venio, come. 
ventitp, come often. 
ad-ventus, arrival. 
circum-venio, come around. 


con- venio (com-), come together. 

con-ventus, meeting. 

contio (for co-ventio), assembly, 


de- venio, come down, arrive. 
e-venio, come out. 
e-ventus, otttcome, result. 
in-veni5, come upon, learn. 
in-ventor, discoverer. 
inter-venio, come between. 
inter-ventus, coming between. 
ob-venio, come against, meet. 
per-venio, come through, arrive. 
pro-venio, come forth, grow. 
pro-ventus, result. 
sub-venio, come to help. 
nuntius (for novi-ventius, \/ NOV), 

bearer of tidings, neivs. 


verto, turn. 

versus, toward. 

versus, line, verse. 

vers5, keep turning. 

a-verto, turn away. 

a- versus, turned away. 

ad-verto, titrn toward. 

ad-versus, turned toward, opposite, 


ad-versus, in opposition to, against. 
ad-versarius, opponent. 
anim-advert5 (animus), turn the 

mind to, notice. 

con-verto (com-), turn about, alter. 
dl-versus, turned different ways, 

introrsus (for intro-versus), within, 


prae-verto, attend to first. 
quoque-versus (quisque), in every 

direction, everywhere. 
re-vertor, turn back, return. 
riirsus (for re-versus), back, again, 

on the other hand. , 


trans-versus, turned across, trans- 
uni-versus (unus), all together. 

79. V VID, SEE 

video, see. 

in-video, look askance at, envy. 

in-vidia, envy, ill will. 

pro-video, foresee, prepare, look- out 

prudentia (for pro-videntia), fore- 
sight, discretion. 

im-prudens (for in-providens, not 
foreseeing}, unaware. 

im-provlsus (in-), not foreseen. 
im-proviso, unexpectedly, s^^ddenly. 


volo, will, wish. 

voluntas, will, wish, inclination. 

voluntarius, willing, volunteer. 

voluptas, satisfaction, enjoyment. 

vel, or (if you wilt), even. 

vel-ut, even as,jttstas. 

malo (for magis volo), wish rather, 

prefer. . 
n51o (for ne-volo), not wish, be ^tn- 

qui-vis, any you please. 


A., the abbreviation for the praeno- 
men Aulus, Aulus. 

*a, ab, abs (a only before conso- 
nants ; ab before vowels and most 
consonants ; abs rare, except in 
compounds and the phrase abs 
te), prep, with abl., from, away 
from ; in the direction of, near, 
at, on, in ; after ; by, at the hands 
of; sometimes with force of an 
adv., away ; a fronte, in front; 
ab utroque latere, on both sides ; 
a pueris, from boyhood ; a mill- 
bus passuum octo, eight miles 
away. In comp., from, away ; in 
adjectives and nouns often has a 
negative force. 

*abditus, -a, -um [part, of abdo], 
hidden, concealed. 

*abdo, -dere, -didi, -ditus [ab + -do, 
put], put away, hide; se abdere, 
take reftige, commonly used with 
in and the ace. 

abduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductus [ab 
+ duco], lead away, take away. 

abeo, -ire, -ivi(-ii), -iturus [ab + 
eo], go away, go off, depart. 

abicio, -icere, -iecl, -iectus [ab + 
iacio], throw away, throw down, 
hurl (from oneself). 

abies, -ietis, i.,fir (tree or wood). 

abiungo, -iungere, -iunxl, -iunctus 
[ab -f iungo], separate, detach. 

abs, see a, ab, abs. 

abscido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisus [abs 
+ caedo], cut away, cut off, cut. 

*absens, -entis [part, of absum], 
adj., absent. 

absimilis, -e [ab + similis], tinlike. ' 

absisto, -sistere, -stiti [ab + sistd, 
cause to stand~\, take position 
away, hold aloof. 

abstineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tentus 
[abs + teneo], hold away, keep 
away ; refrain, abstain ; a mu- 
lieribus abstinere, spare the 

abstrah5, -trahere, -traxi, -tractus 
[abs + traho], drag aivay, carry 

*absum, abesse, afui, afuturus [ab 
-f sum], be away, be absent, be 
distant; remain away ; be lack- 
ing; ab hoc consilio abesse, not 
be concerned in this scheme; a 
bello abesse, be exempt from the 
duty of fighting. 

abundo, -are, -avi [ab + undo, 
surge ; cf. unda, wave], overfloiv ; 
abound, be supplied. 

ac, see atque. 

*accedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessus 
[ad + cedo], go towards, come 
towards, approach ; arrive, come ; 
be added (equivalent to pass, of 
addo) ; accedit quod, there is the 
additional reason that, besides; 
accedit ut, there is the additional 
fact that, besides. 

accelero, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 




celero, quicken; cf. celer], hasten, 
make haste. 

*acceptus, -a, -um [part, of accipio], 
acceptable, beloved; plebl accep- 
tus, popular. 

*accido, -cidere, -cidi [ad + cado], 
fall to ; fall ; befall; happen, come 
to pass, turn out ; casu accidit ut, 
it chanced that. 

accido, -cidere, -cidi, -clsus [ad -f 
caedo], cut at, cut into, cut partly 

*accipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus [ad 
+ capio], take, receive, accept, 
get; suffer, undergo; hear of, 

acclivis, -e [ad + clivus], sloping 
upward, ascending. 

acclivitas, -atis [acclivis], f., ascent, 

Acco, -6nis, m., Acco, a chief among 
the Senones. 

*accommodatus, -a, -um [part, of 
accommodo], fitted, adapted, suit- 

*accommodo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
commodo, accommodate; cf. corn- 
modus],^/ on, adjust. 

accurate [accuratus, careful'], adv., 
carefully, accurately. 

accurro, -currere, -curri or -cucurri, 
-cursus [ad + curro, rwi\, rim 
to; run (towards); ride ttp. 

*accuso, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
causa], accuse, blame, chide. 

acerbe [acerbus], adv., bitterly, 
harshly, painfully; acerbius 
ferre, suffer too severely from. 

acerbitas, -atis [acerbus], f., bitter- 
ness, severity, pain; pi., suffer- 

acerbus, -a, -um [acer, sharp}, 
bitter, harsh. 

acerrime, sup. of acriter. 

acervus, -I, TO.., pile, heap. 

*acies, -el [cf. acer, sharp"}, f., sharp 
edge, keenness ; battle-line, array ; 
army ; battle ; prima acies, front 
rank; acies OCUlorum, glare of 
the eyes; triplex acies, triple line, 
see Introd., p. 44. 

*acriter [acer, sharp], adv., sharply, 
keenly, fiercely; vigorously, cour- 

actuarius, -a, -um [ago], driven, 
swift; navis actuaria, swift 
vessel, propelled by both sails and 

actus, -a, -um, part, of ago. 

acutus, -a, -um [part, of acuo, 
sharpen~\, sharpened^ sharp. 

*ad, prep, with ace., to, towards, to the 
vicinity of; near, with, among, at; 
of time, up to, until, by, at; often 
with a gerund or gerundive, for 
the purpose of, in order to, for ; 
according to, as to, in regard to ; 
with numerals, to, as many as, 
aboztt; usque ad, see usque; ad 
hunc modum, in this manner, to 
this effect; quern ad modum, how ? 
as; ad extremum, at last; ad 
tempus, on time; ad Idus Aprflis, 
on the Ides of April. In comp., 
to, towards, near, at, besides, etc. 

adactus, -a, -um, part, of adigo. 

*adaequo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
aequo], make equal; become equal, 
be equal ; equal; keep tip with. 

adamo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad+ amo, 
love~},fall in love with, take a lik- 
ing to. 

addo, -dere, -didi, -ditus [ad + -do, 
put}, put to, place on, make addi- 
tions, add; say besides. 

*adduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductus [ad 
+ duco], lead to, lead towards, 
lead, draw towards, bring, bring 
along; draw tight, stretch ; chiefly 
in pass., induce, influence. 



ademptus, -a, -um, part, of adimo. 

adeo [ad -f- adv. eo], adv., to that 
point, to such a degree, so, so imich, 
so far ; even. 

*adeo, -ire, -ivi (-if), -itus [ad + eo], 
go to, get near, approach; visit, 
get at ; accost; 

adeptus, -a, -um, part, of adipiscor. 

adequito, -are, -avi [ad + equito, 
ride~\, ride (towards). 

adf ectus, -&, -um, part, of adficiS. 

*adfer5, adf erre, attuli, adlatus [ad 
+ fero], bring to, carry to, bring, 
carry ; bring forward, cite, an- 
noiince; cause, produce. 

adficio, -ficere, -feel, -fectus [ad + 
facio], do to ; affect, delight, afflict, 
distress; treat; supplicio adfi- 
cere, prmish ; beneficio adf ectus, 
treated kindly. 

adf igo, -figere, -f Ixi, -fixus [ad + 
figo, fix], fasten to, attach. 

adfingo, -fingere, -finxl, -fictus 
[ad + fingo], make tip in addi- 
tion, add falsely. 

adfinitas, -atis [adfinis, related by 
marriage\, f., relationship by mar- 
riage, alliance. 

adf irmatid, -onis [adfTrmo, strength- 
en^, f., assurance, statement. 

adfixus, -a, -um, part, of adflgo. 

adflicto, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. of 
adfligo], dash against; strand, 

adfligo, -fligere, -flixi, -flictus 
[ad + fligo, strike~\, strike against, 
dash against; damage; over- 

adf ore, fut. inf. of adsum. 

*adgredior, -gredi, -gressus [ad + 
gradior, step~\, move towards, ap- 
proach; attack; try. 

adgrego, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
grego, collect into a herd; cf. 
grex, herd~\, collect ; join to, at- 

tach ; signis se adgregare, gather 
around the standards. 

adhaerescS, -haerescere, -haesi 
[inchoative of adhaereo, cling to~\, 

*adhibeo, -hibere, -hibui, -hibitus 
[ad + habeo], hold to ; have with 
(oneself); retain, detain; sum- 
mon, admit ; apply to, make use 

adhortor, -an, -atus [ad + hortor], 
encourage, exhort, urge, arouse; 

adhuc [ad + hue], adv., to this 
point; thus far ; up to this time, 

adiaceo, -iacere, -iacui [ad + iaceo], 
lie near, be adjacent. 

Adiatunnus, -I, m., Adiatunnus, a 
chief among the Sotiates. 

adici5, -icere, -ieci, -iectus [ad + 
iacio], throw to, throw beside, 
throw; buildup, throw Tip, add; 
adiecta planitie, with a plain 

*adigo, -igere, -egi, -actus [ad + 
ago], drive to, bring to, bring 
near; hurl to; drive in, drive 
down ; ad ius iurandum adigere, 
force to take oath. 

*adimo, -imere, -emi, -emptus [ad 
+ em5], take to oneself; remove, 
take away ; destroy. 

adipiscor, -ipisci, -eptus [ad + 
apiscor, reach after\, arrive at; 

*aditus,-US [adeo], n\.,approach, ar- 
rival, meeting; way of approach, ' 
entrance, access; admittance, privi- 
lege of association. 

adiudicS, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
iudico], adjudge, award. 

adiungo, -iungere, -iunxi, -iunctus 
[ad+ inngo~\, join to, join with; 
win over, take as ally ; annex. 



adiutor, -oris [adiuvo], m., helper, 

*adiuv5, -iuvare, -iuvi, -iutus [ad + 
iuvo], help, be of assistance ; fur- 
ther, support. 

adlatus, -a, -um, part, of adf er5. 

adlicio, -licere, -lexi, -lectus [ad + 
lacio, entice"] t allure, entice. 

administer, -tri [ad + minister, serv- 
ant; cf. minus], m., assistant, 

*administr6, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
ministro, serve~\, manage, direct ; 
perform, carry otit ; manage 
affairs; imperia administrate, 
perform the duties of commander; 
rem publicam administrare, con- 
duct public affairs. 

*admirandus, -a, -um [part, of ad- 
nnror], wonderful, surprising. 

*admiror, -an, -atus [ad + mlror], 
wonder, feel surprise ; wonder at, 

admitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus 
[ad-j-mitto], send to, let in, admit ; 
permit, incur ; commit ; equo ad- 
misso, with horse at full speed. 

admodum [ad + modus], adv., to 
the limit, to a high degree, very 
much, very, especially, particu- 
larly ; at least, about. 

admoneo, -monere, -monui, -moni- 
tus [ad + moneo], warn, advise. 

*adolesco, -olescere, -olevi, -ultus 
[ad + olesco, grow], grow up, de- 
come full-grown. 

*adorior, -oriri, -ortus [ad -f orior], 

' rise, rise against, attack. 

adquiro, -quirere, -quisivi, -quisltus 
[ad + quaero], seek in addition, 
gain; aliquid adquirere, gain 
some advantage. 

adripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptus [ad 
+ rapio, sna.tcJi\, snatch, catch 
hurriedly, seize. 

adroganter [adrogans, assuming], 
adv., presTimptiwusly, imperti- 

adrogantia, -ae [adrogans, assum- 
' ing~\, f., prestimption, arrogance, 

adsiduus, -a, -um [adsideo, sit be- 
side^ , sitting beside ; constant, con- 
tinual, incessant. 

adsisto, -sistere, -stiti [ad + sisto, 
cause to stand~\, take a- stand, stand 

adsuefacio, -facere, -feel, -factus 
[adsuetus, part, of adsuesco + 
facio], make accustomed, train, 
inure ; pass., grow accustomed. 

adsuesco, -suescere, -suevi, -suetus 
[ad + suesco, become accustomed~\, 
accustom ; grow accristomed. 

adsum, -esse, -fui, -futurus [ad + 
sum], be near, be present, be (in a 
place) ; often equivalent to have 
arrived ; stand by, help, sustain. 

*adulescens, -entis [part, of ado- 
lesco], &&}.,young; as subst., m. and 
L, young man, yotmg woman; often 
with proper names, the younger, to 
distinguish from older persons of 
the same name. 

adulescentia, -ae [adulescens], f., 
youthfttlness, youth. 

adulescentulus, -i [dim. of adules- 
eens], m., very young man, youth, 

*adventus, -us [advenio, arrive], 
m., arrival, coming, approach. 

adversarius, -a, -um [adversus], op- 
posing; as subst., m., opponent, 

*adversus, -a, -um [part, of adverto], 
turned against, opposing, opposite ; 
unfavorable, adverse ; adverse flu- 
mine, up-stream ; adversis hosti- 
bus, the enemy, face to face ; ad- 
versa nocte, in the face of the 



night; in adversum 6s, full in 
the face. 

*adversus [adversus], prep, with 
ace., against, in opposition to. 

*adverto, -vertere, -verti, -versus [ad 
+ verto], turn towards ; animum 
advertere, turn the mind to, i.e. 
observe, notice (cf. animadverts) . 

advoco, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
voco], call to ; call, summon. 

advolo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + volo, 
fly\,fly to; hasten, rush. 

*aedificium, -I [aedifico], n., build- 
ing, house. 

*aedific5, -are, -avi, -atus [aedes, 
building + facio], build a house, 

*aeger, -gra, -grum, sick, ill, -weak, 

*aegre [aeger], adv., painfully, with 
difficTilty, barely ; sup. aegerrime } 
ivith the utmost difficulty. 

Aemilius, -I, m., Aemilius, a Roman 
nomen; Lucius Aemilius, prob- 
ably an enfranchised Gaul, decu- 
rion of cavalry in Caesar' j army. 

aequaliter [aequalis, equal~\, adv., 
evenly, uniformly. 

aequinoctium, -I [aequus + nox], 
n., the time when day and night 
are equal, equinox. 

aequitas, -atis [aequus], f., uni- 
formity, eqiiality ; justice ; animi 
aequitas, calmness of mind, equa- 

aequ5, -are, -avi, -atus [aequus], 
make level, make eqtial, equalize. 

*aequus, -a, -um, level, plain; equal ; 
favorable, fair, just; aequo 
animo, with calmness of mind, 
with eqiianimity ; aequo Marte, 
in an ei'enly balanced conjlict. 

aeraria, -ae [aerarius, of copper~\, f., 
copper -mine, mine. 

aes, aeris, n., copper, bronze (an 

alloy of copper and tin) ; money ; 
aes alienum, debt (another's 

*aestas, -atis [cf. aestus], f., heat, 

aestimatiS, -onis [aestimo], f., -valu- 
ation, estimate. 

aestimo, -are, -avi, -atus, determine 
the value of, estimate, judge ; con- 
sider, think. 

aestivus, -a, -um [aestas], of sum- 
mer, summer. 

aestuarium, -i [aestus], n., inlet 
(where the tide flows in), salt 
marsh, estuary. 

*aestus, -us [cf. aestas], m., heat-; 
seething, swell (of the sea), tide. 

aetas, -atis [old form aevitas, from 
aevum, age~\ } f., time of life, age ; 
old age. 

aeternus, -a, -um [for aeviternus, 
from aevum, age], everlasting, end- 

Africus, -a, -um [Africa, Africa], 
African; as subst. (sc. ventus), 
m., southwest wind (blowing from 
Africa towards Italy). 

afuisse, perf. inf. of absum. 

afuturus, -a, -um, see absum. 

Agedincum, -I, n., Agedincum, the 
principal town of the Senones, now 
Sens, on the Yonne. 

*ager, -gri, m., land, soil ; coiintry, 
territory, district, region; pi., 
land, lands, cotmtry ; agrlsolum, 
the bare ground; agri cultura, 
farming, agriculture. 

*agger, -eris [ad + gero], m., heap, 
mound; dike, mole, rampart; espe- 
cially, terrace or elevated roadway, 
built of wood, earth, and stones, on 
which were placed besieging en- 
gines (see Introd., p. 47) ; material 
for a rampart or terrace, earth, 



agito, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. of ago], 
set in violent motion ; bring up for 
discussion, discuss. 

*agmen, -minis [ag5], n., marching 
army, column ; line of march, 
march; primum agmen, van ; ex- 
tremum or novissimum agmen, 

*ago, agere, egi, actus, set in motion; 
drive, pursue ; conduct, lead; push 
forward, bring forward ; drive 
down, drive in; drive away; 
treat, discuss, negotiate; do, act, 
manage; construct, build; con- 
ventus agere, hold court; gratias 
agere, express thanks. 

*alacer, ,-cris, -ere, lively, eager, 

alacritas, -atis [alacer], f., eagerness, 
spirit, energy. 

alarius, -a, -um [ala, wing], belong- 
ing to the wing; as subst., m. pi., 
aiixiliary troops, auxiliaries, so 
called because their proper station 
in battle was on the wings of the 

albus, -a, -um, white; plumbum 
album (white lead"), tin. 

alces, -is, f., elk. 

Alesia, -ae, f., Alesia, a town of the 
Mandubii, now A Use Sainte JReine, 
northwest of Dijon. 

ali-, an indefinite prefix. 

*alias [alius], adv., at another time, 
otherwise; alias . . . alias, at one 
time . . . at another time, some- 
times . . . sometimes, now . . . 

alieno, -are, -avi, -atus [alienus], 
make another' 1 s ; make unfriendly, 
estrange, alienate; deprive of rea- 
son, drive insane. 

*alienus, -a, -um [alius], another's, 
belonging to other people ; untimely, 
unfavorable ; alien, hostile ; alie- 

nissimi, -5rum, m. pi., utter 
strangers; aes alienum, see 

*alio [alius], adv., to another place, 

aliquamdiu [aliquis + diu], adv., for 
some time, for a time, a while. 

aliquandd [ali- + quando], adv., at 
some time or other, once ; at length. 

aliquanto [aliquantus], adv., by some- 
thing, by a little, .somewhat. 

aliquantus, -a, -um [ali- + quantus], 
some, considerable; as subst., n., 
something, a little; aliquantum 
itineris, some distance. 

*aliquis (-qui), -qua, -quid (-quod) 
[ali- + quis (qui)], indef. pron., 
some one, any one ; something, any- 
thing; some, any ; aliquid novi 
consili, some new plan; aliquid, 
as adv., somewhat. 

*aliquot [ali- + quot], indecl. adj., 
some, several, a few. 

*aliter [alius], adv., in another way, 
otherwise; aliter ac, otherwise 
than, differently from ; aliter se 
habere, be different. 

*alius, -a, -ud, another, other, differ- 
ent, else, any other ; alius . . . 
alius, one . . . another ; alii . . . 
alii, some . . . others ; alius alia 
causa inlata, one giving one rea- 
son, another another ; cum alius 
alii subsidium ferret, since they 
helped one another ; alius atque 
(ac), other than, different from. 

Allobroges, -um, m. pi., the Allob- 
roges, a Gallic tribe in the 
northeastern part of the Roman 

alo, alere, alui, altus or alitus, 
feed, sustain, support; increase; 
cherish ; raise ; continue. 

Alpes, -ium, f. pi., the Alps, moun- 
tains separating Cisalpine Gaul 



from Transalpine Gaul and Ger- 

*alter, -era, -erum, the other, one (of 
two) ; second; another; alter . . . 
alter, the one . . . the other ; alterl 
. . . alteri, the one party . . . the 
other party. 

alternus, -a, -um [alter], one after 
. the other, alternate. 

*altitudo, -dinis [altus], f., height, al- 
titude ; depth ; thickness ; in alti- 
tudinem, in height (depth). 

*altus, -a, -um [part, of alo, lit. nour- 
ished, grown great], high, lofty ; 
deep ; as subst, n.-, the deep, the 

alula, -ae [cf. alumen, alum"], f., soft 
leather, prepared with alum. 

ambactus, -I, m., dependent, follower, 
vassal, slave. 

Ambarri, -Drum [Celtic, dwellers on 
both sides of the Arar~\, m. pi., the 
Ambarri, a Gallic tribe near the 
Haedui on the Arar (Saone). 

ambi- [cf. ambo], an inseparable 
prefix, around, round aboztt. 

Ambiani, -orum, m. pi., the Ambi- 
ani, a Belgic tribe. 

Ambibarii, -orum, m. pi., the Ambi- 
barii, a Gallic tribe on or near 
the English Channel. 

Ambiliati, -orum, m. pi., the Am- 
biliati, a Gallic tribe, perhaps on 
the left bank of the Liger (Loire). 

Ambiorix, -igis [Celtic, king of the 
ramparts'], m., Ambiorix, king of 
a part of the Eburones. 

Ambivareti, -orum, m. pi., the Am- 
bivareti, a Gallic tribe, probably 
near the Haedui on the Liger 
(Loire) . 

Ambivariti, -orum, m. pi., the Ambi- 
variti, a Belgic tribe, probably 
on the left bank of the Mosa 

ambo, -ae, -6 [cf. ambi-], adj., both 
(of two closely associated; cf. 

amentia, -ae [amens, mad, from a 
-f- mens], f., madness, frenzy, 

amentum, -I, n., strap, thong, used 
to give a whirling motion to a 

*amicitia, -ae [amlcus], f., friend- 
ship ; alliance, league. 

*amicus, -a, -um [amo, love~\, 
friendly, devoted; as subst., m., 
friend, ally. 

*amitt5, -mittere, -misi, -missus 
[a + mitto], let go away, send 
away, dismiss ; let go by, lose; 

amor, -oris [amo, love~\, m., love, 

*ample [amplus], adv., largely; 
liberally, munificently; comp. 
amplius, more, longer ; besides. 

amplifico, -are, -avi, -atus [am- 
plus + facio], increase, extend. 

amplitude, -dinis [amplus], f., size, 
breadth; greatness, dignity, might. 

amplius, see amplus and ample. 

* amplus, -a, -um, of great extent, 
ample, abundant; numerous ; dis- 
tinguished, illustrious ; magnifi- 
cent; comp. amplius, as subst., n., 

*an, conj., or, introducing the 
second part of a double ques- 
tion ; utrum (-ne) . . . an, 
whether . . . or; sometimes the 
first part of the question is sup- 
pressed, and the force of an can 
be given by some turn to the 
translation, e.g. an speculandl 
causa, (for some other reason) or 
for the purpose of spying, i.e. was 
it really to spy ? 

Anartes, -ium, m. pi., the Anartes, 



a tribe in .Dacia, in what is now 

Ancalites, -um, m. pi., the Ancali- 

tes, a tribe in Britain, south of the 

*anceps, -cipitis [ambi- + caput], 

adj., -with two heads ; double, two- 
fold ; doubtful, uncertain. 
*ancora, -ae, f., anchor ; in ancoris, 

at anchor. 
Andebrogius, -I, m., .Andebrogius, 

a prominent man among the 

Andes, -ium, or Andl, -orum, m. pi., 

the Andes, or Andi, a Gallic tribe 

north of the Liger (Loire). The 

name survives in the modern 

anfractus, -iis, m., turn, circuitous 


angulus, -l, m., angle, corner, bend. 
*anguste [angustus], adv., narrowly, 

within a .narrow space, in close 

quarters ; stintingly. 
*angustiae, -arum [angustus], f. pi., 

narrowness, narrow place, narrow 
pass, dejile ; difficulty, perplexity. 

* angustus, -a, -um [ango, press 

tight], narrow, small, scanty; 
difficult ; in angusto, at a crisis. 
anima, -ae [cf. animus], f., breatli; 
life, soul. 

* animadverts, -vertere, -verti, 

-versus [animus + adverto], turn 
the thoughts toward, give attention 
. to, notice, perceive ; animadver- 
tere in, take notice of, take 
measures against, punish ; cf. 
animum advertere. 
animal, -alis [cf. anima], n., living 
being, animal. 

* animus, -i [cf. anima], m., inspi- 

ration, spirit ; feelings, thoughts, 
inclination, character ; heart, 
will, purpose; spirit, courage, 

pluck ; consciousness, mind; bono 
animo videri, seem well-disposed ; 
animi causa, for amusement; ani- 
mum advertere, see adverto. 

ann5tinus, -a, -um [annus], belong- 
ing to last year, a year old. 

* annus, -I, m., year. 

annuus, -a, -um [annus], belonging 
to a year, for a year, yearly, 

anser, -eris, m., goose. 

*ante: (l) adv., before, earlier, pre- 
viously ; paulo ante, a short time 
before, a little while ago ; (2) prep, 
with ace., before (of place or time), 
in front of; ante exactam hie- 
mem, before the winter was gone. 
In comp., before, rather than, in 
preference to. 

antea [ante + is], adv., before, 
formerly, previously, earlier, 


antecedo, -cedere, -cessl, -cessus 
[ante + ced6],0 before, precede, 
march in advance ; proceed ; sur- 

antecursor, -oris [antecurro, run 
before~\, m., forerunner ; pi., ad- 

antefero, -ferre, -tuli, -latus [ante 
+ fero], bear before, place before ; 

antemna, -ae, f., sail-yard. 

antepono, -ponere, -posui, -positus 
[ante + pono],//^i? before ; con- 
sider more important, prefer. 

anteverto, -vertere, -verti, versus 
[ante + verto],//<z before; pass., 
take precedence of. 

antiquitus [antiquus], adv., from 
ancient times, in old times, long 
ago, of old. 

antiquus, -a, -um [ante], belonging 
to old times, ancient; former, 



Antistius, -I, m., Antistim, a Ro- 
man nomen ; Gaius Antistiiis 
Reginus, one of Caesar's legates. 

Antonius, -l, m., Antonius, Antony, 
a Roman nomen ; Marcus Anto- 
nius, Mark Antony, served as leg- 
ate under Caesar. He was after- 
wards a member of the so-called 
Second Triumvirate. 

* aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus, 
open, uncover. 

*aperte [apertus], 

adv., openly, 

* apertus, -a, -um [part, of aperio], 
open, ^^ncovered, unprotected, ex- 
posed, bare; unimpeded; apertum 
latus, exposed flank, usually the 
right, which was unprotected by 
the shields. 

Apollo, -linis, m., Apollo, a god of 
the Greek and Roman mytholo- 
gies. He was the god of music, 
poetry, and medicine. Caesar 
identifies a- Gallic deity with 

App., the abbreviation for the prae- 
nomen Appius, 'Appius. 

appar5, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
paro], prepare, get ready, provide. 

*appello, -are, -avi, -atus, speak to, 
call by name, call. 

*appello, -pellere, -pull, -pulsus 
[ad + pello], drive to, bring up ; 
bring to land. 

appeto, -petere, -petivi, -petitus 
[ad + peto], seek for, seek to get, 
aim at, desire; draw near, ap- 

applico, -plicare, -plica vi or -plicui, 
-plicatus or -plicitus [ad + plico, 
fold}, bend towards; se applicare 
ad, lean against. 

apporto, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
porto], bring to, bring, fetch. 

approbo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 

probo], think good, commend, 
assent to. 

* appropinquo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad 
+ propinquo, come near], draw 
near, approach. 

appulsus, -a, -um, part, of appello. 
Aprilis, -e [aperio], of April. 
*aptus, -a, -um, fastened ; fitted, 

suitable, fit ; ready. 
*apud, prep, with ace., in the pres- 
ence of, before ; in the sight of; 
among, with, near. 
*aqua, -ae, f., water. 
aquatiS, -onis [aquor, get water}, 

f., getting water, watering. 
* aquila, -aey f., eagle ; standard of 
a legion, a silver eagle mounted 
on a staff. 

Aquileia, -ae, f., Aquileia, a town 
of Cisalpine Gaul, at the head of 
the Adriatic, 
aquilifer, -eri [aquila + fero], m., 

eagle-bearer, standard-bearer. 
Aquitania, -ae, f., Aquitania, the 
part of Gaul inhabited by the 
Aquitani. It was* bounded by 
the ocean (Bay of Biscay), the 
Garumna (Garonne), the Pyr- 
enees, and the Roman prov- 
ince. s 

Aqultanus, -a, -um, belonging to 
Aquitania, Aqtiitanian ; as subst., 
m., an AqTiitanian ; pi., the 
Aquitani, the Aquitanians. 
Arar, -aris, ace. -im, abl. -I, m., the 
Arar river, now the Saone, a 
branch of the Rhone, 
arbiter, -tri, m., witness ; mediator, 

arbitrator, umpire. 
arbitrium, -i [arbiter], n., decision, 

judgment ; free will, pleasure. 
arbitror, -an, -atus [arbiter], de- 
cide, believe, think, consider, sup- 
* arbor, -oris, f., tree. 



*arcesso, -cessere, -cessrvi, -cessi- 
tus, cause to come, send for, invite, 
summon; procure, 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus, be on 
fire, burn ; be full of fury. 

Arduenna, -ae, f., the Ardennes, a 
great forest stretching westward 
from the Rhine through the land 
of the Belgae. 

arduus, -a, -um, steep, high; difficult. 

ArecomicI, -orum, m. pi., the Areco- 
mici, a division of the Volcae, a 
people inhabiting the western 
part of the Roman province. 

Aremoricus, -a, -um [Celtic, equiv- 
alent to Lat. maritimus], Are- 
morican. The word is used of 
the Gallic coast states between 
the Liger (Loire) and Sequana 
(Seine), and also of the Caleti, 
just north of the Sequana. 

argentum, -I, n., silver; plate, 

argilla, -ae, f., white clay ; clay. 

*aridus, -a, -um [areo, be dry], 
parched, dry ; as subst., n., dry 
place, dry land. 

aries, -ietis, m., ram ; battering- 
ram ; prop. 

Ariovistus, -l, m., Ariovistus, a 
German chief, or king. 

Aristius, -i, m., Aristius, a Roman 
nomen ; Marcus Aristius, a 
tribune in Caesar's army. 

*arma, -orum, n. pi., arms, weapons, 
armor ; outfit ; ship 's tackle, rig- 
ging; in armis, under arms, in 
the field. 

armamenta, -5rum [armo], n. pi., 
implements ; equipment, rigging. 

armatura, -ae [armo], f., armor, 
equipment; levis armaturae, 

*armatus, -a, -um [part, of armo], 
armed, equipped, under arms; 

as subst., m. pi., armed men, 

*armd, -are, -avi, -atus [arma], 
arm, equip. 

Arpineius, -i, m., Arpineius, a Ro- 
man nomen ; Gaius Arpineius, a 
Roman knight in Caesar's army. 

ars, artis, f., skill, art. 

arte [artus], adv., closely, firmly. 

articulus, -i [dim. of artus, joint~\, 
m., small joint, joint, articulation. 

artificium, -i [artifex, master of an 
art], n., employment, handicraft, 
craft; skill, knowledge ; artifice. 

artus, -a, -um, close, dense. 

Arvernus, -a, -um, Arvernian; as 
subst., m., an Arvernian; pi., 
the Arverni, the *Arvernians, a 
powerful Gallic tribe north of the 
Roman province. The name re- 
mains in the modern Auvergne. 

arx, arcis [cf. arceo, inclose'], f., 
citadel, stronghold. 

* ascendo, -scendere, .-scendi, -scen- 
SUS [ad -f scando, climb'], mount, 
climb, ascend, scale. 

ascensus, -us [ascendo], m., ascent, 
way up. 

ascisco, -sciscere, -scivi, -scitus [ad 
+ sclsco, approve'], attach (to one- 
self), receive.